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Mrs. JiSAN M'Kke: Kknaston, M.E. 



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With an authentic biography of the founder 
Rob. Morris, ^L.D. 



^ Compiled by 

Mrs. Jean M'Kee Kenaston, M.E. 

Past Worthy Matron, Rosebud Chapter No. 82, Bonesteel, S. D. 
Past Grand Marshal of the Grand Chapter of South Dakota 



"History^ to be above evasion or dispute, must stand 
on documents, not opinions." — Lord Acton 



CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA 
NINETEEN HUNDRED SEVENTEEN 



'7 shall pass this zvay but once. If therefore, there he any kind- 
ness I can shozv, or any good that I can do to my fellow human 
beings, let me do it now. Let me not defer or neglect it, for J 
shall not pass this way again.'' 



\^^ 






Copyright 1917 by / 

MRS. JEAN M'KEE KENASTON, M.E 

BONESTEEL, SoUTH DAKOTA 






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4l h/ ^ 



''^p'-' THE TORCH PRESS 

■ ! CEDAR RAPIDS 

!OWA 



FEB 19 1917 ' 

©Ci.A457143 



"We cannot understand the actual of a character or system, 
without in some degree, entering into its ideal!' 



Affectionately Dedicated 

to my husband 

HAMPTON RAY KENASTON, M.D., 32°, K.T., A.A.O.N.M.S. 

MY CONSTANT COUNSELOR AND INSTRUCTOR 

WHO INITIATED AND INSPIRED 

THIS STUDY AND 

UNPRETENDING SEARCH FOR 

TRUTH 

WHOSE APPRECIATION AND ENCOURAGEMENT 

HAS TAUGHT ME HOW TO CARRY A LONG AND DIFFICULT 

TASK TO COMPLETION 



'Truth is a divine attribute and the foundation of every virtue. 



Here is a story of the grand, old time, 
A tale of virtues, tender, yet sublime. 
Inscribed on sacred page to give us faith 
In woman's constancy, in life and death; 
Here, in God's book, the bright narration see. 
And five brave hearts make up the history. 

Adah, great Jephthah's daughter, soul of truth, 
Ruth, flower of Moab, humble, pious Ruth, 
Esther, the crowned, and worthiest of a crown, 
Martha, His friend, whom saints and angels own, 
Eivi^CTA, strong the martyr's cross to bear — 
These are the heroines of the Eastern Star. 

Fairest among ten thousand deathless names, 

How altogether lovely do they glow ! 

Time's annals yield no brighter, nobler themes, 

No purer hearts the ranks of heaven know ; 

Here, then. Oh ! Sisters, sister-virtues trace, 

And light from these your lamps of truth and grace. 

— Roh Morris, LL.D. 



PREFACE 




N presenting for the consideration of the 
Fraternity, this volume, embracing the 
origin, copies of some of the earHer rit- 
uals, and extensive quotations from near- 
ly all of the earlier manuals and rituals, 
together with a history of the Order of the Eastern Star, 
the author has endeavored to perform two duties : first, 
that of entertaining and interesting the reader in the 
records of the achievements of those honored women and 
men, whose acts have combined to make this the greatest 
fraternal organization of women extant ; second, to pro- 
duce some evidence of the value and useful character of 
the Institution, that its claims for Charity, Truth, and 
Loving Kindness may be the more readily seen and 
appreciated. 

Such a book is not easy to write for the reasons that 
it is the history of a secret Order, much of whose lore 
is not to be made public; and the facts concerning its 
history are more or less difficult to obtain. 

All writers on the Order of the Eastern Star appear to 
have been influenced by a desire to impress upon the 
Fraternity a love for its science and philosophy. Every 
line of this book has been written in the conviction that 
the real history of the Order of the Eastern Star is great 
enough, and its simple teachings grand enough, without 
further embellishments. 

The bonding powers of the Sisterhood is manifest to 
the world by its five adorning virtues : obedience, con- 
stancy, fidelity, faith, and love. The entire ritual has 



8 , PREFACE 

been prepared in wisdom and beauty. It is only as the 
Eastern Star member of the present seeks true Hght — 
teaches genuine truth — that it proves itself deserving 
of a future. 

From my early experience in Eastern Star work, I 
learned that the character of the institution was elevated 
in one's opinion just in proportion to the amount of 
knowledge that had been acquired of its teachings, his- 
tory, symbolisms, and philosophy. The difficulty of ob- 
taining this knowledge of the Eastern Star — what it is, 
whence it came, what it teaches and what it is trying to 
do — and an earnest desire to obtain a more extensive 
knowledge of the Order, has prompted the compilation of 
this book. 

Keeping this purpose always in mind, the effort has 
been to prepare a brief, simple, and vivid account of the 
origin, the development, the mission, the ideals, and the 
teachings of the Order, so written as to incite a deeper 
interest in and a more earnest study of its story and of 
its service to mankind. 

To this end, the various sources of the Order of the 
Eastern Star records have been liberally explored and 
the highest authorities have been consulted; and cited 
when necessary to substantiate the statements made, and 
also to guide the reader into further and more detailed 
research. The author is richly indebted to the many 
Grand Secretaries who have so generously aided in this 
work; also to many women and men prominent in the 
development of the Order, whose achievements are re- 
called by an humble student who would gladly pay the 
honor belonging to those whose earnest labors and great 
results have wrought the glorious fruition which the 
Order has attained at the present day. 



PREFACE 9 

To every Eastern Star student, in fact to every 
Eastern Star member, a knowledge of its purposes and 
achievements is an absolute essential in the attainment of 
that perfection upon which depends the full realization 
of its usefulness and beauties and toward which we 
should ever strive with unceasing effort. 

When we comprehend our position in this earthly 
career — its patfios and its wonderful extent, — and our 
duty in retaining and beautifying the inheritance of the 
race, a deep sense of the fraternal tie that binds us to our 
co-workers, especially those to whom must soon be en- 
trusted these sacred legends, duties, obligations, and 
principles, at once comes a feeling of awe and we stop 
to consider. Shall we not then do our part to have the 
younger members of the Order earnestly strive to pre- 
serve and more fully realize the faith, the spirit, and the 
character, of the beautiful lessons our Order teaches; 
at the same time presenting to those who will follow, the 
latent powers for the advancement of womanhood 
through this the greatest fraternal Order for women. 
Each can do her part faithfully and well, and by so doing 
we shall impress this great truth, that our Order has 
helped to make its members, and through them the world, 
more prompt in obedience, more firm in constancy, more 
devoted to kindred and friends, richer in faith and wiser 
in love and pity. 

With an earnest hope that more light may result to 
every inquiring member of the Order of the Eastern Star 
from the study and perusal of these pages, I have the 
honor to present this compilation of its history. 

Mrs. Jkan M'Kee: Kenaston 
Bonesteel, South Dakota 
June I, 1916 



CONTENTS 



Chapter I Origin of the Order 
Chapter II Biography of Rob Morris 
Chapter HI Other Degrees, etc. 
Chapter IV Organization of Generae Grand Chap 
Chapter V Officers of General Grand Chapter 
Chapter VI Brief Histories of Grand Chapters 
Grand Chapter of Alabama . 
Grand Chapter of Alberta . 
Grand Chapter of Arizona . 
Grand Chapter of Arkansas 
Grand Chapter of British Columbia 
Grand Chapter of California 
Grand Chapter of Colorado 
Grand Chapter of Connecticut . 
Grand Chapter of District of Colum 
Grand Chapter. of Florida 
Grand Chapter of Georgia 
Grand Chapter of Idaho 
Grand Chapter of Illinois 
Grand Chapter of Indiana 
Grand Chapter of Iowa 
Grand Chapter of Kansas 
Grand Chapter of Kentucky 
Grand Chapter of Louisiana 
Grand Chapter of Maine 
Grand Chapter of Maryland 
Grand Chapter of Massachusetts 
Grand Chapter of Michigan 
Grand Chapter of Minnesota 
Grand Chapter of No. 2 Minnesota 
Grand Chapter of Minnesota (reor- 
ganized) 



rEs 



bia 



17 

52 
85 
124 
169 
191 
191 
196 
200 
204 
209 
215 
226 
231 
237 
241 
248 
256 
261 
284 
288 
292 
296 
300 
303 
306 
310 
313 
318 
321 

323 



12 



CONTENTS 



Grand Chapter of Mississippi 
Grand Chapter oe Missouri . 
Grand Chapter oe Montana 
Grand Chapter oe Nebraska 
Grand Chapter oe Nevada . 
Grand Chapter oe New Hx\mpshire 
Grand Chapter oe New Jersey 
Grand Chapter oe New Mexico . 
Grand Chapter oe New York 
Grand Chapter oe North Carolina 
Grand Chapter oe North Dakota 
Grand Chapter oe Ohio 
Grand Chapter oe Oklahoma 
Grand Chapter oe Ontario . 
Grand Chapter oe Oregon . 
Grand Chapter oe Pennsylvania 
Grand Chapter oe Porto Rico 
Grand Chapter oe Rhode Island . 
Grand Chapter oe Saskatchewan 
Grand Chapter oe Scotland 
* Grand Chapter oe South Carolina 

Grand Chapter oe South Dakota 
Grand Chapter oe Tennessee 
Grand Chapter oe Texas 
Grand Chapter oe Utah 
Grand Chapter oe Vermont . 
Grand Chapter oe Virginia . 
Grand Chapter oe Washington . 
Grand Chapter oe West Virginia 
Grand Chapter oe Wisconsin 
Grand Chapter oe Wyoming 
Chapters under immediate Jurisdiction oe General 
Grand Chapter . 

Alaska 

Canal Zone — Panama 

Hawaiian Islands . 

Philippine Islands 



CONTENTS 13 

Canada . . 470 

Manitoba 470 

Ne:w Brunswick 471 

Que:bkc 471 

Cuba 472 

dei.aware 473 

India 474 

Me^xico 475 

Yukon 476 

Appendix A — Thk Mosaic Book 479 

Appe^ndix B — Manual o^ the: Eastern Star Degrek 579 
Appendix C — Book of Instructions .... 603 
Appendix D — The Rosary oe the Eastern Star . 635 
Appendix E — Grand Chapters not members oe Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter 673 

Appendix F — Statistics and List oe Oeeicers oe 

General Grand Chapter 675 

Index 679 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Mrs. J^an M'Kee Kenaston, M.E. . . . Frontispiece 

Rob Morris, LL.D 52 

Rob. Morris, son of the Founder 56 

The Home op Dr. Rob Morris . . . . . 63 

Mrs. Rata Alice Mills, M.W.G.M 169 

Mrs. Emma Crager Ocobock, Acting M.W.G.M. . . 175 

Dr. Geo. A. Pettigrew, M.W.G.P 177 

Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, P.M.W.G.M. ... 183 

Masonic Home of Arkansas 207 

Masonic Home, Macon, Georgia 255 

A Group of Children and Mrs. Collier . . . 255 

Indiana Masonic Home, Administration Building . 287 
Memorial Book-case, Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, 

Iowa 291 

Kansas Masonic Home 294 

Children of Kansas Masonic Home .... 295 

O.E.S. Temple, Detroit, Michigan .... 317 

Eastern Star Girls' Home, Fremont, Nebraska . . 341 

Robert Macoy . ^ . 356 

Masonic and O.E.S. Home, Puyallup, Washington . 448 

Masonic and Eastern Star Home, Greensboro, N. C. 368 



CHAPTER I 

Origin of the Order of the Eastern Star 

THE Masonic Order dates its origin back to the reign 
of King Solomon, who ascended the throne 1015 
years before the Christian era, and had, in its inception, 
three great men termed Grand Masters. In the Holy 
Bible, the recognized great light of Freemasonry, we 
read that Solomon, King of Israel, in his great wisdom, 
erected a temple at Jerusalem and dedicated it to Jeho- 
vah. In the execution of this great work, he sought the 
assistance of Hiram, King of Tyre, who sent the won- 
derful and gifted architect, Hiram Abif, whose skill and 
experience were utilized in superintending the labors of 
the craft, and in adorning and beautifying the building. 
These three, according to traditions and records, are 
termed the first Council of Grand Masters. 

The Order of the Eastern Star can trace a portion of 
its traditions and history to, and in consequence has the 
privilege of dating its origin back to Ruth, the great- 
grandmother of King Solomon. This Order also had 
three Master Workmen ; our distinguished brother, Dr. 
Rob Morris, who wrought out the degrees, contemplated 
the themes incorporated, culled from the pages of an- 
tiquity the heroines and names upon which the beautiful 
work is builded, established the signs and passes, com- 
municated the esoteric mysteries of the Order and pro- 
mulgated the fundamental principles which have re- 



18 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

mained unchanged ; Robert Macoy, who, with the consent 
and assistance of Dr. Rob Morris, devised and arranged 
the Chapter system, developed a broader field of labor 
and a grander organization, vitalized the impressive 
ceremonials and symbolisms of the Chapter work; the 
master builder and architect. Rev. Willis D. Engle, first 
Secretary of the General Grand Chapter and Past Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, who, by his keen foresight, per- 
sistent effort, indefatigable and unselfish labors, is recog- 
nized as the great organizer of this fraternal Order. 

One of the most valuable records now in possession of 
the Order of the Eastern Star, is that of the "Origina- 
tion of the Eastern Star,'' written under date of August 
I, 1884, by its founder, Dr. Rob Morris, a complete copy 
of which is herewith presented: 

THK ORIGINATION 01^ THE; E:aSTi:RN STAR 

In these last years of my earthly pilgrimage I have been 
importuned by friends, old and new, to commit to paper, while 
memory is clear and documents accessible, all the facts concerning 
the origination of the Eastern Star. ''What would we not 
give" has often been said, what would we not give for a history 
of the origin of the Royal Arch System, of the Cryptic System, 
the Commandery Orders, the Scottish Rite, all of which are as 
truly Modem and American as the Order of the Eastern Star 
itself. But their authors are dead, and the history of their origin 
died with them. 

From the period of my initiation into Masonry I had enter- 
tained the desire of introducing the female relatives of Masons 
into closer relationship with the Order. Through the immense 
influence of women so much might be done to bring the perform- 
ances of Freemasons nearer their professions. If the wife and 
mother would but become interested in the workings of the Lodge, 
the husband and father dare no longer introduce into "the tyled 
precincts" such caricatures of men — drunkards, gamblers, brawl- 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 19 

ers, rogues — as I saw, forty years since, walking familiarly in 
Masonic processions. If committees of charitable women, female 
members of the families of Freemasons, would but undertake 
our charitable disbursements, the widow, the orphan and the 
destitute need no longer suffer neglect upon the plea that "such 
oversight is not the proper work of men." If the sharp eye of 
the domestic housekeeper were but cast occasionally over the 
Lodge rooms, its furniture, aprons, jewels, etc., cleanliness and 
order would become the law there instead of the exception. 

Again, if the gratitude of the Craft were once fairly awakened 
toward their female relatives for such benevolence as I have 
suggested many methods would be opened to women for self- 
support that are now sealed up. Many a clerk-ship, many a 
copyist's desk, many a situation in postoffi'ce, library, public 
bureau, etc., now filled by men alone, would be equally available 
to women, and so the circle of female occupations would be 
vastly enlarged. All this I had pondered for several years in my 
mind and I was fast coming to the initial step of sitting to weave 
the warp and woof which now constitute the Order of the Eastern 
Star. 

Bowing now to the expression of a wish, widespread and 
urgent, I proceed to overhaul my Diaries, to tease my sluggish 
memory, and now (1884) sit down, through quiet summer hours, 
to rescue from oblivion, the facts connected with the origin of the 
Easte^rn Star. One witness, Mrs. Morris, still survives to sub- 
stantiate the statements I am about to make. 

In the winter of 1850 I was a resident of Jackson, Mississippi. 
For some time previous I had contemplated, as hinted above, the 
preparation of a Ritual of Adoptive Masonry, the degrees then 
in vogue appearing to me poorly conceived, weakly wrought out, 
unimpressive, and particularly defective in point of motive. I 
allude especially to those degrees styled The Mason's Daughter, 
and the Heroines of Jericho. But I do expressly except from 
this criticism, The Good Samaritan, which, in my judgment, 
possesses dramatic elements and machinery equal to those that 
are in the Templar's Orders, the High Priesthood, the Cryptic 
Rite, and other organizations of Thomas Smith Webb. I have 



20 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

always recommended The Good Samaritan, and a thousand times 
conferred it in various parts of the world. 

About the first of February, 1850, I was laid up for two weeks 
with a sharp attack of rheumatism, and it was this period which 
I gave to the work in hand. By the aid of my papers and the 
memory of Mrs. Morris, I recall even the trivial occurrences con- 
nected with the work ; how I hesitated for a theme, how I dallied 
over a name, how I wrought face to face with the clock that I 
might keep my drama within due limits of time, etc. The name 
was first settled upon, the Easte:rn Star. Next the number of 
points, five, to correspond with the emblem on the Master's carpet. 
This is the pentagon, "the signet of King Solomon," and eminent- 
ly proper to Adoptive Masonry. 

From the Holy Writings I culled four biographical sketches to 
correspond with my first four points, viz., Je^phthah's Daughter 
(named "Adah" for want of a better), Ruth, Esther, and 
Martha. These were illustrations of four great congeries of 
womanly virtues, and their selection has proved highly popular. 
The fifth point introduced me to the early history of the Christian 
Church, where amidst a "noble army of martyrs" I found many 
whose lives and death overflowed the cup of martyrdom with a 
glory not surpassed by any of those named in Holy Writ. This 
gave me Electa, "the Elect Lady," friend of St. John, the Chris- 
tian woman whose venerable years were crowned with the utmost 
splendor of the crucifixion. 

The colors, the emblems, the floral wreaths, the esotery proper 
to these five heroines were easy of invention. They seemed to 
fall ready-made into my hands. The only piece of mechanism 
difficult to fit into the construction was the cabalistic motto known 
as ***** ; but this occurred to me in ample time for use. 

The composition of the lectures was but a recreation. Familiar 
from childhood as I had been with Mie Holy Scriptures, I scarcely 
needed to look up my proof texts, so tamely did they come to my 
call. A number of odes were also composed at that time, but the 
great part of the three score odes and poems of the Eastern Star 
that I have written were the work of subsequent years. The first 
Ode of the series of 1850 was one commencing "Light from the 
East, 'tis gilded with hope." 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 21 

The theory of the whole subject is succinctly stated in my 
Rosary of the Eastern Star, published in 1865 : To take from the 
ancient writings five prominent female characters, illustrating as 
many Masonic virtues, and to adopt them into the fold of Mason- 
ry. The selections were: 1. Jephthah's Daughter, as illustrat- 
ing respect to the binding force of a vow ; ii. Ruth, as illustrating 
devotion to religious principles ; iii. Esther, as illustrating fidel- 
ity to kindred and friends; iv. Martha, as illustrating undeviat- 
ing faith in the hour of trial; and v. Electa, as illustrating 
patience and submission under wrong. These are all Masonic 
virtues, and they have nowhere in history more brilliant exemplars 
than in the five characters presented in the lectures of the Eastern 
Star. It is a fitting comment upon these statements that in all 
the changes that the Eastern Star has experienced at so many 
hands for thirty-four years, no change in the names, histories, or 
essential lessons has been proposed. 

So my Ritual was complete, and after touching and retouching 
the manuscript, as professional authors love to do, I invited a 
neighboring Mason and his wife to join with my own, and to 
them, in my own parlor, communicated the Degrees. They were 
the first recipients — the first of twice fifty thousand who have 
seen the signs, heard the words, exchanged the touch, and joined 
in the music of the Eastern Star. When I take a retrospect 
of that evening — but thirty-four years ago — and consider the 
abounding four hundred Eastern Star Chapters at work today, 
my heart swells with gratitude to God who guided my hand dur- 
ing that period of convalescence to prepare a work, of all the 
work of my life the most successful. The greatest number of 
Stellar Lights that shine with so much splendor in the Grand 
Chapters of America will read this passage, I think, with similar 
sentiments. Uhomme propose, Dieu disposes. How little could 
I anticipate such a harvest from such a scanty sowing! 

Being at that time, and until a very recent period, an active 
traveler, visiting all countries where lodges exist — a nervous, 
wiry, elastic man, unwearying in work — caring little for refresh- 
ments or sleep, I spread abroad the knowledge of the Eastern 
Star wherever I went. Equally in border communities, where 



22 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ladies came in homespun, as in cities, where ladies came in satins, 
the new degree was received with ardor, and eulogized in strong- 
est terms, so that every induction led to the call for more. Ladies 
and gentlemen are yet living who met that immense assemblage 
at Newark, New Jersey, in 1853, and the still greater one in 
Spring Street Hall, New York City, a little earlier, where I stood 
up for two hours or three, before a breathless and gratified audi- 
ence, and brought to bear all that I could draw from the Holy 
Scriptures, the Talmud, and the writings of Josephus, concerning 
the five ''Heroines of the Eastern Star." 

Not that my work met no opposition. Quite the reverse. It 
was not long until editors, report writers, newspaper critics, and 
my own private correspondents, began to see the evil of it. The 
cry of ''innovation" went up to heaven. Ridicule lent its aid to a 
grand assault upon my poor little figment. Ingenious charges 
were rung upon the idea of "petticoat Masonry." More than one 
writer in Masonic journals (men of an evil class, we have had 
them, men who know the secrets, but have never applied the prin- 
ciples of Masonry), more than one such expressed in language 
indecent and shocking, his opposition to the Easte:rn Star and 
to me. Letters were written me, some signed, some anonymous, 
warning me that I was periling my own Masonic connections in 
the advocacy of this scheme. In New York City the opponents 
of the Eastern Star even started a rival project to break it down. 
They employed a literary person, a poet of eminence, a gentleman 
of social merit, to prepare rituals under an ingenious form, and 
much time and money were spent in the effort to popularize it, 
but it survived only a short year and is already forgotten. 

But the Eastkrn Star glittered steadily in the ascendant. In 
1855 I arranged the system of "Constellations of the Easte:rn 
Star" of which the Mosaic Book was the index, and established 
more than one hundred of these bodies. Looking over that book, 
one of the most original and brilliant works to which I ever put 
my hand, I have wondered that the system did not succeed. It 
must be because the times were not ripe for it. The opposition 
to "Ladies' Masonry" was too bitter. The advocates of the plan 
were not sufficiently influential. At any rate it fell through. 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 23 

Four years later I prepared an easier plan styled "Families of 
the Eastern Star'' intended, in its simplicity and the readiness 
by which it could be worked, to avoid the complexity of the "Con- 
stellations." This ran well until the war broke out, when all 
Masonic systems fell together with a crash. 

This ended my work in systematizing the Eastern Star, and I 
should never have done more with it, save confer it in an informal 
manner as at first, but for Brother Robert Macoy of New York, 
who in 1868, when I had publicly announced my intentions of 
confining my labors during the remainder of my life to Holy Land 
Investigations, proposed the plan of Eastern Star Chapters now 
in vogue. He had my full consent and endorsement, and thus 
became the instigator of a third and more successful system. The 
history of this organization, which is now disseminated in more 
than four hundred chapters, extending to thirty-three states and 
territories, I need not detail. The annual proceedings of Grand 
Chapters, the indefatigable labors of the Rev. Willis D. Engle, 
Grand Secretary of the General Grand Chapter, the liberal man- 
ner in which the Masonic journals have opened their columns to 
the proceedings of the Adoptive Order, the annual festivals, the 
sociables, concerts, picnics, etc., which keep the name of the Soci- 
ety before the public, make a history of their own better than I 
can write. 

It is sufficient to say that the largest anticipations I ever had 
concerning the Eastern Star are fast realizing. Masonic op- 
position has ceased, or so nearly so that it has become merely a 
whine. Already there is an Eastern Star Chapter in one out of 
every twenty-five Lodges in America, and there are persons living, 
I apprehend, who will see twenty of the other twenty-four equally 
favored. Internal contentions, which seem the doom of all soci- 
eties in their youth, have died away, leaving but a murmur and 
an echo. The orphan has come into nearer relationship with 
Masonic charities. The widow has discovered that her claim 
upon the brothers of her dead one is real and genuine. Masonic 
Halls have lost their dust and cobwebs, and a spirit of purity 
(astonishing to Tylers) broods in whiteness over gloves and 
aprons. In the cemeteries, grave-stones rise frequently, display- 
ing the mystic star with its cabalistic motto. 



24 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

And there is another practical result of the Eastern Star 
movement, the credit of which I am in no wise inclined to give 
to others; this is the broader opening that is offered to females 
for self-support. The deadly needle, the unwomanly washtub, 
the unwholesome country school, the sinew-wearying kitchen, are 
not now the only fields on which women, old and young, who are 
wrestling with the perplexities of human life, can win bread. 
Thousan4s and tens of thousands of places, cleanly, womanly, 
easy, and fairly profitable, have been opened to them since the 
story of the "Five Heroines of the Eastern Star" was first dis- 
seminated in 1850. In almost every postoffice and courthouse 
throughout the land — in a great number of banks and libraries — 
at the desk of cashiers of mercantile houses — behind counters — 
but the catalogue need not be extended. Long as it is, it is daily 
lengthening, and every year the salaries of women are brought 
more nearly to those of men, as it is found they are equally ac- 
curate and expert in business, and that the defalcations, forgeries, 
and general rascalities with which our morning papers are defiled 
are commonly the work of men, rarely of zvomen. 

In conclusion, I may call to witness the thousand groups of men 
and women who, in all these years, have sat under my voice while 
communicating the instructions of the Eastern Star, that no 
greed of money has actuated me in this work. How often have 
I refused fees offered me ! how often forbidden collections to be 
made for my benefit ! Monitors of the Eastern Star have been 
published by twenties of thousands, but the money profits were 
enjoyed by others, not by me. It is with honest pride that I make, 
as I have so often made, these declarations. 

Rob Morris. 

La Grange, Kentucky, August 1, 1884. 

As indicated by Dr. Morris, he found that the Con- 
stellation form with its dramatic ritual was too compli- 
cated and difficult of rendition to be popular, demanding 
more dramatic skill than was readily available in many 
places. Because of this, together with the fact that the 
conditions of the country were negative and the minds of 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 25 

the people not prepared to accept secret Orders conducted 
by women, the Eastern Star under the Constellation sys- 
tem did not flourish as had been hoped for by its origin- 
ator. Consequently, as he relates. Dr. Morris prepared 
a ritual in 1859 which was very simple in arrangement, 
unpretentious in ceremony, and free from dramatic ele- 
ment. This he styled "Families of the Eastern Star/' 
and immediately organized under this name. The aim 
of the Families was the same as that of the Constella- 
tions, and all who had been members of the first system 
retained their privileges under the second, the officers 
remaining the same with changes only in the names. 

Dr. Morris, in explanation of the change, said that 
charters would be issued in the old form : "The use of the 
old form of charter is continued, although the associa- 
tion governed by the Supreme Constellation, has ceased 
to exist. This is done to show that the two systems of 
'Constellations' and 'Families' are identical in spirit, the 
latter having taken the place of the former. It serves 
further to show that the thousands of ladies who were 
introduced to the advantages of Adoptive Masonry un- 
der the former system retain their privileges under the 
latter." 

The Supreme Constellation which had been inaugurat- 
ed by Dr. Morris in 1855, had been organized with the 
powers as stated in the Mosaic Book} Of this Supreme 
Constellation, Dr. Rob Morris was Most Enlightened 
Grand Luminary, Joel M. Spiller, Delphi, Indiana, Right 
Enlightened Deputy Grand Luminary and Grand Lec- 
turer ; Jonathan R. Neill, New York, Very Enlightened 
Grand Secretary; and Very Enlightened Deputy Grand 
Luminaries were appointed as follows : 

1 See Appendix A. 



26 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

New Jersey and pro tern, for New England — James 
B. Taylor, Newark. 

New York — Thomas C. Edwards, Elmira. 

Indiana — Joel M. Spiller, Delphi. 

Iowa — L. D. Parmer, Muscatine. 

Kentucky — John Scott, Flemingsburg. 

Georgia — M. B. Franklin, Atlanta. 

Missouri — M. J. F. Leonard, at large. 

Right Eminent Deputy Grand Luminaries were also 
named : 

Illinois, Fourth District — Harmon G. Reynolds, 
Knoxville. 

Kentucky — James G. Gorsuch, Portland; W. C. Mun- 
ger, Covington. 

The following Constellations were granted charters 
under the Supreme Constellation system, and for con- 
venience are given by States in alphabetical order : 

Alabama — Venus No. ii, New Market. 

Arkansas — Evening Star No. i6, Morristown. 

California — Morning Star No. 44, Grass Valley; 
Orion No. 57, Mariposa. 

Connecticut — Morning Star No. 48, Fair Haven; 
Alpha No. I, New London. 

Florida — Electa No. 11, Tallahassee; Flora No. 21, 
Uchee Anna. 

Georgia — Virgo No. 4, Woodstock; Magnolia No. 5, 
Hillsboro; Rose No. 39, Whitesville; Electa No. 58, Ce- 
dartown. 

Indiana^ White Rose No. 3, Crown Point; Jessamin 
No. 8, Moore's Hill; Cassiopeia No. 28, Cambridge City; 
North Salem No. 36, North Salem; New Albany No. 
160, New Albany; Newman No. 161, Milton. 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 27 

Illinois — Griggsville No. lO, Griggsville; Orion No. 
15, Sycamore; Flora No. 18, Pecatonica; Pittsfield No. 
56, Pittsfield; Friendship No. 65, Knoxville; Rose of 
Sharon, No. 67 , Tipton. 

Iowa — Electa Morris No. 66, Muscatine; Violet No. 
68, Iowa City. 

Kansas — Mendias No. i, Wyandotte. 

Kentucky — Purity No. i, Lodgeton;^ Vesta No. 7, 
Burlington; Covington No. 60, Covington. 

Louisiana — Cassiopeia No. 32, Lisbon. 

Maine — Moriah No. 19, Denmark; Corona No. 22, 
Waterville. 

Michigan — Buchanan No. 20, Buchanan; Western 
Star No. 61, Litchfield. 

Missouri — Flora No. 13, New Madrid; Hesperus No. 
17, Charlestown; Lyra No. 24, Arcadia; Morning Star 
No. 25, Caledonia; Cassiopeia No. 26, Potosi; Eastern 
Star No. 30, Frederickstown ; Evening Star No. 31, 
Franklin; Western Star No. 33, Pauldingville ; Pru- 
dence No. 34, Marthasville ; Pleides No. 37, Mexico; 
Mary Washington No. 38, Florida; Martha No. 40. 
Madison; Robert Burns No. 42, Fulton; Astrea No. 43, 
Fayette; Rob Morris No. 45, Spring Hill; Esther No. 
46, Pattonberg; Ruth No. 47, Gallatin; Nannie No. 49, 
Windsor City; Mary Anna No. 50, Roanoke; Mary 
Washington No. 52, Haynesville; Martha Washington 
No. 54, Richmond; Rose No. 59, Clinton; Louisa No. 
162, Dekalb; Lucinda No. 164, Ridgeley; Hebe No. 167, 
Rochester; Lafayette No. 168, Palmyra; Hannah No. 
169, Trenton. 

2 This is the first Constellation which was organized under the new 
ritual and was organized under the direct supervision of Dr. Rob Morris 
at his home town in Lodgeton, Kentucky. 



28 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Mississippi — Concordia No. 6, Tallaloosa; Ripley No. 
41, Ripley; Hebron No. 55, Hebron. 

New York — Orion No. 9, Evans; Purity No. 27, 
Spencer; Speedsville No. 29, Speedsville. 

North Carolina — Hookerton, No. 63, Hookerton. 

Pennsylvania — Towanda No. 166, Towanda. 

Tennessee — Acacia, Clifton. 

Texas — Lavacia No. 23, Hallettsville ; Lily No. 35, 
Sabine Pass; Pleiades No. 51, Texana; Mount Horeb 
No. 165, Gabriel Mills. 

Vermont — Irene No. 53, Swanton Falls. 

Wisconsin — Lake Mills No. 171, Lake Mills. 

Dr. Rob Morris continued to hold the office of Most 
Enlightened Grand Luminary, and in 1857 Brother 
James B. Taylor was elected Very Enlightened Grand 
Secretary. In all, nearly three hundred Constellations 
were organized and charters were granted. 

According to the Mosaic Book, which was the ritual 
of the Supreme Constellation, ''the inherent right which 
Master Masons possessed to communicate the degree 
remains forever unchanged, nor does the Supreme Con- 
stellation presume to interfere with it." 

The Supreme Council was a self perpetuating body, 
with its membership unknown to any but a very few, and 
all communications with it had to be through the Grand 
Secretary of the Supreme Council, who would not even 
disclose the number and location of its subordinate bod- 
ies. This body maintained an organization until about 
1876 when it ceased to exist. 

In 1859 Dr. Morris simplified the ritual into what was 
published under the title of Morris' Manual.^ This was 

3 See Appendix B. 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 29 

prepared for the communication of the degrees, and 
opened with an explanation of Freemasonry and its ben- 
efits to women, the obHgation administered being one of 
secrecy only. The signet was explained, also the signs, 
followed by the lectures which were simplified and adapt- 
ed from the Mosaic Book. Each was followed by an 
explanation of the appropriate signs, emblems, and col- 
ors, which were fully described in a manuscript that was 
issued at the same time and accompanied the Manual. 
Early in i860 Dr. Morris began organizing and issuing 
charters under the Family System, extending to all Con- 
stellations the privilege of changing to the Family Sys- 
tem. 

LODGES OF ADOPTION OR ADOPTIVE MASONRY 

An organization which bears a very imperfect resem- 
blance to Freemasonry in its forms and ceremonies, and 
which was established in France for the initiation of 
females, has been called by the French "Maconnerie 
d' Adoption" or Adoptive Masonry, and the societies in 
which the initiations take place have received the name 
of "Loges d' Adoption" or Adoptive Lodges. This ap- 
pellation, is derived from the fact that every female or 
Adoptive Lodge is obliged, by the regulations of the 
association, to be, as it were, adopted by, and thus placed 
imder the guardianship of some regular lodge of Free- 
masonry. 

As to the exact date which we are to assign for the 
first introduction of this system of female Masonry, there 
have been several theories, some of which, undoubtedly, 
are wholly untenable, since they have been founded, as 
Masonic historical theories too often are, on an unwar- 



30 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

rantable mixture of facts and fiction — of positive state- 
ments and problematic conjectures. Mons. J. S. Boubee, 
a distinguished French Mason, in his Etudes Macon- 
niques, places the origin of Adoptive Masonry in the 
seventeenth century, and ascribes its authorship to 
Queen Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I of Eng- 
land; and he states that on her return to France, after 
the execution of her husband, she took pleasure in re- 
counting the secret efforts made by the Freemasons of 
England to restore her family to their position and to 
establish her son on the throne of his ancestors. 

This, it will be recollected, was once a prevailing the- 
ory, now exploded, of the origin of Freemasonry — that 
it was established by the Cavaliers, as a secret political 
organization, in the times of the English civil war be- 
tween the King and the Parliament, and as an engine for 
the support of the former. M. Boubee adds, that the 
Queen made known to the ladies of her court, in her 
exile, the words and signs employed by her Masonic 
friends in England, as their modes of recognition, and 
by this means instructed them in some of the mysteries 
of the Institution, of which, he says, she had been made 
the protectress after the death of the King. This theory 
is so full of absurdity, and its statements so flatly contra- 
dicted by well known historical facts, that we may at 
once reject it as wholly apocryphal. 

Others have claimed Russia as the birthplace of Adop- 
tive Masonry ; but in assigning that country and the year 
1 71 2 as the place and time of its origin, they have un- 
doubtedly confounded it with the chivalric Order Saint 
Catherine, which was instituted by the Czar, Peter the 
Great, in honor of the Czarina, Catharine, and which, 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 31 

although at first it consisted of persons of both sexes, 
was subsequently confined exclusively to females. But 
the Order of Saint Catherine was in no manner connect- 
ed with that of Freemasonry. It was simply a Russian 
order of female knighthood. 

The truth seems to be that the regular Lodges of 
Adoption owed their existence to those secret associa- 
tions of men and women which sprang up in France be- 
fore the middle of the eighteenth century, and which at- 
tempted in all of their organization, except the admis- 
sion of female members, to imitate the Institution of 
Freemasonry. 

Clavel, who in his Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc- 
Maconnerie, an interesting but not always a trustworthy 
work, adopts this theory, says that female Masonry was 
instituted about the year 1730; that it made its first ap- 
pearance in France, and that it was evidently a product 
of the French mind. No one will be disposed to doubt 
the truth of this last sentiment. The proverbial gal- 
lantry of the French Masons was most ready and willing 
to extend to women some of the blessings of that Insti- 
tution from which the churlishness, as they would call 
it, of their Anglo-Saxon brethren had excluded them. 

But the Masonry of Adoption did not at once, and in 
its very beginning, assume that peculiar imitative form 
of Freemasonry which it subsequently presented, nor 
was it represented as having any connection with the 
Masonic Order until more than thirty years after its first 
establishment. Its progress was slow and gradual. In 
the course of this progress it affected various names and 
rituals, many of which have not been handed down to us. 
It was evidently convivial and gallant in its nature, and 



32 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

at first seems to have been only an imitation of Free- 
masonry, inasmuch as it was a secret society, having a 
form of initiation and modes of recognition. A speci- 
men of one or two of these secret female associations 
may not be uninteresting. 

One of the earliest of these societies was that which 
was established in the year 1743, at Paris, under the 
name of the "Ordre des Felicitaires," which we might 
very appropriately translate as the "Order of Happy 
Folks." The vocabulary and all the emblems of the 
order were nautical. The sisters made symbolically a 
voyage from the island of Felicity, in ships navigated by 
the brethren. There were four degrees, namely, those 
of Cabin-boy, Captain, Commodore, and Vice Admiral, 
and the Grand Master, or presiding officer was called the 
Admiral. Out of this society there sprang in 1745 an- 
other, which was called the "Knights and Ladies of the 
Anchor," which is said to have been somewhat more re- 
fined in its character, although for the most part it pre- 
served the same formulary of reception. 

Two years afterwards, in 1747, the Chevalier Beau- 
chaine, a very zealous Masonic adventurer, and the Mas- 
ter for life of a Parisian Lodge, instituted an adrogynous 
system under the name of the "Ordre des Fendeurs," or 
the "Order of Wood-Cutters," whose ceremonies were 
borrowed from the well known political society of the 
Carbonari. All parts of the ritual had a reference to 
the sylvan vocation of wood-cutting, just as that of the 
Carbonari referred to that of coal-burning. The place 
of meeting was called a "wood-yard," and was supposed 
to be situated in a forest ; the presiding officer was styled 
Pere Maitre, which might be idiomatically interpreted as 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 33 

Goodman Master ; and the members were designated as 
cousins, a practice evidently borrowed from the Car- 
bonari. The reunions of the ''Wood-Cutters'' enjoyed 
the prestige of the highest fashion in Paris; and the 
society became so popular that ladies and gentlemen of 
the highest distinction in France united with it, and 
membership was considered an honor which no rank, 
however exalted, need disdain. It was consequently suc- 
ceeded by the institution of many other and similar ad- 
rogynous societies, the very names of which it would be 
tedious to enumerate. 

Out of all these societies, which resembled Free- 
masonry only in their secrecy, their benevolence, and a 
sort of rude imitation of a symbolic ceremonial — at last 
arose the true Lodges of Adoption, which so far claimed 
a connection with and a dependence on Masonry as that 
Freemasons alone were admitted among their male mem- 
bers — a regulation which did not prevail in the earlier 
organizations. 

It was about the middle of the eighteenth century that 
the Lodges of Adoption began to attract attention in 
France, whence they speedily spread into other countries 
of Europe — into Germany, Poland, and even Russia; 
England alone, always conservative to a fault, steadily 
refused to take any cognizance of them. The Masons 
embraced them with enthusiasm as a practical means of 
giving to their wives and daughters some share of the 
pleasures which they themselves enjoyed in their mystical 
assemblies. And this, at least, may be said of them, that 
they practiced with commendable fidelity and diligence, 
the greatest of the Masonic virtues, and that the ban- 
quets and balls which always formed an important part 



34 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of their ceremonial were included numerous acts of 
charity. 

The first of these lodges of which we have any notice 
was that established in Paris, in the year 1760, by the 
Count de Bernouville. Another was instituted at Nime- 
guen, in Holland, in 1774, over which the Prince of 
Waldeck and the Princess of Orange presided. In 1775, 
the Lodge of Saint Antoine, at Paris, organized a de- 
pendent Lodge of Adoption, of which the Duchess of 
Bourbon was installed as Grand Mistress, and the Duke 
of Chartres, the Grand Master of French Masonry, con- 
ducted the business. In 1777, there was an Adoptive 
Lodge of La Candeur, over which the Duchess of Bour- 
bon presided, assisted by such noble ladies as the Duchess 
of Chartres, the Princess Lamballe, and the Marchioness 
de Genlis ; and we hear of another governed by Madame 
Helvetius, the wife of the illustrious philosopher; so that 
it will be perceived that fashion, wealth, and literature 
combined to give splendor and influence to this new 
order of female Masonry. 

At first the Grand Orient of France appears to have 
been unfavorably disposed to these pseudo-Masonic and 
androgynous associations, but at length they became so 
numerous and so popular that a persistence in opposition 
would have evidently been impolitic, if it did not actually 
threaten to be fatal to the interests and permanence of 
the Masonic institution. The Grand Orient, therefore, 
yielded its objections, and resolved to avail itself of that 
which it could not suppress. Accordingly, on the loth 
of June, 1774, it issued an edict by which it assumed the 
protection and control of the Lodges of Adoption. Rules 
and regulations were provided for their government, 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 35 

among which were two : first, that no males except reg- 
ular Freemasons should be permitted to attend them; 
and, secondly, that each Lodge should be placed under 
the charge and held under the sanction of some regularly 
constituted Lodge of Masons, whose Master, or, in his 
absence, his deputy, should be the presiding officer, as- 
sisted by a female President or Mistress; and such has 
since been the organization of all Lodges of Adoption. 

A Lodge of Adoption, under the regulations estab- 
lished in 1774, consists of the following officers : a Grand 
Master, a Grand Mistress, an Orator (dressed as a Capu- 
chin), an Inspector, an Inspectress, a male and female 
Guardian, a Mistress of Ceremonies. All of these offi- 
cers wear a blue watered ribbon over the shoulder, to 
which is suspended a golden trowel, and all the brothers 
and sisters have aprons and white gloves. 

The Rite of Adoption consists of four degrees, whose 
names in French and English are as follows: i. Ap- 
prentice or Female Apprentice; 2. Compagnone or 
Craftswoman; 3. Maitresse, or Mistress; 4. Parfaite 
Maconne, or Perfect Mason. 

It will be seen that the degrees of Adoption, in their 
names and their apparent reference to the gradations of 
employment in an operative art, are assimilated to those 
of legitimate Freemasonry; but it is in those respects 
only that the resemblance holds good. In the details of 
the ritual there is a vast difference between the two insti- 
tutions. 

There was a fifth degree added in 181 7 — by some 
modern writers called "Female Elect" — "Sublime Dame 
Ecossaise/' or "Sovereign Illustrious Dame Ecossaise;" 
but it seems to be a recent and not generally adopted in- 



36 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

novation. At all events, it constituted no part of the 
original Rite of Adoption. 

The first, or Female Apprentice's degree, is simply 
preliminary in its character, and is intended to prepare 
the candidate for the more important lessons which she 
is to receive in the succeeding degrees. She is presented 
with an apron and a pair of white kid gloves. The 
apron is given with the following charge, in which, as 
in all the other ceremonies of the Order, the Masonic 
system of teaching by symbolism is followed : "Permit 
me to decorate you with this apron; kings, princes, and 
the most illustrious princesses have esteemed, and will 
ever esteem it an honor to wear it, as being the symbol 
of virtue." 

On receiving the gloves, the candidate is thus ad- 
dressed : "The color of these gloves will admonish you 
that candor and truth are virtues inseparable from the 
character of a true Mason. Take your place among us, 
and be pleased to listen to the instructions which we are 
about to communicate to you." The following is a part 
of the charge then addressed to the members by the 
Orator : 

My dear Sisters: Nothing is better calculated to assure you 
of the high esteem our society entertains for you, than your ad- 
mission as a member. However, whatever pleasure these senti- 
ments have enabled us to taste, we have not been able to fill the 
void that your absence left in our midst; and I confess, to your 
glory, that it was time to invite into our societies some sisters who, 
while rendering them more respectable, will ever make of them 
pleasures and delights. We call our Lodges Temples of Virtue, 
because we endeavor to practice it. The mysteries which we cele- 
brate therein are the grand art conquering the passions and the 
oath that we take to reveal nothing is to prevent self-love and 
pride from entering at all into the good which we ought to do. 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 11 

The beloved name of Adoption tells you sufficiently that we 
choose you to share the happiness which we enjoy, in cultivating 
honor and charity; it is only after a careful examination that we 
have wished to share it with you, now that you know it we are 
convinced that the light of wisdom will illumine all the actions of 
your life, and that you will never forget that the more valuable 
things are, the greater is the need to preserve them ; it is the prin- 
ciple of silence that we observe, it should be inviolable. May the 
God of the universe who hears us vouchsafe to give us strength 
to render it so. 

It will be seen that throughout this charge there runs 
a vein of gallantry, which gives the true secret of the 
motives which led to the organization of the society, and 
which, however appropriate to a Lodge of Adoption, 
would scarcely be in place in a Lodge of the legitimate 
Order. 

In the second degree, or that of Compagnone, or 
"Craftswoman," corresponding to that of Fellow-Craft, 
the Lodge is made the symbol of the Garden of Eden, 
and the candidate passes through a mimic representation 
of the temptation of Eve, the fatal effects of which, cul- 
minating in the deluge and the destruction of the human 
race, are impressed upon her in the lectures or catechism. 
Here is presented a scenic representation of the circum- 
stances connected with that event, as recorded in Genesis. 
The candidate plays the role of our common mother. In 
the center of the Lodge, which represents the garden, is 
placed the tree of life, from which ruddy apples are sus- 
pended. The serpent, made with theatrical skill to rep- 
resent a living reptile, embraces in its coils the trunk. 
An apple plucked from the tree is presented to the recipi- 
ent, who is persuaded to eat it by the promise that thus 
alone can she prepare herself for receiving a knowledge 
of the sublime mysteries of Freemasonry. She receives 



38 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the fruit from the tempter, but no sooner has she at- 
tempted to bite it, than .she is startled by the noise of 
thunder; a curtain which has separated her from the 
members of the Lodge is suddenly withdrawn, and she 
is detected in the commission of the act of disobedience. 
She is sharply reprimanded by the Orator, who conducts 
her before the Grand Master. This dignitary re- 
proaches her with her fault, but finally, with the consent 
of the brethren and sisters present, he pardons her in the 
merciful spirit of the institution on the conditions that 
she will take a vow to extend hereafter the same clem- 
ency to the faults of others. 

All of this is allegorical and very pretty, and it cannot 
be denied that on the sensitive imagination of females 
such ceremonies must produce a manifest impression. 
But it is needless to say that it is nothing like Masonry. 

There is less ceremony, but more symbolism, in the 
third degree, or that of "Mistress." Here are intro- 
duced, as parts of the ceremony, the tower of Babel and 
the theological ladder of Jacob. Its rounds, however, 
differ from those peculiar to true Masonry, and are said 
to equal the virtues in number. The lecture or catechism, 
is very long, and contains some very good points in 
its explanations of the symbols of the degree. Thus, the 
tower of Babel is said to signify the pride of man — its 
base, his folly — the stones of which it was composed, 
his passions — the cement which united them, the poison 
of discord — and its spiral form, the devious and crooked 
ways of the human heart. In this manner there is an 
imitation, not of the letter and substance of legitimate 
Freemasonry, for nothing can in these respects be more 
dissimilar, but of that mode of teaching by symbols and 
allegories, which is its peculiar characteristic. 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 39 

The fourth degree, or that of "Perfect Mistress," cor- 
responds to no degree in legitimate Masonry. It is 
simply the summit of the Rite of Adoption, and hence is 
called the "Degree of Perfection." Although the Lodge, 
in this degree, is supposed to represent the Mosaic taber- 
nacle in the wilderness, yet the ceremonies do not have 
the same reference. In one of them, however, the libera- 
tion, by the candidate, of a bird from the vase in which it 
has been confined is said to symbolize the liberation of 
man from the dominion of his passions ; and thus a far- 
fetched reference is made to the liberation of the Jews 
from Egyptian bondage. On the whole, the ceremonies 
are very disconnected, but the lecture or catechism con- 
tains some excellent lessons. Especially does it furnish 
us with the official definition of Adoptive Masonry, which 
is in these words : 

It is a virtuous amusement by which we recall a part of the 
mysteries of our religion; and the better to reconcile humanity 
with a knowledge of its Creator; after we have inculcated the 
duties of virtue, we deliver ourselves up to the sentiments of a 
pure and delightful friendship by enjoying in our Lodges the 
pleasure of society — pleasures which among us are always found- 
ed on reason, honor, and innocence. 

Apt and appropriate description of an association, 
secret or otherwise, of agreeable and virtuous well-bred 
men and women, but having not the slightest application 
to the design or form of true Freemasonry. 

Guillemain de St. Victor, the author of Manuel des 
Franches-Maconnes, ou La Vraie Maconnerie d' Adop- 
tion (which forms the third part of the Recueil Pre- 
cieux), who has given the best ritual of the Rite and 
from whom the preceding account has been taken, thus 
briefly sums up the objects of the Institution : 

The first degree contains only, as it ought, moral ideas of 



40 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Masonry ; the second is the initiation into the first mysteries, com- 
mencing with the sin of Adam, and concluding with the Ark of 
Noah as the first favor which God granted to men ; the third and 
fourth are merely a series of types and figures drawn from the 
Holy Scriptures, by which we explain to the candidate the virtues 
which she ought to practice. 

The fourth degree, being the summit of the Rite of 
Adoption, is furnished with a "table-Lodge" or the cere- 
mony of a banquet, which immediately succeeds the clos- 
ing of the Lodge, and which of course, adds much to the 
social pleasure and nothing to the instructive character 
of the Rite. Here, also, there is a continued imitation 
of the ceremonies of the Masonic institution as they are 
practiced in France, where the ceremoniously conducted 
banquet, at which Masons only are present, is always an 
accompaniment of the Master's Lodge. Thus, as in the 
banquets of the regular Lodges of the French Rite, the 
members always use a symbolical language by which they 
designate the various implements of the table and vari- 
ous articles of food and drink, calling, for instance the 
knives "swords," the forks "pickaxes," the dishes "ma- 
terials," and bread a "rough ashler ;" so, in imitation of 
this custom, the Rite of Adoption has established in its 
banquets a technical vocabulary, to be used only at the 
table. Thus the Lodge room is called "Eden," the doors 
"barriers," the minutes a "ladder," a wineglass is styled 
a "lamp," and its contents "oil" — water being "white 
oil" and wine "red oil." To fill your glass is to "trim 
your lamp," to drink is to "extinguish your lamp," with 
many other eccentric expressions. 

Much taste and in some instances, magnificence, are 
displayed in the decorations of the lodge rooms of the 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 41 

Adoptive Rite. The apartment is separated by curtains 
into different divisions, and contains ornaments and dec- 
orations which of course vary in the different degrees. 
The orthodox Masonic idea that the Lodge is a symbol 
of the world is here retained, and the four sides of the 
hall are said to represent the four continents — the en- 
trance being called "Europe,'' the right side "Africa," 
and left "America,'' and the extremity in which the 
Grand Master and Grand Mistress are seated, "Asia." 
There are statues representing Wisdom, Prudence, 
Strength, Temperance, Honor, Charity, Justice, and 
Truth. The members are seated along the sides in two 
rows, the ladies occupying the front one, and the whole 
is rendered as beautiful and attractive as the taste can 
make it. 

The Lodges of Adoption flourished greatly in France 
after their recognition by the Grand Orient. The 
Duchess of Bourbon, who was the first that received the 
title of Grand Mistress, was installed with great pomp 
and splendor in May, 1775, in the Lodge of St. Antoine, 
in Paris. She presided over the Adoptive Lodge Le 
Candeur until 1780, when it was dissolved. Attached 
to the celebrated Lodge of the Nine Sisters, which had 
so many distinguished men of letters among its members, 
was a Lodge of Adoption bearing the same name, which 
in 1778, held a meeting at the residence of Madame Hel- 
vetius in honor of Benjamin Franklin, then our ambas- 
sador at the French Court. During the Reign of Terror 
of the French Revolution, Lodges of Adoption, like 
everything that was gentle or humane, almost en- 
tirely disappeared. But with the succession of a regular 



42 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

government, they were resuscitated, and the Empress 
Josephine presided at the meeting of one at Strasburg in 
1805. They continued to flourish under the imperial 
dynasty, and although less popular, or less fashionable 
under the Restoration, they subsequently recovered their 
popularity, and are still in existence in France. 

Illustrative of the work of these Lodges, it may not be 
improper to insert two accounts, one of the installation 
of Madame Cesar Moreau, as Grand Mistress of Adop- 
tive Masonry, in the Lodge connected with the regular 
Lodge La Jerusalem des Vallees Egyptiennes, on the 8th 
of July, 1854, and the other, of the reception of the cele- 
brated Lady Morgan, 18 19, in the Lodge La Belle et 
Bonne, as described by her in her Diary. 

The account of the installation of Madame Moreau, 
which is abridged from the Pranc-Macon, a Parisian 
periodical, is as follows : 

The fete was most interesting and admirably arranged. After 
the introduction in due form of a number of brethren and sisters, 
the Grand Mistress elect was announced, and she entered, pre- 
ceded by the five lights of the Lodge and escorted by the In- 
spectress, Depositress, Oratrix, and Mistress of Ceremonies. 
Mons. J. S. Boubee, the Master of the Lodge La Jerusalem des 
Vallees Egyptiennes, conducted her to the altar, where, having 
installed her into office and handed her a mallet as the symbol of 
authority, he addressed her in a copy of verses, whose merit will 
hardly claim for them a repetition. 

To this she made a suitable reply, and the Lodge then 
proceeded to the reception of a young lady, a part of the 
ceremony of which is thus described: 

Of the various trials of virtue and fortitude to which she was 
subjected, there was one which made a deep impression, not only 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 43 

on the fair recipient, but on the whole assembled company. Four 
boxes were placed, one before each of the male officers ; the can- 
didate was told to open them, which she did and from the first 
and second drew faded flowers and soiled ribbons and laces, which 
being placed in an open vessel were instantly consumed by fire, 
as an emblem of the brief duration of such objects; from the third 
she drew an apron, a blue silk scarf, and a pair of gloves, and 
from the fourth a basket containing the working tools in silver 
gilt. She was then conducted to the altar, where, on opening the 
fifth box, several birds which had been confined in it escaped, 
which was intended to teach her that liberty is a condition to 
which all men are entitled, and of which no one can be deprived 
without injustice. After having taken the vow, she was in- 
structed in the modes of recognition, and having been clothed 
with the apron, scarf, and gloves, and presented with the imple- 
ments of the Order, she received from the Grand Mistress an 
esoteric explanation of all these emblems and ceremonies. Ad- 
dresses were subsequently delivered by the Orator and Oratrix, 
and an ode was sung, the poor or alms box was handed around, 
and the labors of the Lodge were then closed. 

Madame Moreau lived only six months to enjoy the 
honors of presiding officer of the Adoptive Rite, for she 
died of a pulmonary affection at an early age, on the nth 
of the succeeding January. 

The Lodge of Adoption in which Lady Morgan re- 
ceived the degrees at Paris, in the year 1819, was called 
La Belle et Bonne. This was the pet name which long 
before had been bestowed by Voltaire on his favorite, the 
Marchioness de Villette, under whose presidency and at 
whose residence at Fauberg St. Germaine, the Lodge 
was held, and hence the name with which all France, or 
at least all Paris, was familiarly acquainted as the pop- 
ular designation of Madame de Villette. 

Lady Morgan, in her description of the Masonic fete, 



44 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

says that when she arrived at the Hotel de Villette, 
where the Lodge was held, she found a large concourse 
of distinguished persons ready to take part in the cere- 
monies. Among these were Prince Paul of Wurtem- 
berg, the Count de Cazes, elsewhere distinguished in 
Masonry, the celebrated Denon, the Bishop of Jerusalem, 
and the illustrious actor, Talma. The business of the 
evening commenced with the installation of the officers 
of a sister Lodge, after which the candidates were ad- 
mitted. Lady Morgan describes the arrangements as 
presenting, when the doors were opened, a spectacle of 
great magnificence. A profusion of crimson and gold, 
marble busts, a decorated throne and altar, an abundance 
of flowers, and incense of the finest odor which filled the 
air, gave to the whole a most dramatic and scenic effect. 
Music of the grandest character mingled its harmony 
with the mysteries of initiation, which lasted for two 
hours, and when the lodge was closed, there was an 
adjournment to the hall of refreshments which was 
opened by the Grand Mistress with Prince Paul of 
Wurtemberg. Lady Morgan, upon whose mind the 
ceremony seems to have made an impression, makes one 
remark worthy of consideration: "That so many wo- 
men," she says, "young and beautiful and worldly, 
should never have revealed the secret, is among the mir- 
acles which the much distrusted sex are capable of work- 
ing." In fidelity to the vow of secrecy, the female 
Masons of the Adoptive Rite have proved themselves 
fully equal to their brethren of the legitimate Order. 

Notwithstanding that Adoptive Masonry has found an 
advocate in no less distinguished writer than Chemin 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 45 

Dupontes, who, in the Encyclopedic Maconnique, calls it 
"a luxury in Masonry, and a pleasant relaxation which 
cannot do any harm to the true mysteries which are prac- 
ticed by men alone,'' it has been very generally con- 
demned by the most celebrated French, German, English, 
and American Masons. 

Gaedicke, in the Frcimauer Lexicon, speaks slighting- 
ly of it as established on insufficient grounds, and ex- 
presses his gratification that the system no longer exists 
in Germany. 

Thory, in his History of the Foundation of the Grand 
Orient, says that the introduction of Adoptive Lodges 
was a consequence of the relaxation of Masonic disci- 
pline; and he asserts that the permitting of women to 
share in mysteries which should exclusively belong to 
men is not in accordance with the essential principles of 
the Masonic Order. The Abbe Robin, the author of an 
able work entitled Recherches sur les Initiations An- 
ciennes et Modernes, maintains that the custom of admit- 
ting women into Masonic assemblies will perhaps be, at 
some future period, the cause of the decline of Masonry 
in France. The prediction is not, however, likely to 
come to pass; for while legitimate Masonry has never 
been more popular or prosperous in France than it is at 
this day, it is the Lodges of Adoption that appear to have 
declined. 

Other writers in other countries have spoken in sim- 
ilar terms, so that it is beyond a doubt that the general 
sentiment of the Fraternity is against this system of fe- 
male Masonry. 

Lenning is, however, more qualified in his condemna- 



46 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

tion, and says, in his Encyclopadie der Freimaurerei, that 
while leaving it undecided whether it is prudent to hold 
assemblies of women with ceremonies which are called 
Masonic, yet it is not to be denied that in these female 
Lodges a large amount of charity has been done. 

Adoptive Masonry has its literature, although neither 
extensive nor important, as it comprises only books of 
songs, addresses, and rituals. Of the latter, the most 
valuable are : i. La Maconnerie les Femmes, published 
in 1775, and containing only the first three degrees, for 
such was the system when recognized by the Grand Ori- 
ent of France in that year. 2. La Vraie Maconnerie de 
Adoption, published in 1787. This work, which is by 
Guillemain de St. Victor, is perhaps the best that has 
been published on the subject of the Adoptive Rite, and 
is the first that introduces the fourth degree, of which 
Guillemain is supposed to be the inventor, since all previ- 
ous rituals include only the three degrees. 3. Macon- 
nerie de' Adoption pour les Femmes, contained in the 
second part of E. J. Chappron's Necessaire Maconnique, 
and printed in Paris in 181 7. This is valuable because 
it contains the fifth degree. 4. La Franc-Maconnerie 
des Femnies. This work, which is by Charles Monselet, 
is of no value as a ritual, being simply a tale founded 
upon circumstances connected with Adoptive Masonry. 

In Italy, the Carbonari, or "Wood-Burners,'' a secret 
political society, imitated the Freemasons of France in 
instituting an Adoptive Rite attached to their own asso- 
ciation. Hence, an Adoptive Lodge was founded at 
Naples in the beginning of this century, over which pre- 
sided that friend of Masonry, Queen Caroline, the wife 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 47 

of Ferdinand 11. The members were styled Giardiniere, 
or Female Gardeners ; and they called each other Cugine, 
or Female Cousins, in imitation of the Carbonari, who 
were recognized as Buoni Cugini, or Good Cousins. 
The Lodges of Giardiniere flourished as long as the 
Grand Lodge of Carbonari existed at Naples. 

The Rite of Adoption as practiced on the continent of 
Europe, and especially France, has never been intro- 
duced into America. The system does not accord with 
the manners or habits of the people, and undoubtedly 
never would become popular. But Dr. Rob Morris in- 
troduced in 1850 the "Eastern Star" which he had in- 
vented. No trace of the existence of the ''Eastern Star'' 
as now practiced, and the history of which we now are 
trying to bring before the individual members of this 
Order, can be found to exist before that originated by 
Dr. Morris during the period of his convalescence from 
an attack of rheumatism, the early part of February, 
1850, while residing at Jackson, Mississippi. This ele- 
gant and attractive system, after varied fortunes, dissen- 
sions, oppositions, rivalries, and detractions through this 
entire period of sixty-six years, has outlived calumny 
and abuse, and stands today one of the great successes 
of the Masonic theory. 

The portion of the Bible upon which the theory of the 
first degree is founded points to Judges xi :2g-40. The 
impressive history of that excellent woman instructs us 
in Obedience, the virtue of which is particularly culti- 
vated in this degree, it being the degree of Obedience or 
Jephthah's Daughter — called for want of any special 
name, Adah. 



48 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The first lesson taught in this Order is Obedience. 
We are bade to remember the poor and afflicted. The 
most encouraging sign that the Order is growing is the 
interest and aspiration among the members. It is in- 
deed deHghtful to know that today our ambitions blend 
in a desire to be mutually helpful to each other ; that we 
stand together in offensive and defensive alliance, actu- 
ated by purest motives, to do good to the largest number 
of men and women. Its organization has in every way 
been beneficial to Masonry. Why should it not ? Who 
are eligible to membership in this Order ? Your brother 
Masons ; your mothers who gave you birth ; your sisters, 
companions of sweet childhood days ; she who left father 
and mother and knelt with you at matrimony's altar; 
and the daughters who brought joy to your hearts and 
sunshine to your homes. 

The Order of the Eastern Star is full of intrinsic ex- 
cellence, and it will eventually work its way through the 
entire universe. Astronomically speaking, the most re- 
markable conjunction of planets — that of Jupiter and 
Saturn in the constellation Pisces, which occurs only 
once in 800 years — did take place no less than three times 
in the year 2 B.C., or two years before the birth of Christ 
(in May, October, and December). This conjunction 
is admitted by all astronomers. It was not only extra- 
ordinary, but presented the most brilliant spectacle in the 
night sky, such as could not but attract the attention of 
all who watched the sidereal heavens, but especially of 
those who studied astrology. In the year following, 
I B.C., another planet. Mars, joined this conjunction. 
The great astronomer Kepler observed a similar con- 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 49 

junction in 1603- 1604, also noticed that when the three 
planets came into conjunction a new, extraordinarily 
brilliant and peculiarly colored evanescent star was vis- 
ible between Jupiter and Saturn. A Star of this Order 
is a visible ornament to society and to humanity, pro- 
vided the member is a devout worshiper of the principles 
of her profession. It is pleasing to note that the ani- 
mated Stars who have been admitted to membership at 
this date (191 3) now number 665,246, and we believe 
that they are all sincere to their vows and that their lives 
are made pleasant and their opportunities for doing good 
are enhanced through their associations. 

There is one point, however, that deserves specializa- 
tion, and that is the interest manifested. To be a bril- 
liant Star we must be enthusiastic in the behef that our 
cause is a just one, then we must implicitly follow the 
regulations, so that our record may entitle us to the ap- 
pellation of a Star. Where there is a lack of interest the 
significance of the Star is disregarded, but where fol- 
lowed up in a career of usefulness, in a constant desire 
to upbuild the Order, and in a system of self-improve- 
ment leading to the desire to be a zealous Star, then is 
the benefit apparent. Let the word Star, so commonly 
used as referring to the members of the Eastern Star, 
be one of power as representing a vast concourse of 
people, all actuated by the same desire to add pleasures 
and advantages, with a firm determination to scatter 
seeds of kindness and helpfulness through all the walks 
of life. 

During the period which intervened from 1850, the 
date of the origination of our Order by Dr. Rob Morris, 



50 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

until the year 1855, it would appear that the degrees of 
the Order had been communicated, in lecture form, to 
those entitled to receive them. Dr. Morris was a great 
traveler and wherever he attended Masonic meetings, he 
invited, at least once, the Masonic brethren with their 
wives together in a joint meeting and conferred the de- 
grees of the ''Eastern Star'' to all those desiring to re- 
ceive them. 

In 1855 Dr. Morris published his ritual, which he 
called The Mosaic Book of the American Adoptive Rite, 
which appeared in three parts. Part I was given to the 
general instructions for the conducting of the "Constella- 
tions'' as they were termed by this book. Part II, the 
Ritual, which is given elsewhere. Part III, which gives 
the constitution and by-laws for the guidance of the Con- 
stellations and was published by the authority of the 
Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite. 

The original object of the Order was to enable the 
female relatives of Master Masons to make themselves 
known as such, communicating to them secret signs and 
passes by which they would be enabled to make them- 
selves known to each other. But it has far outgrown 
this original idea, having acquired a much broader view 
of the usefulness to which the Order may be developed 
and has become a vast army of co-laborers with the great 
brotherhood in its work of beneficence and to pay the 
tribute of love and labor at the shrine of loving effort in 
the direction of helpfulness to the orphan and helpless. 
Often are the Stars found leading in movements to estab- 
lish Eastern Star and Masonic homes, uniting with the 
Masonic Craft or caring alone for its sick and needy, 
burying with touching ritualistic services the bodies of 



ORIGIN OF THE ORDER 51 

its dead, as well as remembering with flowers and 
loving ceremonies the names of the departed. In some 
of the States the principal object toward which they 
are striving is an Eastern Star home, in others they 
are working in a cooperating manner with the Masonic 
Fraternity for the erection and maintenance of homes 
open to both Orders. All this establishes, without the 
possibility of a doubt, the value of one great army of 
women and men, united in this work of benevolence, to 
promote the higher development of humanity within the 
territory where this work is established, which will be 
well-nigh universal within the next decade. 




CHAPTER II 

Biography of Rob Morris, LL.D} 

THE effort to give a true history of the Order of the 
Eastern Star has many times been attempted by 
those who wish this story retained in its perfection, and 
these articles have differed so much in the essential facts, 
that using the words of St. Luke, "I too, set forth my 
declaration as a living witness'' as from the first incep- 
tion of the Eastern Star to its now crowning glory. As 
St. Luke says : "It seemed good to me also, having had 
perfect understanding of all things from the very first, 
to write unto thee," etc. 

So little is known by the majority of the members of 
the Eastern Star as to its origin and early history, that 
to give all the facts, though appearing trivial to many 
readers, it is essential to add the early life and character 
of its founder, Rob Morris, LL.D. 

As the son of this illustrious author, Rob Morris, Jr., 
passed through every event in the history of the Eastern 
Star. He served as his father's amanuensis for many 
years, handling the most of his correspondence on this 
as well as other matters. 

Dr. Rob Morris, the author and founder of the Order 
of the Eastern Star and its rituals, was born near Boston, 
Massachusetts, August 31, 18 18. His parents were 

1 From official data furnished by Rob. Morris, son of the founder 
of the O. E. S., Past Grand Patron of Kentucky. 







^.i "4 



J-^K-Kl^ 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 53 

teachers and for the first ten years of his earHer man- 
hood he followed the same profession. His mother was 
left a widow with a young family, of which he was the 
oldest. As was the tendency of many, he drifted from 
the New England States to the South. Being wholly de- 
pendent on his own efforts for a scant living, his first 
misfortune met him on this new field of adventure, early 
in life. 

While enroute to his southern home, the steamer on 
which he was traveling was burned and though many 
lives were lost. Dr. Morris escaped with his life, but lost 
all his books, papers, and his additional wearing apparel. 
Making his way to Memphis, after a hard struggle and 
weeks of travel which was attended by difficulties that 
would have caused many of a less determined character 
to turn back, he reached Oxford, Mississippi, and after 
a short time secured a position in a school near that city. 
There he met Miss Charlotte Mendenhall, whose par- 
ents resided near that place, and they were married 
August 26, 1 841. In i860 Dr. Morris removed to La 
Grange, Kentucky, where he passed his remaining years 
until his death in 1888. 

It was but a short time after he arrived at Oxford that 
Dr. Morris was elected president of the Mount Sylvan 
Academy, near Oxford, which responsible position 
seemed to be the beginning of his brilliant career. 

Through the means of the great amount of labor done 
by him and the excellence of that work, Dr. Morris's 
name became familiar to all Masons throughout this 
country and to distant parts of the Masonic world. 

He was a very large contributor to many Masonic 
periodicals, and a number of newspapers and magazines. 



54 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Throughout the world the name of the second Poet 
Laureate of Freemasonry is known and loved next to the 
Order itself. 

Among the members of the Masonic Order who were 
poets, were Thomas Moore, Sir Walter Scott, James 
Hogg, Ferguson, George P. Morris, Percival, Robert 
Burns, Duganne, Shilliber, Lamartine, Cowper, and 
others, yet all together they have written very few Ma- 
sonic poems. Percival and George P. Morris wrote two 
each, Robert Burns, one, the greatest of them all except 
Rob Morris's poems, while all the others named did 
not write any. 

Over one hundred years ago, in the year 1787, Robert 
Burns was crowned with the laurel wreath in Cannon- 
gate, Kilwilling Lodge No. 2, of Edinburgh, Scotland, 
which crowning signified his elevation to the station of 
the first Poet Laureate of Freemasonry. This was for 
one poem he wrote and he was the first to be so crowned. 
Upon his death, no one was deemed worthy to assume 
the high station until Dr. Rob Morris was so selected 
through the expressed wish of over 500,000 Masons 
throughout all the world, as the second Poet Laureate 
of Freemasonry. 

The coronation took place in New York City on De- 
cember 17, 1884, in the presence of several thousand 
Masons who attended, many of them from distant points 
of the compass, merely to witness the event. It was, in 
a double sense, the crowning point of a wondrous and 
useful life. 

Following the death of Dr. Morris in 1888, the va- 
cancy caused by his death was not filled until Right 
Worshipful Brother Fay Hempstead, of Little Rock, 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 55 

Arkansas, was coronated the third Poet Laureate of 
Freemasonry on October 5, 1908, in Ravenswood Lodge 
No. yjT, at Medinah Temple, Chicago, lUinois. 

It was the prediction of the venerable and learned 
Salem Towne, LL.D., a Mason of great prominence and 
an expounder of its grandest themes, that "Brother 
Morris's fame as a poet will outlast his memory as a 
writer in prose." 

Dr. Rob Morris began his Masonic career at Oxford, 
Mississippi, under the tutelage of Hon. J. M. Howry, 
Grand Master of that State, a thorough Mason and 
learned in Masonic lore, and a man who took a special 
interest in Dr. Morris, and up to the time of his death 
was numbered as a true friend and adviser. Often in 
my boyhood days I have met Brother Howry at father's 
home, and listened to his wise counsels with more than 
an ordinary interest. On one occasion, after arriving 
at manhood. Brother Howry made it a point to call on 
me at my home in Nashville, Tennessee, and reminded 
me of many events in the life of my father, which are to 
be made a portion of this article. 

From Brother Howry I learned much of the opposi- 
tion in many of the States to the introduction of the 
Eastern Star, and the censure heaped upon Dr. Morris 
by many Masons. Brother Howry always took the part 
of Dr. Morris and his influence aided in counteracting 
the storm of abuse which from its beginning was con- 
demned by the Craft in general. 

Many were the sneers Dr. Morris received from what 
they termed "Morris's Petticoat Masonry." Disapproval 
was manifest, critics were severe, and threats were made 
to bring the author before his Lodge and warn him 
against further presenting his female Masonry. 



56 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Notwithstanding all this, Dr. Morris continued to 
write, lecture, and confer his favorite "Star'' on all who 
desired it when same were eligible. Being Grand Lec- 
turer of Kentucky and Tennessee, this gave him vast 
opportunities which otherwise he would not have en- 
joyed, to lead his favorite Eastern Star to success. 

Dr. Morris was a man of the most sensitive tempera- 
ment and many a cruel cut from the Masonic Brother- 
hood pained him severely; yet, feeling he was right, his 
faith in the justice of his claims never forsook him, but 
only spurred him on to greater exertions, determined 
that the Masonic world would yet recognize the great 
good to the wives, mothers, daughters, and sisters of the 
many left to their charge. 

After a few years spent in Mississippi, Dr. Morris 
moved to Lodgeton, Fulton County, Kentucky. There 
he commenced the publication of The American Pree- 
mason, which was a magazine of wide circulation, both 
in this and foreign countries. Though strictly a Ma- 
sonic paper, it gave him a large field for promoting the 
Eastern Star by placing it fully before the Craft, and 
using arguments in this paper to an incredulous Brother- 
hood. He often remarked that it was the most tedious 
work of his life trying to convince the Masons that it, in 
the end, would work for their good. In all his labors 
for the Eastern Star he never accepted any form of re- 
muneration, having resolved from the start that it should 
be given ''without money and without price" to the 
female members of the families of the great Masonic 
Order. 

Out of more than three hundred pieces that make up 
his poetical collections, there are many of rarest delicacy 




Rob. Morris 

i'ast Grand Patron of Kentucky, son of the 
Founder of the Order 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 57 

and beauty. His poetical labors extended over every 
class of thought proper to the theme. Very many were 
written to be accompanied by music, and so have entered 
into festival, funeral, and work meetings; some to be 
recited with emblematic accompaniments. The greater 
portion were composed while going in stage coach, rail- 
way carriage, on steamboats, on horseback, and at Low 
XII hours after lodge meetings. 

It would seem that no man could perform the amount 
of labor accomplished by Dr. Morris, unless he preserved 
all his faculties intact and attained nearly the number of 
years allotted to Methuselah. Yet that work was all 
done, unassisted, by Dr. Morris, and the spring of in- 
spiration which promoted it lay in the one source, "ambi- 
tion.'' 

When this ambition was gratified with his coronation 
as Poet Laureate, he ceased his labors and dwelt nearly 
four years in the quiet lull before death came to claim 
him for its own. In speaking of him, a number of 
Masons, among the most eminent in the land, said that 
he was one of the greatest Masonic Poets and prose writ- 
ers and also one of the greatest Masons that had ever 
lived. 

In fact, there have been few men who ever lived who 
have done more work with the pen for publication than 
Dr. Morris. The work he has done would seem too 
stupendous for any one man to perform in a lifetime, yet 
he has done it, and well. He has not only written all 
these works, songs, hymns, poems, addresses, and essays, 
but furthermore he has done such other minor literary 
work as would require a couple of columns additional 
merely to enumerate. 



58 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

It is of course chiefly as a writer that Dr. Morris is 
known to the Masonic world. He was not only the uni- 
versally accepted Poet Laureate of Masonry, but in addi- 
tion to this his prose works are of the first rank in Ma- 
sonic literature. He wrote extensively on the subject of 
Masonic jurisprudence, produced several rituals and 
handbooks, many fugitive pieces, edited some Masonic 
journals, and published an important book of travel and 
research. Free Masonry in the Holy Land, which ap- 
peared in 1872. 

The Masons of this country raised between $9,000 and 
$10,000 as a fund to enable Dr. Morris to make his jour- 
ney to the original seat of Masonry. He went to the 
Orient in 1868 and traveled very extensively there and 
in Europe. His researches confirmed many traditions 
as to Masonry, and enabled the author to contribute 
much valuable evidence as to the truth of what was be- 
fore then little more than conjecture. Being learned in 
Masonic lore, the inscriptions, coins, and customs of the 
people among whom he journeyed often had a meaning 
for him which was not apparent to others. His trip to 
the Holy Land discovered abundant testimony as to the 
great age of Masonry. His book is dedicated to His 
Excellency, Mohammed Raschid, Governor-General of 
Syria and Palestine, who was an eminent Mason. 

A profound admiration for the Bible, as the only in- 
spired book in Masonry, led Dr. Morris early in his 
career to propose the exploration of the lands of the Bible 
in the interests of the Order. In 1854 the Grand Lodge 
of Kentucky entered into the plan, and proffered a loan 
sufficient for the cost, but circumstances at that time for- 
bade the journey. It was still, however, a favorite 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 59 

theme in his lectures and writings, and in 1867 he visited 
one hundred and thirty lodges, chiefly in the northern 
States, and proposed to them that he would donate the 
necessary time and labor if they would undertake the 
cost. The response was a practical one, for 3,782 breth- 
ren clubbed together to supply the necessary means. 

He set out February 2, 1868; addressed the lodges at 
Smyrna, upon the way, on February 25th, and reached 
Beyrout, Syria, March 3rd. At Damascus, through the 
influence of Brother E. T. Rodgers, H. B. M. consul there 
(and Master at the time of Lebanon Lodge at Beyrout), 
he made the Masonic acquaintance of the governor-gen- 
eral and of General Abdel Kader. He delivered addresses 
before the members of the Masonic Fraternity in Da- 
mascus, Beyrout, Joppa, and Jerusalem. In the latter 
city he opened a Lodge of Instruction, May 13th, which, 
five years afterwards, culminated in the Royal Solomon 
Mother Lodge, No. 293, of which he was first Master. 
He reached home early in August. The results of his 
industrious researches are seen in the large volume en- 
titled Freemasonry in Holy Land. At Jerusalem he 
made the personal acquaintance of that learned and zeal- 
ous explorer, Captain Warren, himself a member of the 
Masonic Brotherhood. This oriental lodge has main- 
tained a distinct and honorable existence, and has become 
the mother of a group of lodges in Palestine and the cen- 
ter of a Grand Lodge in Jerusalem. 

Dr. Morris made a second trip to Europe in 1878, 
at which time he was especially noticed by the Prince 
of Wales, who, being a Mason, departed from his habit 
of non-attendance so far as to attend lodge in London, 
and then to follow him to Oxford to attend lodge there, 
while Dr. Morris was at those places lecturing. 



60 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Dr. Morris was ''brought to Masonic light'' as the 
phrase is, in Oxford, Mississippi, March 5, 1846, when 
he joined Gathright Lodge No. 33. At that time he was 
principal of the Mount Sylvan Academy, near Oxford. 
He at once became deeply interested in the subject of 
Masonry, and his progress thereafter was notable. 

He was exalted to the degree of Royal Arch in Lex- 
ington, Mississippi, in 1848; accepted as Royal and Select 
Master in 1849; inade a Knight Templar at Jackson, 
Mississippi, in 1850; received the Scottish Rite degrees 
to the thirty-second degree in 1854. He received the 
Rite of Memphis, so far as the ninetieth degree, in New 
York, in 1864, ^'^^ the Encampment Order of English 
Templary in Canada, in 1857. He also received a very 
large number of the honorary appendages to Masonry, 
such as the three official orders of Royal Arch Masonry, 
Past Eminent Commander, Past Grand Commander, 
Grand High Priest, Past Grand Commander-in-Chief 
32°. The Masonic and Military Orders of the Knights 
of Rome, and the Red Cross of Constantine were com- 
municated to him in 1857, and afterwards in 1873. 

The Order of Past Grand Master was given to him at 
his installation as Grand Master of Kentucky, in 1858, 
the Hon. Henry Wingate, Past Grand Master, presiding. 
Among his honorary degrees and complimentary mem- 
berships, which were nearly one hundred and fifty in 
number, that of Past Deputy Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of Canada was chiefly prized. 

Dr. Morris was a member of Fortitude Lodge No. 47, 
at La Grange, Kentucky, and of the Eminence Royal 
Arch Chapter. He was also a member of the Louisville 
Commandery No. i, Knights Templars, and was Past 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 61 

Grand Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Consistory of 
Kentucky, 32°. 

He was the originator of a large number of special 
features, among them the most superior degrees of 
"Ladies' Masonry." The most popular of these is the 
Order of the Eastern Star, composed and communicated 
by him in 1850. 

In 1847 the degree of the "Heroine of Jericho," which 
is a degree conferred only on Royal Arch Masons, their 
wives and daughters, was conferred upon Dr. Morris 
and his wife by William H. Stevens, and from that cere- 
mony Dr. Morris acquired his taste for adrogynous de- 
grees. He says: "From the pe^^iod of my initiation 
into Masonry I had entertained the desire of introducing 
the female relatives of Masons into closer relationship 
with the Order. Through the immense influence of 
women, so much might be done to bring the perform- 
ances of Freemasons nearer their professions." 

Among a certain class of mankind an opinion prevails, 
somewhat prejudicial to the character of women, which 
should be refuted by every liberal and high-minded 
Mason who wishes to give justice where it is merited. 
The opinion disseminates the false and erroneous views 
that their minds are not as susceptible of cultivation and 
improvement as man's — that woman is deficient in in- 
tellectual powers, and does not possess those acute per- 
ceptions which man boasts and claims as being inherently 
his by nature. 

Who among us who have witnessed the deliberations 
in the Grand Chapters, and the General Grand Chapter 
of the Order of the Eastern Star, where woman presides 
in all her strength and beauty, with tact and knowledge, 



62 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

but will refute this idea as one entirely absurd and un- 
just. In some respects it may be said that man is wo- 
man's superior; in others, he is unquestionably her 
inferior; and when the claims of each are summed up 
and weighed in the scale of impartial justice, very little 
difference will be found to exist between them. Her 
feelings are more acute, her sensibilities are more refined, 
and she shines resplendent with luster as a beacon light 
on the lofty pinnacle of virtue. She shines as conspicu- 
ous in her private and domestic places as she does in the 
public walks of life, and next to the supreme excellency 
of the Christian religion, the example and softening in- 
fluence of female virtue restrain and in a great measure 
regulate man's conduct in leading him to right and truth. 

Dr. Rob Morris, the founder of the Order of the East- 
ern Star, had all this in view when he realized the wrongs 
placed upon women, and in the formation of this beauti- 
ful Order he could see in the distant future his hopes 
realized, and women could then be placed in that sphere 
of beauty and grandeur to which she of right belongs. 

Women cannot be made Masons. This is a rule that 
has been handed down with other rules of Masonry for 
thousands of years. All Masons are pledged to this, 
therefore they cannot invite women to their lodges, but 
they can and do and will share in all the solid privileges 
and benefits of Masonry, and thus in "Our Star" prac- 
tically unite in this great, this glorious, this heavenly 
work of doing good. 

Dr. Rob Morris builded better than he knew. 
Genial, earnest, faithful Rob Morris. To have known 
him was a pleasure long recalled ; to have listened to his 
folk-lore of Masonry in prose and verse, was delightful 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 63 

beyond comparison. Just such a gentle spirit, and only 
such as he, could have originated the ''Eastern Star." 
There remains no shadow of a doubt but that to Dr. Rob 
Morris the American women — and women in general — 
owe a debt of gratitude for an Order founded upon the 
Holy Scriptures and Jesus Christ, to whose Star none 
other ever shone so bright. 

The oldest daughter of Dr. Rob Morris painted the 
first signet and at this writing (191 6) that signet now 
adorns the parlor of Mr. Robert Morris, Jr., Past Grand 
Patron of Kentucky, in his home at Franklin, Kentucky. 
It had the five pointed star, the cabalistic word and motto, 
and also titles applied to Jesus from the beginning of 
Genesis to the end of Revelations. She also painted a 
set of plates in a similar manner, which are still in the 
possession of the Morris family. 

While the Morris family were residents of Jackson, 
Mississippi, in 1850, while ill with an attack of rheuma- 
tism. Dr. Rob Morris produced the beautiful system of 
the Order of the Eastern Star. A complete statement 
of the details of the work is given elsewhere in this vol- 
ume in Dr. Morris's own words left by him to be handed 
down to the world after he was gone. 

On March 6, 1854, Dr. Rob Morris purchased eighty 
acres of land at Lodgeton, Fulton County, Kentucky, 
upon which he proceeded to erect a dwelling for his fam- 
ily. This house was built of substantially hewn logs. 
On either side of a wide hall there is a spacious room, 
both up and down stairs. A portico with pillars orna- 
ments and enhances the comfort of the front portion, 
while an L adds to the size and convenience of the rear. 
The house has since been weather boarded. It stands 



64 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

on a slight eminence that gradually slopes to the high- 
way that was intended for the principal street of Lodge- 
ton. Stately oaks and elms tower above the cedars, with 
creepers running at random over the fences and bodies 
of trees and adding to the picturesqueness of the home 
where "the Poet Laureate of Freemasonry/' originator 
of the ''Eastern Star/' penned those immortal lines, "The 
Level and the Square/' This beautiful Masonic poem 
which was written while he was living in this home at 
Lodgeton, has been published by the million copies, and 
is recognized as one of the brightest gems of Masonic 
poetry that has yet been given to the Masonic world. 
This poem has been compared to Robert Burns's produc- 
tion, "Farewell to Tarbolton Lodge," which poem was 
the one production of his pen which won for Robert 
Burns the honor of having conferred upon him the laurel 
wreath which crowned him "Poet Laureate of Free- 
masonry" many years previous to the time that Dr. Rob 
Morris was so honored. 

On the upper side of this house, at the end of a shady 
avenue of forest trees, stood the neat little office where 
all the business was transacted with his numerous callers. 
A postoffice and several stores, together with a black- 
smith shop and a few dwellings, completed the visible 
portion of Lodgeton. Ever an advocate and a promoter 
of culture, the part of the enterprise nearest Dr. Morris's 
heart was the establishment and thorough equipment of 
a first class school; the necessary means, however, not 
being at command, the plan ever remained in embryo. 

A half mile away from Lodgeton stands Union 
Church, where Sunday after Sunday Dr. Morris lectured 
to an admiring audience and devoted congregation of 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 65 

Kentucky and Tennessee citizens. He was never regu- 
larly installed as pastor, but filled the pulpit at the solici- 
tation of his numerous friends of various denominations. 
The Masonic Lodge that he organized met in the second 
story of the church building and to this Lodge room Dr. 
Morris carried his family organ, which was then the only 
one in the neighborhood. The instrument was placed in 
his buggy, where his wife took her seat to hold it steady, 
while Dr. Morris led the horse to insure an even gait 
and avoid jostling. In this Lodge room, his conferring 
the Eastern Star degrees on the ladies and brethren en- 
titled to them, was always a pleasing part of the pro- 
gram. 

Many years have passed since Dr. Morris preached in 
Union meeting house. The old church has given place 
to a neat white frame house of worship that stands in 
the same spot. A few of those who as elderly men and 
women sound forth God's promises in song, recall with 
a sense of unforgotten pleasure the days when as youths 
and maidens, or youthful maidens and young men, they 
listened to Rob Morris. 

"I would have ridden ten miles any day," said one old 
man, "to hear Dr. Rob Morris read a chapter from the 
Bible. I have never heard a man read Scripture as Dr. 
Morris read. There," said he, pointing to a country 
burying ground, "is the cemetery Rob Morris dedicated. 
When we saw the funeral lamps burning, which he said 
represented life in death, and heard him speak of the 
resurrection of these frail bodies, some of us, at least, 
felt that we could well nigh face death itself with him 
near by to encourage us with his hopeful and trusting 
words." 



66 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

A man of fewer years, who had heard the last words 
of this aged speaker, added : "Dr. Rob Morris may not 
have been considered an accomplished and magnetic 
speaker by the world at large, but to us he was an inter- 
preter and prophet of good things. My judgment at the 
time was immature, but I do not believe I overestimate 
him in saying that in general knowledge, in nobility and 
expression of features, in voice, and in all the require- 
ments for fascinating an audience. Dr. Morris had few 
superiors. His memory was a storehouse of historical 
facts, of anecdotes and stories, and he was instructive 
and fascinating. His power over the minds of the people 
in this section was unquestionably greater than any other 
man's has ever been within my memory." 

A few years after leaving Fulton County, Dr. Morris 
started on his great Eastern tour, at which time he vis- 
ited almost every lodge in Europe and Asia. No strong- 
er proof of the love and trust reposed in him by his fellow 
Masons could have been given than the promptness and 
unanimity with which they responded to his appeal for 
raising the necessary funds for his journey. Dr. Morris 
proposed, upon his return, to publish an account of his 
travels and researches, which was published under the 
titles of Travels in the Holy Land and Freemasonry in 
the Holy Land. In addition to a copy of this work, he 
volunteered to furnish every person assisting him to the 
amount of ten dollars, a certain number of curios from 
the Holy Land. These conditions were faithfully ful- 
filled. 

Dr. Morris honored Freemasonry, also the Order of 
the Eastern Star by his pure life, his learning, and his 
piety. He well merited the honor conferred upon him 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. Q 

by the Masons of America and the Masonic world, at 
the Masonic Temple, New York, on Wednesday, Decem- 
ber 17, 1884, when he was crowned "Poet Laureate of 
Freemasonry." Robert Burns, Dr. Rob Morris, and 
Fay Hempstead are the only individuals upon whom this 
honor has ever been conferred. 

A former Grand Master, who witnessed the corona- 
tion of Dr. Morris as Poet Laureate of Freemasonry, 
said : "The laureation with its ceremonies and exercises 
constituted one of the most beautiful and impressive 
episodes in the modern history of the Craft.'' In this 
laureation the New York Grand Lodge, which is the 
largest Grand Lodge in the world except that of Eng- 
land, took the initiative. This was the crowning event 
of the long and useful life which Dr. Morris had spent 
so laboriously in the interests of Masonry and the East- 
ern Star. He had given to the world over three hundred 
Masonic lyrics and seventy-four volumes of Masonic lit- 
erature, more than fifty Eastern Star poems and a num- 
ber of volumes designed to perfect the Order which he 
had originated. 

Dr. Morris wrote the original ritual of the Order of 
the Eastern Star while living at Jackson, Mississippi, in 
the early part of the year 1850. Upon completing the 
same, he invited a neighboring Mason and his wife to 
join them and he communicated the degrees to those 
three — Mrs. Morris and the Mason and his wife — who 
were the first recipients of the degrees which have since 
been given to many thousand persons who have seen the 
signs, heard the words, exchanged the touch, and joined 
in the music of the Eastern Star. Early in the history 
of the Order, it was communicated to a great many per- 



68 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

sons and a number of "Constellations," as the original 
organization was called, established in different States. 
The ritual was afterwards rewritten and simplified. 

Coming now to the middle of "The Constellations," as 
was then given, the first era of the Eastern Star begin- 
ning to shine with feeble light, encouraged Dr. Morris 
to the point of organizing a chapter, which he did and 
styled it Purity Chapter No. i, near his residence at 
Lodgeton, Fulton County, Kentucky. 

Forming a little company of some ten or fifteen of his 
Masonic neighbors and the female members of their fam- 
ilies, they proceeded to the old Union Church, one-half 
mile distant, to the Lodge room in the second story of 
this building. The meeting was opened by a most fer- 
vent prayer, asking the aid of heaven in all their under- 
takings, and blessings on their present convocation, and 
all future acts to meet with the approval of the Grand 
Architect of the Universe, until "time shall be no more." 
Thus we have the records of the first chapter of the 
Order of the Eastern Star. 

As the author of the system, and by virtue of this fact, 
the office of Grand Patron belonged to him; this office 
he conveyed to Brother Robert Macoy of New York in 
1868, prior to taking his trip to the Holy Land in the 
interests of Masonry. 

To advance and elevate humanity was the controlling 
motive in everything that Dr. Rob Morris did. It seems 
very natural, therefore, that he should be unwilling to 
preach the gospel of brotherly love, relief, and truth to 
but one-half of mankind. To enlarge the privileges and 
usefulness of women and to raise her to a higher plane, 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 69 

was an idea that early took deep root in his mind, and 
to the consummation of this work he appHed himself. 

In the progress of human events, the Order of the 
Eastern Star has been and will continue to be an impor- 
tant factor. An Order professing the tenets taught in 
the lectures of the Eastern Star, with its vast member- 
ship, could not help but be a power for good, and its in- 
fluence has been such. This beautiful Order stands as 
a monument to female secrecy and fidelity; and may it 
ever shine to illumine woman's pathway until time shall 
be no more. History has finally settled itself and be- 
come a written page — Dr. Rob Morris stands without 
a peer in Masonic and Eastern Star work. That he was 
the author of various standard books of Freemasonry 
proves his capability to originate an Order to be auxil- 
iary to the Masonic body, and it is a great joy and 
blessing that he brought the Order of the Eastern 
Star into a living and lasting possibility. Every mem- 
ber of the Order should especially cherish his memory, 
for it is to him they owe the very existence of the Order. 
His fertile brain, fluent tongue, and ready pen brought 
this Order into being, and sent it forth upon the grand 
mission in which it is now actively engaged. The 
mighty influence of his life and work, who can estimate ! 
While he has gone to dwell with the tender Savior whom 
he loved so well, and so reverently worshiped, the en- 
nobling influence of his work shall be felt in an ever- 
widening ctrcle, as the years roll on; and wherever the 
Order of the Eastern Star shall be known, the name of 
Dr. Rob Morris shall be held in loving remembrance. 

Let us emulate his virtues, his unfeigned piety and 



70 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

noble Christian character, and be guided in our Hves by 
those pure principles which he enunciated, and which he 
learned from the teachings of the blessed Jesus. 

We cannot re-kindle the morning beams of child- 
hood ; we cannot recall the noontide glory of youth ; we 
cannot bring back the perfect day of maturity ; we can- 
not fix the evening days of age in the shadowy horizon ; 
but we can cherish this goodness which is the sweetness 
of childhood, the joy of youth, the strength of maturity, 
the honor of old age, and the bliss of saints. 

In addition to the Eastern Star, Dr. Morris also was 
the author of "The Queen of the South,^' "The Cross 
and Crown,'' and several other degrees, none of which 
gained the popularity which has been accorded to the 
Eastern Star. 

Of Masonic rituals and handbooks, the following is a 
list of his works : Free Mason's Monitor, three degrees ; 
Miniature Monitor, three degrees ; Eastern Star Manual, 
Rosary of Eastern Star, Guide to High Priesthood, Spe- 
cial Help for Worshipful Master, same for Senior Dea- 
con, same for the Secretary, Funeral Book of Freema- 
sons, Prudence Book of Freemasons, Masonic Ladder, 
Dictionary of Freemasonry, Guide to the Consecration of 
Masonic Cemeteries, Discipline of Masonic Offenders. 
He was the first writer, according to very high authority, 
in Masonic belles-lettres, his Lights and Shadows of 
Freemasonry being the pioneer work in that line. 

His rule of life, from the commencement (Tf labor as a 
Masonic journalist, was borrowed from Addison: "I 
promise never to draw a faulty character, which does 
not fit at least a thousand people, or to publish a single 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 71 

paper that is not written in the spirit of benevolence, and 
with a love of mankind." 

By many, Dr. Morris was considered the leading 
numismatist in America. In the science of historical 
numismatics in America he was one of the pioneers, his 
monograph, entitled The Twelve Caesars, illustrated by 
Readings of 21'/ of their Coins and Medals, being the 
first issue of its class west of the Atlantic. He also pub- 
lished the Numismatic Pilot, devoted to the explanations 
of ancient coins. He was secretary of the American As- 
sociation of Numismatists, honorary member of the 
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, of M*ontreal, Can- 
ada ; also of the Boston Numismatic Society and the New 
London, Connecticut, Historical Society, and an active 
member of the American Numismatic and Archaeolog- 
ical Society, of New York. 

Dr. Morris gave us altogether, as from a perennial 
fountain, more than three hundred effusions in form of 
odes and poems ; but none wear so well with old admirers, 
none secure so speedily the favor of the newly initiated, 
as his conception of August, 1854, composed while living 
in the house described above as his residence at Lodge- 
ton, Fulton County, Kentucky, which has gone out 
through all the earth under the name of ''The Level and 
the Square." It is the Masonic song of the age, tending 
to the immortal. Brother George Oliver, D.D., eminent 
above all others in English Masonry, and the Masonic 
writer for all time, said of this piece : ''Brother Morris 
has composed many fervent, eloquent, and highly-poetic 
compositions — songs that will not die — but in "The 
Level and the Square" he has breathed out his depth of 



72 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

feeling, fervency, and pathos with brilHancy and vigor 
of language, and expressed his faith in the immortal life 
beyond the grave." Periodically published in Masonic 
journals, quoted in a thousand orations, seen in frag- 
ments in innumerable epitaphs, musically wedded to six- 
teen airs, declaimed by traveling performers, and em- 
bodied in many "Gems of Reading,'' this effusion de- 
serves best of all to live in memory as one of his grandest 
efforts. 

Of Masonic belles-lettres, he wrote Life in a Triangle, 
1853; The Two St. Johns, 1854; Tales of Masonic Life, 
i860; Lodge'at Mystic, 1863 5 ^^^ Masonic Poems, 1864 
and 1876. In Masonic history and biography he wrote 
Freemason's Almanacs, i860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864; 
Masonic Reminiscences, 1857; History of Freemasonry 
in Kentucky, 1859 ; Life of Eli Bruce, 1859 ; Freemasonry 
in the Holy Land, 1872. He also published in thirty oc- 
tavo volumes, under the general title of Universal Ma- 
sonic Library, fifty-six distinct works, including writings 
of Oliver, Mackey, Town, Portal, Preston, Hutchinson, 
George Smith, Morris Anderson, Harris, Calcott, Ashe, 
Lawre, De Vertot, Gourdin, Taylor, Creigh, Brown, 
Morton, Arnold, and Towne. In addition to these, he 
published the American Freemason, 1853-1858; Voice of 
Masonry, 1859-1867; Light in Masonry, 1873, and Ken- 
tucky Freemason, 1853. His copious and original notes 
and manuscripts, taken when secretary of the "American 
Holy Land Explorations," have been made available in 
the study of Freemasonry. 

In addition to these he has given to the Sunday school 
literature of the world scores of odes, sketches, addresses. 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 73 

and songs. In 1884 he published a new edition of his 
poems entitled the Poetry of Freemasonry, which was a 
compilation of his best poetry. He also wrote a series of 
sketches for the Courier Journal, entitled "Jesters with 
whom I have Jested," published in 1886. One of his 
most famous songs was called ''Blind Bartemus.'' 

The beginning of official work of this zealous veteran 
was that of Grand Lecturer, first in the State of Ten- 
nesee; afterwards in Kentucky. On horseback, before 
the days of railways, he visited the Lodges of those juris- 
dictions to the number of a hundred or more, and com- 
municated to them rituals and general instructions in 
Masonry. The originality and thoroughness of his 
teachings are best described by a gentleman who accom- 
panied him for a week or more in the spring of 1851 : 

Brother Morris's marked trait was industry. He made little 
pretentions to genius or talent of high order, but he always made 
the best use of his time. I never saw him idle for a moment. 
In the lodge or out of it he was ever seeking or communicating 
Masonic light. He visited sick brethren, if there were any, at 
their houses, and imparted comfort. He inquired for destitute 
brethren and tendered them aid. He looked up the graves of 
departed Masons and suggested better care of them. He set the 
secretary to making lists of the widows and orphans of the craft, 
that if any were needy they might not be overlooked by the 
brotherhood in future. His appearance in those days was very 
peculiar. Lank as a rattlesnake, and as swift at a witty stroke; 
nervous to the last degree ; frightfully dyspeptic ; extremely fond 
of nature, and an indefatigable collector of shells, arrowheads, 
and eccentric stones ; a glutton for reading books ; fluent as the 
river and generous as the sea; speaking in all things from the 
heart; amiable and generous. 

In Dr. Morris's Lodge lectures a beauty, grandeur, and 
significance were apparent that impressed even the dolt- 



74 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ish mind. At that period, American lodges were at a 
low ebb of information. The ceremonials were often 
wretchedly burlesqued by ignorant pretenders, and Rob 
Morris came among them as a reformer. Instead of an 
unmeaning tragedy the Craft acquired a sublime symbol, 
and if the neophyte had a soul at all able to appreciate a 
grand thought, he received a permanent impression. 
On Sabbath days Dr. Morris addressed communities, 
wherever he might be, in their churches and school- 
houses, upon Freemasonry as identified with Bible truth. 
Once, at least, in every village, he invited a union of the 
ladies with their husbands, fathers, and brothers in the 
Lodge room, and to the united assembly gave his beautiful 
system entitled the Eastern Star. Though the country 
was wild with political and sectarian strife (the mutter- 
ings of civil war) he talked of nothing but Freemasonry 
and for all this service he accepted a compensation so 
meager that the poorest lawyer or physician who sat in 
any of his audiences would have spurned it. 

The growth of skepticism among American Masons 
has been too marked to escape the notice of any. Lead- 
ing men among the Craft have at one time and another 
publicly attacked the old principle of "faith in an inspired 
word as a fundamental belief in Masonry." To counter- 
act this, the most dangerous foe that Masonry can have, 
Dr. Morris early made himself the champion of Biblical 
faith. To unsettle the minds of the Craft as to the object 
their fathers venerated has been the first aim of the Ma- 
sonic skeptic, and we see that while casting the Holy 
Scriptures out of the Lodge room was the first step of the 
French infidel, ignoring faith in God was the second and 
easier step. Dr. Morris said in an oration in 1853 : "I 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 75 

repeat, with the great moraHst Johnson, that there is no 
crime that a man can commit so great as poisoning the 
sources of eternal (Masonic) truth. Faith in God tends, 
in the only high and noble sense, to make Freemasons 
one. 

So many of Dr. Morris's diplomas and official jewels 
were destroyed in the burning of his house, "The Three 
Cedars," at La Grange, Kentucky, November, 1861, and 
in the terrible conflagration of Chicago, October, 1871, 
that no accurate list can now be given of them. It is 
within bounds, however, to assert that the number of 
honorary degrees and complimentary memberships with 
which his signal services were recognized in America 
and abroad exceeds one hundred. Dr. Morris at one 
time recalled a list of one hundred and forty-three reg- 
ular degrees and orders in Masonry, whose covenants 
he had assumed. In 1856 he made this summary of 
them in a symbolic strain of thought : 

I have been around, under and through the temple of Masonry, 
searching out its foundations, its builders and its trestle boards. 
With its builders I have handled, in turn, each of its implements ; 
with the Entered Apprentice, trimming the rough ashler on the 
checkered pavement; with the Pelloiv Craft, moralized upon the 
pillars of the porch, and the fifteen grades of the winding stairs ; 
with the Master Mason, smoothing the indissoluble cement with 
silent awe ; with the Mark Master I have penetrated the quarries, 
found my own best block, brought it up for a place in the walls, 
and claimed my penny with the rest; for I never have received, 
of salary or official emolument, to the value of one Jewish half 
shekel of silver. I have shared the responsibilities of the Pa^t 
Master, seated in the Oriental Chair of King Solomon. As a 
Most Excellent Master, my hands have aided to rear the cap- 
stone to its place, while my lips have sung the triumphant strain, 
All Hail to the Morning, of Thomas Smith Webb, and my face 



76 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

was bowed to the pavement in acknowledgment of the descent 
of fire and cloud. As a Royal Arch Mason, returning from exile 
in Babylon, my feet have entered, weary and sore, over rough 
and rugged ways, seeking the Sacred Hill. As a Select Master, 
I have wrought in silence, secrecy and darkness, upon the mystic 
arches within the Holy Mountain. I have stood as a Knight 
Templar with companions loyal and brave, wielding my brand, 
excalibur, two-edged and cross hilted, while guarding the shrine 
where the body of my departe^d Lord was laid. In all my career 
as a Mason I have ever held that excellence is granted to man 
only in return for labor, and that nothing is worth having that 
is not difficult to acquire. My life has been, thus far, a contest 
with obstacles; but no man would be what he is, had he tamely 
suffered the difficulties of life to overcome him. 

It has been claimed that Dr. Morris was the first to 
ever write a book upon the subject of Masonic juris- 
prudence. The work upon that subject was published in 
1855 and was entitled the Code of Masonic Law. Doubt- 
less there has been too much legislation among American 
Grand Lodges, too much of the whimsical, special, and 
ephemeral, yet he conceived that there is a basis of legal 
principles to which all questions may be referred and this 
is what he undertook to point out in his Code of Masonic 
Law. All thoughtful Masons admit that 

Law should speak 
Seldom, and never but as wisdom prompts. 
And equity. 

The spirit of his writings upon jurisprudence is suggest- 
ed by Hooker : ''It is easier a great deal for men to be 
taught by laws what they ought to do, than intrusted to 
judge as they should, of law ; for the wisest are ready to 
acknowledge that soundly to judge of law is the weight- 
iest thing he can take upon him." 

The custom of giving honors to our Masonic dead has 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 11 

become so intimately incorporated into our American 
Masonry that many continue their attachment to the 
Order "even down to old age'' that so they may not for- 
feit the funeral honors due the faithful departed. On 
the other hand, it is an attraction to a certain class of 
minds to unite themselves with a fraternity which fol- 
lows its members lovingly to the grave's brink and lays 
them gently back upon the bosom of mother earth. In 
honoring this custom the practice of Dr. Morris was sup- 
plemented by his writings. His Funeral Book of the 
Freemasons, a work of widespread celebrity, contains, in 
addition to copious and easy instructions, a long cata- 
logue of epitaphs and forms of obituary notices, also of 
funeral songs suitable to such occasions; while no one 
was so often called upon to attend in person and preside 
over such ceremonials. 

This passage was first pubHshed by Dr. Morris in 
1852, and expressed his views upon the subject with 
much vigor : 

In all ages the bodies of the Masonic dead have been laid in 
graves dug due east and west, with their faces toward the east. 
This practice has been borrowed from us, and adopted by others, 
until it has become nearly universal. It implies that when the 
great day shall come, and He who is death's conqueror shall give 
the signal, His ineifable light shall first he seen in the east; that 
from the east He will make His glorious approach ; will stand at 
the eastern margin of these graves, and with his mighty power — 
that grasp irresistibly strong which shall prevail, — will raise the 
bodies which are slumbering therein. We shall have been long 
buried, long decayed. Friends, relatives, yea, our nearest and 
dearest, will cease to remember where they have laid us. The 
broad earth will have undergone wondrous changes, mountains 
levelled, valleys filled. The seasons will have chased each other 
in many a fruitful round. Oceans lashed into fury by the gales 



78 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of today will tomorrow have sunk like a spoiled child to their 
slumber. Broad trees with broader roots will have interlocked 
them, hard and knobbed as they are, above our ashes, as if to 
conceal the very fact of our having lived; and then, after cen- 
turies of life, they, too, will have followed our example of mor- 
tality, and, long struggling with decay, at last will have toppled 
down to join their remains with ours, thus obliterating the last 
poor testimony that man has ever lain there. So shall we be lost 
to human sight. But the eye of God, nevertheless, will mark the 
spot, green with the everlasting verdure of faith; when the trum- 
pet's blast shall shake the hills to their very bases, our astonished 
bodies will raise, impelled upward by an irresistible impulse, and 
we shall stand face to face with our Redeemer. 

Dr. Rob Morris closed his earthly career at LaGrange, 
Kentucky, on July 31, 1888. He had been in poor health 
for a year or more, bvit was not seriously ill until about 
six weeks before his death, when he was stricken with 
paralysis, and after that time he steadily declined. For 
twenty- four hours preceding his death he was uncon- 
scious. His immediate family of six children and their 
mother were present during his last moments. The sur- 
viving children were John A. Morris, Charlotte F., mar- 
ried to Hon. H. J. Goodrich, Dr. Alfred W. Morris, 
Robert Morris, Jr., Sarah M., married to Mr. Latimer 
Hitt, and Ruth E., married to Mr. John Mount. 

The Grand Master of Kentucky, upon receipt of the 
intelligence of the death of Dr. Morris, at once caused 
the issuance of the following circular letter : 

Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. and A. M. 
Lexington, Ky., July 3L 1888. 
To the Free and Accepted Masons of Kentucky: 

It becomes my painful duty to announce to you the death of our 
venerable and learned, P. G. M. Rob Morris, which occurred at 
his home in LaGrange, on the 31st day of July, 1888, after an 
illness of short duration, following years of ill health. 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 79 

The fame of our eminent brother was not confined to our con- 
tinent — he was a citizen of two hemispheres ; for his learning and 
zeal made him known to Masons everywhere as a chieftain among 
the clans, a master builder among the workmen. His mark is upon 
the most beautiful stones of our Masonic edifice, and his designs 
remain upon our trestle board, for he both conceived and executed. 

It is my order that this announcement be read in every lodge 
at its next regular meeting, that proper respect may be shown 
to the memory of our deceased brother until the Grand Lodge 
of Kentucky can, in ample form, testify its appreciation of his 
many excellencies. J. SoulK Smith, Grand Master. 

H. B. Grant, Grand Secretary. 

The funeral ceremonies took place at LaGrange, which 
had been his home for over thirty years, and was con- 
ducted by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, Past Grand 
Master Hiram Bassett, an old and zealous Mason and an 
intimate friend of Dr. Morris, acting as Grand Master. 
A special train carried the brethren of Louisville up to 
LaGrange on August ist, the day of the funeral. 

The Rev. H. Calvin Smith delivered the discourse 
from the text, Psalms lxviii:i3: ''Though ye have lain 
among the pots, yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove 
covered with silver and her feathers with yellow gold." 
The Rev. Bro. H. R. Coleman followed with a few re- 
marks and P. G. M. Eginton read a tribute prepared for 
Fortitude Lodge. P. G. M. James W. Hopper also read 
an original "Song of Lamentations." Bro. H. B. Grant, 
Grand Secretary, being called upon, said : "About four 
years ago I received from Brother Rob Morris a paper 
containing these words, afterwards making verbal re- 
quest that they be read at the first Masonic gathering 
after his death : 



80 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

A mp:ssagi: from the: grays 

To my dear friend, H. B. Grant: 

I have composed this poem as under the shadow of impending 
death. I have made a few copies and sent them to particular 
friends only, asking that they should not be published, or any 
public use made of them, until I am gone. 

Brothers in June or in December, 

Honoring the memory of the dear St. John, 
Then let some kind participant remember 

The name of him who wrote this, but is gone; 
Let some kind brother rise, while all are silent, 

And with deep pathos and fond friendship say: 
He was a Mason, gentle, true, not violent, 

And loved old things that do not pass away. 

He loved his friends ; in them his heart found anchor. 

Bound in affection as with hooks of steel ; 
As for his foes, he gave few signs of rancor. 

And bore their slanders patiently and well. 
He loved to make in simple verse that rhyming 

Where ancient signs and emblems smoothly lie. 
Where deeds of brother-love and truth are chiming, 

And Masonry is wed to poetry. 

He loved the word of God; its hopes eternal 

Grew sweeter as the end of life drew nigh; 
A sinful man, but saved by Grace supernal. 

Trusting in Christ, he dreaded not to die. 
At times a cloud the promises disguising. 

And deep humility obscured the scene, 
But the bright Son of Righteousness uprising 

Dispelled the gloom and warmed his soul again. 

He gave the widows and the orphans duly 
A portion of his hard-earned scanty store, 

And though the amount might seem but trifling truly. 
He gave so cheerfully it seemed the more. 

His heart was in his work, to Build the Temple, 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 81 

In fervency he toiled through many years, 
To "build the temple" spiritual and mental. 

He triumphs now — is freed from toils and tears. 

He's gone; the problem that so long he studied, 

That mystery of ''the world to come" profound 
Is solved; his tree of life which only budded, 

Bears now full harvest in Celestial Ground. 
In the Great Presence, with the wearied resting. 

He has his wages and is well content. 
Brothers, in silence stand ; your love attesting — 

This is the word your dying brother sent. 

The Knights Templars commenced their beautiful ser- 
vice, which was concluded at the grave, Eminent Sir 
Frank H. Johnson, Commander, and Eminent Sir John 
Frank Lewis, Prelate, officiating. The procession filed 
out of the church and, led by the band from Louisville, 
the Templars and the lodge were followed by the hearse 
and the mourning family and friends to the village cem- 
etery. 

Brother Bassett then took up the solemn Masonic ser- 
vices, which being concluded. Brothers J. H. Leathers 
and H. B. Grant placed upon the grave a floral design, 
representing a Masonic level, about three feet across the 
base, and a square, referring to the popular poem by 
Brother Morris, "We meet upon the Level and we part 
upon the Square.'' This was surrounded by a laurel 
wreath, suggesting that the deceased had been crowned 
"Poet Laureate of Freemasonry.'' Another floral trib- 
ute by the Commandery was a very large Roman cross. 
Other very pretty designs were laid upon the grave. 
The attendance was very large and represented the brain 
and zeal of Kentucky Masonry. 



82 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The harp which late so sweetly rang 

Hangs stringless now and still ; 
The Master wakes its chords no more, 

Obedient to his will. 

The; hty^t and thk square* 

We: me^et upon the htv^h, and we part upon the Square, — 
What words of precious meaning those words Masonic are ! 
Come, let us contemplate them ; they are worthy of a thought, — 
With the highest and the lowest and the rarest they are fraught. 

We meet upon the level, though from every station come — 
The King from out his palace and the poor man from his home ; 
For the one must leave his diadem without the Mason's door. 
And the other finds his true respect upon the checkered floor. 

We part upon the square, for the world must have its due ; 
We mingle with its multitude, a cold, unfriendly crew ; 
But the influence of our gatherings in memory is green. 
And we long, upon the level, to renew the happy scene. 

There's a world where all are equal, — we are hurrying toward it 

fast, — 
We shall meet upon the level there when the gates of death are 

past; 

2 From Poetry of freemasonry, by Rob Morris, LL.D., by permission 
of his son, Rob Morris, Jr. 

This is the original form in which the poem, "We Meet upon the Level," 
etc., was written. Its history, as often told, is simple enough, and has none 
of the elements of romance. In August, 1854, as the author was walking 
home from a neighbor's, through the sultry afternoon, he sat upon a fallen 
tree, and upon the back of a letter dashed off, under a momentary impulse 
and in stenographic character, the lines upon this page. 

Eighteen years since, Brother George Oliver, D.D., eminent above all 
others in English Masonry, and the Masonic historian for all time, said of 
the poem : "Brother Morris has composed many fervent, eloquent and 
highly poetic compositions, songs that will not die, but in 'The Level and 
the Square' he has breathed out a depth of feeling, fervency and pathos, 
with brilliancy and vigor of language, and expressed due faith in the im- 
mortal life beyond the grave," 



BIOGRAPHY OF ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 83 

We shall stand before the Orient, and our Master will be there, 
To try the blocks we offer by His own unerring square. 

We shall meet upon the level there, but never thence depart ; 
There's a Mansion, — 'tis all ready for each zealous, faithful heart ; 
There's a Mansion and- a welcome, and a multitude is there, 
Who have met upon the level and been tried upon the square. 

Let us meet upon the level, then, while laboring patient here, — 
Let us meet and let us labor, tho' the labors seem severe. 
Already in the western sky the signs bid us prepare 
To gather up our working tools and part upon the square ! 

Hands round, ye faithful Ghiblimites, the bright, fraternal chain ; 
We part upon the square below to meet in Heaven again. 
O what words of precious meaning those words Masonic are, — 
We: mee^t upon the: Le:ve:l, and we: part upon the: Square:. 

THi: h^yi^h, PI.UMB, AND SQUARE:^ 

We meet upon the Le:ve:l, and we part upon the Square: : 
What words sublimely beautiful those words Masonic are ! 
They fall like strains of melody upon the listening ears. 
As they've sounded hallelujahs to the world, three thousand years. 

We meet upon the L^vEi., though from every station brought, 
The Monarch from his palace and the Laborer from his cot ; 
For the King must drop his dignity when knocking at our door 
And the Laborer is his equal as he walks the checkered floor. 

We act upon the Plumb, — 'tis our Master's great command, 
We stand upright in virtue's way and lean to neither hand ; 
The AIvI.-Se:e:ing Eye that reads the heart will bear us witness 

true. 
That we do always honor God and give each man his due. 

3 From Poetry of Freemasonry, by Rob Morris, LL.D., by permission 
of his son, Rob. Morris, Jr. 

This poem has been subjected to so many alterations in its thirty years 
of active use that it is deemed proper to give it here with the last emenda- 
tions. It is likely that older readers will prefer it in its first draft. 



84 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

We part upon the Square:, — for the world must have its due, 
We mingle in the ranks of men, but keep The Secret true, 
And the influence of our gatherings in memory is green, 
And we long, upon the Li^vEi., to renew the happy scene. 

There's a world where all are equal, — we are hurrying toward it 

fast. 
We shall meet upon the Level there when the gates of death are 

past ; 
We shall stand before the Orient and our Master will be there, 
Our works to try, our lives to prove by His unerring Square. 

We shall meet upon the Level there, but never thence depart. 
There's a mansion bright and glorious, set for the pure in heart; 
And an everlasting welcome from the Host rejoicing there, 
Who in this world of sloth and sin, did part upon the Square. 

Let us meet upon the Level, then, while laboring patient here. 
Let us meet and let us labor, tho' the labor be severe ; 
Already in the Western Sky the signs bid us prepare. 
To gather up our Working Tools and part upon the Square. 

Hands round, ye royal craftsmen in the bright, fraternal chain ! 
We part upon the Square below to meet in Heaven again ; 
Each tie that has been broken here shall be cemented there, 
And none be lost around the Throne who parted on the Square. 



.-4i.''"V^^,'., 




CHAPTER III 

Other Degrees, Minor Rituals, etc. 

A HISTORY of the Order of the Eastern Star may 
well include brief mention of some ancient cere- 
monies that have been rearranged and adapted to the use 
of some of the Grand Chapters which are constituent 
members of the General Grand Chapter, also a number 
which have been adopted by and are now in use among 
the members of Grand Chapters not constituent members 
of the General Grand Chapter. 

In an address to the General Grand Chapter, Mrs. 
Mary C. Snedden, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 1892- 
1895, said in reference to new degrees: 

During the past two years I have had several Rituals sub- 
mitted to me for approval, the writers of which styled them 
"Higher Degrees to the Eastern Star." It is to be regretted that 
the writers have made a pre-requisite for petitioners to have a 
membership in the Eastern Star, as it gives the impression that 
our Order indorses the degrees. In some cases members have 
printed upon their cards their Eastern Star standing, and ranking 
this the "Higher Degree." We cannot prevent the gentlemen 
making degrees, but we feel they have no right to engraft them 
upon the Eastern Star as higher degrees. I have refused to give 
my approval to any of them. 

On the same subject, before the next regular session 
of the General Grand Chapter, which met at Washing- 
ton, D. C, in 1898, Mrs. Mary E. Partridge, Most 
Worthy Grand Matron 1895-1898, used the following 
language in her address : 

During my term of office I have been repeatedly asked to 



86 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

endorse the so-called higher degrees to our Order and participate 
in their privileges; to all of which I have courteously decHned. 
I regret exceedingly that the name of the Eastern Star has been 
made one of the pre-requisites for petitioners, as it is often mis- 
leading and some have joined in good faith believing it to be a 
higher degree to our Order. In reply to inquiries from several 
Grand Matrons and Grand Patrons, I have advised that while we 
cannot prevent any of our members from joining any lodge or 
society, they cannot in any manner connect them with the Ritual, 
or hold their sessions in Chapter rooms on regular nights of 
meetings of the Chapter, referring them to the decision of my 
predecessor, Sister Mary C. Snedden, which was sustained by 
the General Grand Chapter. 

The General Grand Chapter in 1895 approved the ac- 
tion of the Most Worthy Grand Matron in refusing to 
recognize any so-called higher degrees, and in 1898 reso- 
lutions were passed by the General Grand Chapter as 
follows : 

Resolved, That there are no degrees connected in any way or 
manner with our Order other than those provided for and taught 
in the ritual. 

Resolved, That any member wilfully representing to any one 
that there are side degrees, higher degrees, or any degrees other 
than those taught and provided for by our ritual, shall be guilty 
of conduct unbecoming a member of the Order, and, upon convic- 
tion thereof, shall be suspended or expelled from the Order. 

There have been issued, at various times and on vari- 
ous occasions, works containing ceremonies to be used 
by the Eastern Star members, many of which have valu- 
able lessons and beautiful ceremonies, all of which carry 
on in similar vein the thought embodied in the ritualistic 
work. Some of these are mentioned briefly below in the 
order of their appearance before the Fraternity, so far as 
the dates of issuance are obtainable. 



OTHER DEGREES 87 

the: IvAdiks' frie:nd 

This was published by G. W. Brown, M. A., in 1866, 
and contains the lectures and exoteric ceremonials as 
they are used in conferring the degrees of "The Mason's 
Daughter/' "The Good Samaritan/' "Heroines of Jeri- 
cho/' and "Kindred Degree/' also the "Eastern Star" 
as given in Morris's Manual, the secret work being given 
by initial letters, each of which was numbered. A vo- 
cabulary accompanied it, which when referred to by let- 
ter and number, indicated the word as it was intended 
to be used in rendering the work. 

macoy's manuai, 

A Manual of the Order of the Eastern Star, contain- 
ing the symbols, scriptural illustrations, lectures, etc., 
adapted to the system of Adoptive Masonry, arranged by 
Robert Macoy, National Grand Secretary, and published 
in 1866. This was beautifully illustrated with pictures 
suggestive of the degrees. The edition published in 
1904 increased the number of published copies to 71,000 
and was practically a reprint of the first edition, with 
some additions and slightly enlarged. In it is contained 
a brief history of the Adoptive Rite or Female Masonry ; 
rules for the government of the Order of the Eastern 
Star ; hymns with the music to accompany same ; address 
explanatory of the system and intended for communicat- 
ing the degrees under a pledge of secrecy only; as well 
as a number of poems descriptive of the work. From 
the beautiful lessons of truth as presented we learn that 
"Ideal institutions are those organizations which, moved 
by a superior and creative inspiration, take the lead in 



88 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the moral culture and civilization of the nations, and pre- 
side over their spiritual and intellectual development. 
Actual institutions are those organizations which spring 
from some thought, relation or inspiration to produce 
and establish a complete and perfect achievement; an 
existing and acting association for some benevolent, re- 
ligious, political or social purpose ; a genuine and positive 
reality, laboring to accomplish mutual and actual results. 

"In the earlier periods of the world, the wisest and 
best of men withdrew from the imperfections of the ex- 
terior society, and in their secret temples sought to sound 
the mysterious systems of God, Nature and the Soul, 
and to live out their idea of a true life. The Mysteries 
of Egypt, of Eleusis, of the Cabiri, and those of India 
and of the North of Europe, had a widely extended in- 
fluence ; and so important were they that an investigation 
of them is necessary, if we would have an accurate view 
of the Theology, Philosophy, Science and Ethics of the 
past times." 

A grip was introduced, the origin of which is given in 
the Masonic department of a New York weekly news- 
paper in 1877 as follows: "After diligent inquiry we 
learn that the grip was invented by accident at a meeting 
held in Concord, New Hampshire, when Brother W. S. 
Wolf, now of New York City, was conferring the degree 
as a lecture, in 1862, prior to which time there had been 
no grip. A lady whose husband was a Mason, 'rose in 
meetin' and said aloud, 'Brother Wolf, you have forgot- 
ten to give us the grip.' It was a dilemma, but Brother 
Wolf was equal to the emergency and gave the grip 
which is now so generally used, a council of Eastern Star 
lecturers having adopted it in 1863." 



OTHER DEGREES 89 

The above is not given as authoritative, lacking the 
records of the workers of the day by which the statement 
could be verified. 

adoptive: ritd ritual 

The degrees were prepared by Brother Macoy and 
frequently read from the manuscript, to the members of 
Alpha Chapter No. i, of New York City, during the year 
of 1868, and at the first meeting as a chartered Chapter, 
December 28, 1868, the degrees were conferred for the 
first time, Mrs. Eliza A. Macoy, wife of Robert Ma- 
coy, being the candidate. All the officers read their parts 
from a printed copy, this being the first ritual of the 
Adoptive Rite published in this form. 

In it, the Sisters only were required to be initiated, 
brothers, if elected, being only required to pledge their 
honor as Master Masons, in open Chapter, to conform 
to the rules and regulations of the Order. The cov- 
enant of adoption provided for four conditions as obli- 
gated : to respect the secrecy of the Order ; obey the laws ; 
give advice, sympathy, and aid to the members ; and re- 
frain from any acts of injustice or unkindness. 

The greater portion of the work was to be done by the 
Patron. Forms were arranged for the ceremony of in- 
stallation, also provision and form for a Chapter of Sor- 
row, and funeral services. 

A revised edition was published in 1874, followed by a 
more complete Adoptive Rite Ritual, in 1897, known as 
the 

NE:w YORK RiTUAIv 

This is a splendid compilation of ceremonies and direc- 
tions for use in conducting the ritualistic work of the 



90 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Order, containing the ceremonies for opening, closing, 
and initiation both for women and Master Masons. 

The benefits of the Rite are mainly to the female sex; 
for them this temple has been reared, these walls set up. 
They are its crown and glory; and its value consists in 
the spirit in which they enter into and conduct it, and 
the grace they throw around it. 

The form of petition used by Master Masons differs 
from that used by women, as does also the form used in 
the initiation, the brother, if elected, being required to 
pledge his honor as a Master Mason, in open Chapter, 
to conform to the rules and regulations of the Order. 
The Worthy Patron is required to pass upon the elig- 
ibility of the brothers to attend the Chapter ceremonies, 
obligating them when necessary, while the Conductress 
and Associate Conductress pass only upon the eligibility 
of the sisters present. The work is beautifully illus- 
trated and the songs, with the music, are incorporated 
in the ritual. 

Included with this edition are the ceremonies for the 
"Queen of the South" and "Matron's Administrative 
Degree" ; ceremonies for the installation of the officers 
of the Grand Chapter and for the subordinate Chapter 
officers ; constituting and inaugurating ceremonies ; form 
of ceremony for the dedication of Eastern Star halls; 
Chapter of Sorrow and services at the grave of the de- 
ceased members. 

THE) ROYAI, AND I^XA^T^D 0RDE:r 01^ TUt AMARANTH 

The word amaranth is derived from the Greek word 
meaning unwithering and is chiefly used in poetry, and 



OTHER DEGREES 91 

applied to certain plants which, from not soon fading, 
typify immortality: 

Immortal amaranth, a flower which once 

In paradise, fast by the tree of life, 

Began to bloom; but soon for man's offence 

To heaven removed, where first it grew, there grows, 

And flowers aloft, shading the fount of Hfe, 

And where the river of bliss through midst of heaven 

Rolls o'er elysian flowers her amber stream; 

With these that never fade the spirits elect 

Bind their resplendent locks. 

In ancient Greece the amaranth was sacred to Ephe- 
sian Artemis. It was supposed to have special healing 
properties, and as a symbol of immortality was used to 
decorate images of the gods and tombs. 

In the connection which we wish to consider — the 
meaning of the word as it is used to express the highest 
degree of Adoptive Masonry — the original Royal and 
Exalted Order of the Amaranth was instituted by Queen 
Christina of Sweden in 1653, composed of fifteen 
knights, fifteen ladies, and the Queen as the Grand- 
mistress. The insignia consisted of two letters A inter- 
laced, one being inverted, within a laurel crown, and 
bearing the motto, Dolce nella memoria. The annual 
festival of this equestrian order was held at the Epi- 
phany. 

As the Order was instituted in Sweden in 1653, it was 
to honor the Lady Ammarranta, a woman of rare beauty, 
modesty, and charity, who was attached to the court of 
Sweden. For a long time, this knightly Order was im- 
mensely popular in Europe, and the most distinguished 
ladies and gentlemen considered themselves honored by 



92 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

being made members of it. The theory of knighthood 
and its orders, as appHed to the citizens of a repubHcan 
form of government, differs greatly in some respects, 
from that appHed to the subjects of a monarchical state. 
In our great republic, where the people are all born equal, 
merit is the elevating standard of true nobility. 

A society of a similar name, adrogynous in its nature, 
was instituted in 1883, under the supervision of Robert 
Macoy, of New York, to supplement the Order of the 
Eastern Star, having a social and charitable purpose, 
the ritual of which, as well as its constitutional govern- 
ment, has met with much commendation. 

The Amaranth degree as composed by Brother Macoy 
was intended by him to be used as the third and highest 
degree of Adoptive Rite. The illustration used upon 
the first page of the ritual shows the all-seeing eye of 
progress at the top, with graduated degrees typifying 
the road to progress with the Eastern Star upon the first 
step, Queen of the South as the second step, and Ama- 
ranth upon the third and top step. As arranged, the 
same number of officers are required as the Chapter, but 
bearing more exalted titles — the Matron and Patron 
having the title "Royal'' while all others were ''Hon- 
ored.'' The candidate was required to pledge confidence 
and hospitality by partaking of salt and bread as typical 
of a decision to make perpetual the mutual bond of 
friendship therein formed. The points of the star were 
each designated as exemplifying lessons — Truth, Faith, 
Wisdom, and Charity. At the fourth point, Charity, a 
legend, nautical in its references, is given as follows : 

There is a beautiful thought conveyed in the legend, that on 
the shores of the Adriatic Sea the wives of the fishermen, whose 



OTHER DEGREES 93 

husbands have gone far off upon the deep, are in the habit, at 
eventide, of going down to the seashore and singing the first 
verse of a favorite hymn. After they have sung it they listen 
till they hear, borne by the winds across the desert sea, the second 
verse sung by their husbands as they are tossed by the gale upon 
the waves, thus rendering happiness to all. Perhaps, if we listen, 
we too may hear in the desert world, some whisper borne from 
afar to remind us that there is a heavenly home; and when we 
sing a hymn upon earth it may be we shall hear its echo breaking 
in sweet melody upon the sands of time, cheering the hearts of 
those who, perchance, are pilgrims and strangers, looking for a 
city that hath sure foundations. 

(When possible to do so, a choir of ladies and gentlemen will 
sing two verses of a familiar hymn ; the ladies, being in a distant 
part of the Chapter room, will sing the first verse and the gentle- 
men, in an adjoining room with the door ajar, will sing the second 
verse.) 

The candidate arriving in the East the Royal Matron said: 
"The ceremony by which Knighthood is conferred is called the 
accolade. Conforming to this custom and by the authority vested 
in me, I receive you (places a sword on the left and right shoul- 
ders, and on the head of the candidate), and confer upon you the 
dignity of a Lady of the Royal and Exalted degree of the Amar- 
anth ; and as the Amaranthine flower is typical of undying friend- 
ship and eternal truth, so with this right hand accept our pledge 
of an abiding trust, and a cordial reception into our fellowship." 

Conducted to the West she was crowned with a wreath : "This 
is no diadem of gold ; no cincture of pearls ; no regal tiara ; no 
framework of gems, velvet lined, like that which so often presses 
upon the aching brows of royalty. That is a badge of power; 
frequently empty, unsubstantial and delusive. But our crown and 
our act of coronation have a higher and a nobler meaning. We 
crown you as being eminent for virtue, zeal and well-doing ; show- 
ing charity to the destitute, and faithful in every walk of life. 
May all your footsteps fall upon flowers. May all your good 
intentions be fraught with success. May your last days be your 
best. We crown you in the hope of immortality. There is no 



94 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

death to the pure and loving. May your admission to the land 
celestial and everlasting be sure, and your entrance full of delight. 
And as the years roll along and bring about the great consumma- 
tion for which we all hopefully wait, may your ransomed spirit be 
crowned with the never-ceasing favor of Almighty God." 

The candidate was then made to bear the banner of 
the Order, which embraced the Eastern Star, within 
which was a circle bearing the letters S. H. E. B. A., 
while in the center was an amaranthine wreath. 

The author says : "In introducing the elegant formu- 
las of the Amaranthine Order, our purpose, therefore, is 
to inquire only for noble deeds, knowing and caring 
nothing for noble birth. The present form of the Royal 
and Exalted Degree of the Amaranth is adapted to the 
demands of those who are seeking light and advancement 
in this popular and sublime system. It is made to form 
the apex of the Rite of Adoption, and to establish a Court 
of Honor, wherein the highest grade of instruction, cul- 
ture, and usefulness may be imparted in symbolical guise 
to the advanced members of the Rite ; for the dissemina- 
tion of mutual aid and the bestowal of the largest charity. 
It is therefore offered in the spirit of the beautiful senti- 
ments of Rome's greatest orator: 'Haac primo lex in 
amicitia Sanciator ut neque rogamus res turnes, nee 
faciam rogate.' This is the first law to be established in 
friendship, that we neither ask of others that which is 
dishonorable, nor ourselves do wrong when asked.'' 

The honorable and exalted purposes that Brother Ma- 
coy had in view when disseminating these degrees, can 
have no opposition worthy the name. Their effects in 
winning to the advocacy of charity the virtuous, intelli- 
gent, and influential female members of the nation are 



OTHER DEGREES 95 

truly encouraging, and stimulate its friends to persevere 
in a general promulgation of the ceremonies. 

The degrees of the various Orders, dependent upon the 
Masonic Fraternity for the elegibility of those seeking 
its benefits, has been framed and established for a more 
extended diffusion of the principles of morality and 
friendship by positive and significant emblems ; for incit- 
ing the influence of women toward the purposes of the 
Masonic institution; for ameliorating the connection of 
the destitute widows and helpless orphans; and for af- 
fording increased facilities in relieving worthy distressed 
women travelers. 

The wives, mothers, widows, sisters, and daughters of 
Masons cannot, from the immutable laws of the Frater- 
nity, be permitted to share in the grand mysteries of 
Freemasonry; but there is no reason why there should 
not be a society for them, which may enable them to make 
themselves known to Masons, and so obtain assistance 
and protection, and by means of which, acting in concert 
through the tie of association and mutual obligations, 
they may cooperate in the great labors of Masons by 
assisting in some respects, such as directing its charities, 
etc. As these privileges greatly depend upon the good 
standing and affiliation of the brother through whom 
she is introduced, this system will be a strong induce- 
ment, it is believed, to keep a brother, otherwise inclined 
to err, within the bounds of morality. 

ROSK CROIX 01^ THK DAMKS 

This degree, called also the Ladies of Beneficence 
(Chevaheres de la Bienfaisance), is the sixth capitular 
or ninth degree of the French Rite of Adoption. It is 



96 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

not only Christian but Roman Catholic in its character, 
and is derived from the ancient Jesuitical system as first 
promulgated in the Rose Croix Chapter of Arras. (Rose 
Croix means Rose Cross.) 

HI:rOINKS O^ JERICHO 

This adrogynous degree is said to have originated 
with Brother David Vinton, a lecturer of considerable 
eminence, about 1815 to 1820, and is conferred in Amer- 
ica, on Royal Arch Masons, their wives and daughters. 
Brother Vinton published The Masonic Minstrel, a large 
and elegantly printed volume of Masonic and miscel- 
laneous music, and is well known to the Masonic world 
through his beautiful Masonic hymn, ''Solemn Strikes 
the Funeral Chime." 

The degree is intended to instruct the female recipients 
in the claims which they have upon the protection of 
their husbands' and fathers' companions, and to com- 
municate to them an effectual method of proving those 
claims. An instance of friendship extended to the en- 
tire family of a benefactress by those whom she had ben- 
efited, and of the influence of a solemn contract in avert- 
ing danger, is referred to in the case of Rahab, the 
woman of Jericho, from whom the degree derives its 
name; and for this purpose the second chapter of the 
Book of Joshua is read to the candidate. When the 
degree is received by a man, he is called a Knight of 
Jericho, and when by a woman she is termed a Heroine. 

From the fact that some lecturers have attached the 
name of William Wallace to an incredible legend and 
connected the same with this degree, some have been 



OTHER DEGREES 97 

ready to ascribe to it a date far more remote, but it seems 
to be a settled fact that Brother Vinon instituted it. 

It is a side or honorary degree, and may be conferred 
by any Royal Arch Mason on a candidate qualified to 
receive it. It is known in every section of the United 
States, especially among the older members of Royal 
Arch Chapters. Nearly all Royal Arch Masons who 
were exalted before 1830, have the degree. In 1877 the 
Grand Chapter of Mississippi authorized its subordi- 
nates to confer the "Mason's Daughter," "Heroine of 
Jericho,'' "Queen of the South," and "Cross and Crown." 

In the hands of some it is beautiful and effective. 
Lessons of vigilance; attention to the sick and impris- 
oned; the inviolability of moral obligations; the scrip- 
tural duty of prayer, etc., are conveyed and conferred 
in the lectures and exemplified by the traditionary per- 
sonage whose name is cited therein. The Rev. Brother 
Leigh, P. G. M. of Alabama, enlarged and adorned this 
degree and added a monitorial part in a little publication 
of his issued in 1852, styled Ladies' Masonry, and the 
production was accepted as one of rare impressiveness. 

So far as can be determined, no organization has been 
equal to the degree of the Heroine of Jericho, though the 
means of recognition are ample and more practical in 
their nature than any other except the degree of the 
Eastern Star. The signs are practical and can be given 
without detection in a public assembly. The lectures are 
singularly appropriate and ingenious. 

The medals are variously made and lettered. One is 
an oval figure engraved on a plate of gold about one inch 
in its transverse direction, having on one side the lady's 
name, residence, the date of presentation, and the name 



98 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of the donor; on the other side are these letters in 
four partitions: B.O.T., N.U.Y.L, Y.F., L.O.— the 
whole curiously interloped with a cord. The letters 
R. A. H. A. B. are in the center. 

THRE^iJ BUDS OF THK SWIi:E:T BRI^R 

This is an adoptive degree originated in 1850, the 
author being unknown. Its lady recipients are the 
wives, widows, mothers, sisters, and daughters of Mas- 
ter Masons in good standing; its emblems correspond 
with what its name denoted. 

HOIvY VIRGIN 

The degree of the Holy Virgin is an adoptive degree 
composed by the Rev. William Leigh, Past Grand Mas- 
ter of Alabama. This composition was instituted in 
1852 and was accompanied by an ingenious monitor. 
Its lady recipients are the wives, widows, sisters, daugh- 
ters, and mothers of Master Masons in good standing. 

rut FivK je:wki.s op^ the: orie:nt 

Written by JuHette T. Burton and published in 1871. 
It was an effort to recount the lives of the five heroines 
of the Order of the Eastern Star in a romance which 
tended to bring these beautiful characters before the 
minds of the readers or listeners in a natural and very 
impressive manner. The story of the first four was 
greatly enlarged from the scriptural recording of the 
conditions surrounding their lives, though the story was 
not changed in fact. Adah was the Turquoise before 
Jephthah ; Ruth the Topaz in the field of Boaz ; Esther the 



OTHER DEGREES 99 

Diamond before Ahasuerus, and Martha the Emerald 
before Christ ; Electa the Ruby, which story differs wide- 
ly from that portrayed by the ritual of the Eastern Star. 
The Rosary, as written by Morris, made Electa the wife 
of Gaius, while Sister Burton gives her in marriage to 
Adrian, and the mother of Gaius. Mary, the mother of 
Jesus, is here portrayed as the head of a large family. 
Electa is taken from Judea to Athens, and from there to 
Rome, where she suffers the death of a Christian martyr. 

GOOD SAMARITAN 

The authorship of this degree of adrogynous Masonry 
is unknown. It is an honorary or side degree conferred 
in the United States with rather an impressive ceremony. 
The passages of Scripture upon which it is based are 
Luke x:30-37, inclusive. It is not connected with Ma- 
sonic traditions, but draws its allusions from the fate of 
Lot's wife, and from the parable of the Good Samaritan 
related in the Gospels. The passages of Scripture which 
refer to these events are read during the ceremony of 
initiation. 

This degree is to be conferred only on Royal Arch 
Masons and their wives, and in conferring it two Good 
Samaritans must always be present, one of whom must 
be a Royal Arch Mason. Much dignity and importance 
has been given to this degree by its possessors; and it 
is usual in many places for a certain number of Good 
Samaritans to organize themselves into a regular, but 
of course independent, body to hold monthly meetings 
under the name of Assembly of Good Samaritans, elect 
officers and receive applications for initiation. In this 
manner the assemblies of the Good Samaritans, consist- 



100 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ing of men and women members, bear a very near re- 
semblance to the female Lodges which, under the name 
of "Maconnerie d' Adoption," prevail in France. 

The medal or signet of the Good Samaritan is usually 
of a circular form, though an oval or shield is equally 
proper, having around its rim these letters : E. F. I. W. 
S. T. O. L. Eight curved lines are drawn from alter- 
nate letters on the rim, along which are the following 
sets of letters, including those above given: L. T.T.N. , 
O.N.A.O.S., T.I.M.I.T.W.S.I.T.C, W.I.I.O.N., 
I. T. M. T. S. A. I. W. G. I. U., F. W. N. O. L. I. T. S. D., 
E. L. A. T. L., while in the center of the medal are the 
letters S. G. It is defective in its means of recognition 
and has no history on which to found a lecture. 

the: QUK^N 01^ THi: SOUTH 

This was an adaptation, by Brother Robert Macoy, of 
a degree arranged by Dr. Rob Morris and was incor- 
porated in some editions of Macoy' s Ritual, though ap- 
parently not rendered with any regularity in the Chapter 
rooms using the Macoy ritual. It is a degree designed 
to occupy an intermediate place in the Rite of Adoption 
and enlisted fourteen officers of a Chapter. It affords 
valuable instruction to the neophyte while passing from 
the first to the third degree and is calculated to inspire 
a greater desire to understand and appreciate the whole 
system. It was rendered on Mount Zion in the royal 
palace of King Solomon, who is "seated upon his great 
throne of ivory, overlaid with pure gold, surrounded 
with his officers and courtiers, and the kings of foreign 
nations, ambassadors, philosophers, and others who had 
come to gather wisdom from his lips.'' 



OTHER DEGREES 101 

When directing to the Court the following is used: 
"In this beautiful allegory we have considered the objec- 
tions urged against the admission of ladies into the 
knowledge of Masonic principles. Those objections ad- 
vanced by King Solomon were so easily answered and 
refuted by the Queen of the South, that it was impossible 
even for the wisest of men to maintain them." 

The argument referred to above was carried on be- 
tween King Solomon and the officers of the Chapter as 
proxies for the candidate, who represented the Queen of 
Sheba. This is one of the four degrees which the Grand 
Chapter of Mississippi authorized its subordinate Chap- 
ters to confer at its meeting in 1877. ^^ illustrates, in 
dramatic form, that ancient and renowned visit of the 
Queen of Sheba (Queen of the South) to the court of 
King Solomon at Jerusalem more than three thousand 
years ago. Sheba (the Sabaea of profane history) 
formed a province of the southern part of Arabia. In 
the commercial intercourse of the people of Jerusalem 
with the inhabitants of her country, the Queen had often 
heard of the inspired wisdom, of the immense wealth, 
great power, and vast dominions of Solomon ; she under- 
took a journey from what was then deemed to be "the 
uttermost parts of the earth'' to see and converse with 
the King, and obtain some of the knowledge he pos- 
sessed. 

The magnificence of the Queen's audience with King 
Solomon and her convincing arguments in favor of the 
right of women to be instructed in wisdom, are fully set 
forth in this degree. 



102 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

True; kindre:d 

This is an adoptive degree, formerly much practiced 
in the south and west. Its authorship is unknown and 
its lady recipients are the wives, widows, mothers, sis- 
ters, and daughters of Master Masons in good standing. 
It is founded upon the touching record of the piety, sub- 
mission, and filial tenderness of Ruth, as recorded in the 
Gospel by that name. As mentioned at the beginning 
of this chapter, the Eastern Star does not recognize any 
degrees claiming to be independent Orders, and this one 
is not recognized in any jurisdiction, unless possibly New 
Jersey and New York. Several Grand Chapters have 
forbidden Eastern Star members to belong to them and 
at the meeting of the Grand Chapter of Wyoming, 1909, 
an order was issued declaring "All Orders, or so-called 
Orders, which base their membership, in whole or in 
part, upon membership in the Order of the Eastern Star, 
which have or may hereafter, invade the jurisdiction of 
this Grand Chapter, are hereby declared to be clandes- 
tine, and all Eastern Star members, holding membership 
in said Order or so-called Orders of 'The True Kindred 
of Masonry,' are hereby required to cease membership 
therein within sixty days from the date hereof, or be 
subject to expulsion for conduct unbecoming a member 
of this Order, in refusing or failing to obey the above 
mandate of the Grand body.'' 

ARK AND dove; 

An adoptive degree formerly much practiced in the 
United States. Its emblems are the Dove, Olive Branch, 
Rainbow, and Ark. As to the origin of this degree, 
nothing is known. 



OTHER DEGREES 103 



the: cross and crown 



It was the original plan of Brother Robert Macoy to 
make the Queen of the South the second and the Cross 
and Crown the third degree in the Adoptive Rite, and 
to this end he worked out, in 1875, ^ carefully arranged 
degree, but it failed to enlist the interest of the intelli- 
gent members. It was to be worked out by Chapter 
officers in a body called a Court, the point officers form- 
ing a cross instead of a star. The degree consisted of 
the brief mention of five American women who had been 
foreign missionaries; the presentation of five objections 
to Masonry on behalf of the women and their refutation 
by the Patron ; the mention of four great crosses in hu- 
man life; and the application of five religious graces — 
piety, friendship, resignation, truth, and constancy. The 
ritual was illustrated with banners for the five divisions 
of the degree, which covered the baptism, temptation, 
agony, crucifixion, and ascension of the Savior. It 
would require a great amount of ingenuity to take this 
disconnected material and work it all into one harmoni- 
ous degree which could invite the favorable decision of 
the intelligent members. It might therefore have been 
expected that failure would result. 

At the Grand Chapter meeting of Mississippi in 1877, 
it authorized its subordinate Chapters to confer this de- 
gree, "The Cross and Crown." 

STAR AND CROSS, OR PRE^PARATORY WORK 

This is a composition consisting of scriptural recita- 
tions and marches, written by Brother S. Clark, Past 
Patron of Radiant Chapter No. 35, of New York, and 



104 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

was published in 1876. The purpose is best expressed 
in the language used in its preface as follows : 

With the restoration of the Adoptive Rite under the names of 
the Eastern Star the fignre of the Saviour was presented in the 
symbol of the Star of Bethlehem, but the teaching of the Great 
Master was omitted. It resembled the clay image ere immortal 
breath had quickened it. This little work which is added are the 
words and teachings of Him of whom the Star is the Symbol, 
and is calculated and intended to prepare the mind of the initiated 
for a proper reception of the ritual. It not only, by due solemnity, 
prepares the mind for a proper reception of the main work, but is 
also calculated to impress it with the beauty and truth of the 
sacred scriptures, by planting the germ, which will only require 
culture, to ultimate in purity of life, by leading the votary the 
true path to heaven and a blessed immortality. 

CROMBIK'S RITUAI, 

John Crombie, at one time an active Mason and Grand 
Warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, published a 
blue lodge ritual, which he was ordered to recall, and not 
doing so he was suspended from the Fraternity. Subse- 
quently he issued rituals of other rites, including Crom- 
hie's Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star, and under 
the title of the Supreme Council of Rites he chartered 
Chapters, first at Aberdeen, Scotland, and subsequently 
at other points, but it is believed that none survived ex- 
cept at Aberdeen and Dundee. 

Crombie's Ritual was an arrangement of the work for 
the use of the Order of the Eastern Star in Scotland and 
was compiled from Dr. Rob Morris's Manual of the 
Adoptive Rite and was not well adapted to the work in 
an organized body. In it provision was made for the 
Worthy Patron at the left of the Worthy Matron except 
when presiding at the ceremonies of the rite, when he is 



OTHER DEGREES 105 

on her right. The prayer is offered by the Worthy 
Matron, who continues with a portion of each star point 
as it was given in the Manual intended for the lecture 
form of the degrees and poorly adapted to use in organ- 
ized Chapters. Upon entering the room the first time 
the Conductress escorts the candidate directly to the 
Worthy Matron and when seated in front of the Worthy 
Matron's station, the Worthy Patron gives a lecture 
which includes much of the address that was contained 
in the Manual which was written solely for the com- 
municating of the degrees in lecture form ; and since the 
other portions of the work were arranged to be rendered 
by the star officers, this lecture was not well adapted to 
the communicating of the degrees. At each of the star 
points, the candidate is caused to be seated while the lec- 
ture is given by the star officer and closes with a poetical 
tribute to the one whose life is exemplified in the lecture. 
This is the tribute to Jephthah's Daughter : 

See 'midst the multitude the victim stands ! 

Dauntless, serene, though terror palsies them! 
And she must die by her own father's hand! 

And she must die a sacrifice of shame! 
Of shame! ah, no! she flings the veil abroad, 
Once, twice, yea thrice: looks hopefully to God; 
Fixes the noonday sun with earnest eyes. 
Then crowned with innocence, the maiden dies ! 

Lament for Jephthah, ye who know his fate, 

Weep and lament: "Broken the beautiful rod, 

And the strong staff ; Mizpeh is desolate !" 

But for the sweet Adah weep not; let the word 

Be: "Joy to the Captive, freed from earthly dust 

Joy for one witness more to woman's trust. 

And lasting honor, Mizpeh, be the strain 

To her who died in light without a stain !" 



106 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The lecture of Martha follows more nearly and com- 
pletely the account as given in the Scriptures than other 
ritualistic versions of this degree, and in this particular 
is worthy of comment. The following is taken from the 
rendering of the lecture : 

The family, composed of two sisters, Martha and Mary, with 
their brother Lazarus, seem to have possessed all things needful 
for a happy life. Bound up in the love for each other, and 
blessed with the friendship of Him whom to know is everlasting 
life, the little group was distinguished from their neighbors by 
a name that proved how thoroughly their hearts were occupied 
with divine things. They were ''the beloved of the Master, the 
happy household of Bethany." 

Upon an occasion when their Divine guest had gone out, beyond 
the Jordan, upon a mission of charity, Lazarus was taken sud- 
denly and violently ill. The terrified sisters hastened to inform 
Jesus of the fact by a messenger, who was instructed to say, "Lord, 
behold he whom Thou lovest is sick !" They reasonably supposed 
that so tender a missive could not fail of success. But the Savior 
returned an ambiguous reply. The ''Beloved at Bethany" died 
and was buried. Four days passed, days shrouded with mourning, 
still the Savior returned not. The sisters were abandoned in grief, 
not alone for the loss of their brother, their only earthly protector, 
but for the unkindness of Him upon whom they had leaned as the 
"Rock of their salvation." Yet Martha retained her faith, and 
trusted in Him yet to come and restore the friend they had 
lost. . . . "Lord, if Thou hadst been here my brother had 
not died!" Looking a moment after into His face, animated by 
the God-like benignity with which He looked down upon her, she 
added: "But I know, that even now, whatsoever Thou wilt ask 
of God, God will give it Thee !" 

Amazing faith ! heroic spirit of confidence in her friend ! though 
her brother had been four days in the embrace of death, and the 
subject of its corrupting influences — though the weight of watch- 
fulness and sorrow rested heavily upon her spirit as she knelt, 
her hands wildly raised to heaven — there was a spirit of prophecy 



OTHER DEGREES 107 

in her words which gave them a value altogether their own. . . . 
The reward of such faith was soon rendered. Taking her by the 
hand, and passing by their dwelling, where they were joined by 
Mary, they went to the sepulchre, and there "J^sus wept." After 
ordering the stone to be taken away. He lifted up His eyes, and 
said : "Father, I thank Thee that Thou hast heard Me. And I 
knew that Thou hearest Me always; but because of the people 
which stand by I said it, that they may believe that Thou hast 
sent Me." And when He had thus spoken. He cried with a loud 
voice, "Lazarus, come forth !" And he that was dead came forth, 
bound hand and foot with grave clothes ; and his face was bound 
about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, "Loose him and 
let him go." 

The recognition work is given by the Worthy Matron 
and differs quite materially from that arranged by the 
General Grand Chapter for the use of its members, and 
which is by that body directed to be given by the Worthy 
Patron. 

tate:m's monitor 0^ Tut e:aste:rn star 

This is a ritual compiled by John H. Tatem for the use 
of the Order in Michigan and was arranged largely from 
Morris's Mosaic Book and Morris's Manual with some 
additions and variations of giving the lectures. The 
title of female members of this rite is Stellae; that of 
male members, Protectors. In the chapter relating to 
the object, it is stated that "The business of the Lodge is 
to act upon petitions ; to initiate ; to dispense charity and 
sympathy ; to confer the degree of the Eastern Star and 
communicate the lectures of the same; to exercise dis- 
cipline ; likewise to take all proper measures for cultivat- 
ing peace and harmony, and extending the Christian 
principles of morality and love among the members. 
Finally, to aid in the important work of extending the 



108 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

benefits of the American Adoptive Rite to every com- 
munity where there are persons entitled to receive it." 

The officers were named Worthy President (Matron), 
Vice President (Patron), First Patron (Adah), Second 
Patron (Ruth), etc.. Secretary, Treasurer, Conductor, 
Guard, and Sentinel. 

Tatem's Monitor was first to introduce the manner of 
communicating the Cabalistic Motto and word in the 
manner used, with very little change, as it is used at the 
present time. Much of the work was given by initial 
letters only, without any other key as to what the matter 
intended was, and it was necessary to have long instruc- 
tion from the enlightened in order to make proper use of 
this ritual. The dialogues as used in the Mosaic Book 
were retained, also the vacant chairs, but the dialogues 
were somewhat abbreviated. The instruction is given 
that "a Mason, on seeing one of these signs given, shall 
write his name on a card, or slip of paper, together with 
the pass belonging to the sign given." Introductory 
remarks for the initiation contain the following: 

The ceremonial of initiation into the American Adoptive Rite 
is not reckoned a Degree, but rather a mental preparation and 
trial of the temper and spirit of the applicants, preparatory to their 
being favored with the full light of the adoption. One week's time 
must be given between the intiation and the degree, save where 
by a vote of the lodge, permission for a more rapid advancement 
is given. . . . The applicant, if a lady, being elected and in 
waiting, a communication to that effect is made by the Sentinel, 
the Vice President [Patron] then retires to the ante-room with 
the petition in his hand, introduces himself to the candidate as an 
official member of the lodge and thus addresses her: . . . 
The Society of Adoptive Masonry is a society of Christians. None 
enter our ranks save those who believe that Jesus Christ is the 
Son of God, the Redeemer of the World, and the Almighty Savior. 



OTHER DEGREES 109 

We teach no lessons but such as relate to Him. We make no 
prayers but through His holy name. We entertain no religious 
hopes but those which are founded upon His Birth, Life, Death, 
Resurrection and Ascension. ... As a large portion of our 
work as Adoptive Masons lies in acquiring the doctrines and tem- 
per of Jesus Christ, whom truly to love is everlasting life. We 
often unite to address the Heavenly Throne and to plead with 
God that the very spirit of faith and wisdom may descend upon 
us and make our meeting place a place like Heaven. 

The beautiful Masonic tradition which has left for our 
benefit the story of Electa is quoted from Tatem's Mon- 
itor in part as follows : 

The last of these five female characters, whose virtues and mis- 
fortunes make up the glory of the Eastern Star, is Electa. No 
account of this celebrated woman is given in the scriptures ; we 
are entirely indebted for what we know of her to Masonic tradi- 
tion. Her husband's name was Gains, and he was long Grand 
Master of Masons, in which situation he was succeeded by the 
illustrious John the Evangelist. Electa had been reared up 
amongst a heathen people, and like the rest, had been taught to 
worship idols, in which faith she had reared her children. But 
happening by good chance to hear a discourse from the Christian 
missionary, Paul, she, with her husband and all her family, yielded 
their faith in Him whose gospel was so powerfully imparted to 
them, and they became Christians. . . . The Masonic influ- 
ence which her husband so largely shared, made friends amongst 
those who would otherwise have persecuted them; and although 
they were often scourged and pointed at as the followers of a 
crucified Savior, yet no other evil befell them. 

In adopting the Christian religion, Electa adopted all the virtues 
and graces that flow out of it. To spend her large income in reliev- 
ing the poor ; to devote much of her time to the care of the sick ; 
to keep an open house for indigent and hungry travelers — she was 
ripening daily for a better world. Her children growing around 
were hers as well by faith in Christ as by the ties of blood. . . . 
A band of soldiers soon found their way through those doors so 
long opened for the entrance of the poor and distressed; but the 



110 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

captain of the band was a Freemason, and most loth to injure 
one of whose good deeds he had heard so much. 

THK MICHIGAN RITUAI, 

The Grand Lodge of Michigan had a revision of the 
Tat em's Monitor printed, about 1875, for the use of its 
subordinate Chapters. Much of the work represented 
by initials in the Monitor was represented by asterisks 
in the ritual, while the lectures of the five heroines were 
a reproduction of the former publication, which was, at 
that time, out of print. "The benefits of this rite are 
mainly to the female sex. For them this temple has been 
reared, and these walls set up. They are its glory and 
crown; and its value consists in the spirit with which 
they enter it, and the grace they throw around it." 

THK CALIFORNIA RITUAL 

The Grand Chapter of California was organized in 
1873, ^t which time a committee was appointed and very 
soon prepared a ritual giving ceremonies for opening the 
Chapter, conducting its business, forms of initiation, 
closing the Chapter, and installing the officers of sub- 
ordinate Chapters. In 1875 a committee was appointed 
to revise the ritual and abbreviate the ceremonies of in- 
itiation so far as it can be done, and retain the sense or 
value of the work. The responses of the star point 
officers found in the New York Ritual of the Adoptive 
Rite revised were adopted for the use of the subordinate 
Chapters. 

In the revised edition the special form for the initia- 
tion of Master Masons was omitted. The following is 
taken from the revised ritual of 1877: ''All the lady 



OTHER DEGREES 111 

officers wear collars consisting of the five colors of the 
star — blue, yellow, white, green, and red; the red on the 
outer edge. . . The five officers of the star should 
wear sashes and aprons, corresponding in color with that 
of the point represented by them. The aprons (worn by 
the sisters only) are five-sided, each side measuring 
twelve inches, the upper one cut out to fit the waist. The 
point of the bib reaches to the center of the apron, and 
both are trimmed with the five colors. The color of the 
apron is white and the braid for trimming is worsted, 
one-quarter inch wide. The color on the outer edge is 
red, then green, white, yellow and blue.'' 

The pass-word was required to be given to the Con- 
ductress or the Associate Conductress as the case may 
be, by all visiting members. "The pass-word is changed 
annually, and can only be given to Sisters by the Worthy 
Matron, and to Brothers by the Worthy Patron of the 
Chapter, or such persons as they may authorize to com- 
municate it. But such officers can only communicate it, 
or cause it to be communicated, to members of their own 
Chapter, and must satisfy themselves that the Sister or 
Brother is in good standing before investing them, or 
causing them to be invested with it. No other member 
is permitted to give it to another, in any place, and under 
any circumstances, the possession of the pass-word being 
the proof of a member's good standing." 

Five blows of the gavel are directed to call up the 
Chapter instead of the number directed by the General 
Grand Chapter Ritual. 

The beautiful charge given to the Treasurer in the in- 
stallation ceremony may well be quoted: ''My Sister, 
the proper preservation of our funds demands the utmost 



112 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

honesty and care upon the part of the Treasurer. In 
the eye of God the money that is in your hands repre- 
sents so much food, clothing and medicine, which belong 
to the widows and orphans whom God may, at the most 
unexpected moment, send us as objects of our bounty/' 
After the Marshal has presented the five rays of the 
central star, for the installation by the retiring Worthy 
Patron, the Marshal is directed to cause the sisters to 
form the floral center of the bright star. This is done 
by causing each sister to stand on her appropriate color, 
and facing the altar. The five sisters then place their 
right hands together over the altar, raising them to the 
height of their heads. Each sister should have a bou- 
quet of flowers of the appropriate colors, which, when 
placed together, form the floral star. While this posi- 
tion is retained, the installing officer says : ''My Sisters, 
you are the floral center of this Chapter, and as the vari- 
ous flowers which your colors represent, illuminated by 
that great light, the Holy Scriptures, teach us the lessons 
of undying love, unending possession, heart purity, un- 
deviating sincerity, and unfading beauty, so are repre- 
sented in you the most charming, the most pathetic, and 
the most instructive lessons of the Old and New Testa- 
ment. . . The truly sublime virtues exemplified in 
the lives of those you represent are worthy of all imita- 
tion, and as you teach those virtues in the Chapter, so I 
trust will you practice them out of it.'' 

me:morial se:rvice: — chapte:r o^ sorrow 

This addenda designed for public use and intended to 
create the best impression upon non-members, was pub- 
lished in 1888 by Mrs. Addie C. S. Engle, Past Grand 



OTHER DEGREES 113 

Matron of Connecticut. The author dedicated this vol- 
ume to Rob Morris, LL.D., Patriarch of the Eastern 
Star, in the following impressive lines : 

The harp which late so sweetly rang 

Hangs stringless now and still ; 
The master wakes its chords no more 

Obedient to his will. 

Oh, who shall strike again that lyre 

And sing our Order's weal? 
Who follow in his steps, and to 

Our vows be ever leal 

The cause he loved he honored well, 

Its light he followed far; 
Death's gloomy vale was all illumed 

By Bethlehem's Holy Star. 

To chant with joy Redemption's song 

May voice to him be given, 
The song of Moses and the Lamb, 

The melody of heaven 

At the assembly of the General Grand Chapter in 
1889 the Most Worthy Grand Patron included in his 
address the following: 

I call your attention to a recently published memorial service, 
entitled Chapter of Sorrow of the Order of the Eastern Star, com- 
posed and arranged by Sister Addie C. S. Engle. As indicated 
by its name, it is intended as a service, supplemental to the pre- 
scribed funeral ceremonies, in commemoration of those who, year 
by year, are taken by the stern reaper, Death, and is designed 
for use in the Chapter room. It is a very beautiful form of 
service and is worthy of being used in every Chapter when it is 
desired to do honor to the memory of our deceased members. 
I most heartily commend it to you and recommend its use in every 
Chapter of the Order. 



114 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

During the progress of the business of the 1889 as- 
sembly, the report of the committee on revision of ritual 
was adopted as follows: 

We have reviewed the memorial service, Chapter of Sorrow of 
the Order of the Eastern Star as arranged by Mrs. Engle. We 
do most heartily indorse it as being all we could desire, both in 
beauty and expression, and take pleasure in recommending its 
use to the Order. 

The service has been officially adopted by many Grand 
Chapters both for their own use and by such of the sub- 
ordinate Chapters as may desire to do honor to their 
deceased members. It provides for the opening cere- 
mony for each officer, differing from the ritual and espe- 
cially calling the attention of the listener to the intention 
of the meeting, eulogies, prayers, the forming of a floral 
star surrounded by a wreath, which, with a number of 
other appropriate emblems, are deposited upon a me- 
morial shrine during the progress of the ceremony. 

The weary labyrinth of earth 

Has fewer hopes than fears. 
Our path, e'en from our very birth. 

Is crowded oft with tears. 
We clasp the warm fraternal hand 

Of friends we love and trust. 
And lo! they've reached the shadow land, 

Leaving with us but dust. 

Have we but Martha's earnest faith 

To lift the funeral gloom, 
We gain the victory over death 

Through Him who burst the tomb. 
Christ points us to that city fair. 

High walled, with pearly gate. 
Within the many mansions there 

His ransomed children wait. 



OTHER DEGREES 115 

We then will trust, for His dear sake — 

Till faith be lost in sight- 
That those who sleep in Jesus, wake 

In God's eternal light. 
His Star we see. Lord, let us come 

With those who've gone before. 
To worship Him and rest at home. 

Where partings are no more. 

MKMORIAI. SKRVICK 

Sister Elvira Adams Atwood, Grand Chaplain of 
Michigan, arranged an elegant and impressive memorial 
service for the Grand Chapter of Michigan in 1909, 
which has been used by more than twenty States : 

They are no more ! No more shall we hear the voices of the 
Sisters and Brothers who have fallen in life's battle during the 
year that is past. They have entered upon the sleep that knows 
no waking. Let us, with loving reverence, assemble around our 
altar to pay honor to their memory ; and from the bourne wherein 
they know no travail, may they be conscious of the esteem in which 
we hold them. 

Let us, dear Sisters, in loving remembrance, place these ever- 
greens around our Altar, emblematical of our trustful faith and 
hope of the immortality of the soul, and the realization of our ever- 
lasting happiness beyond the grave. May these ferns remind us 
that where "dust to dust returneth," arises the beautiful earth 
flowers with their delicate perfume; 

"Emblems of our great resurrection. 
Emblems of the bright and better land !" 

for death is but the initiation into an eternal life, where the soul 
into perfection blossoms. 

As arranged, this service embraces prayers, hymns, 
responsive parts for all officers, directions for draping 



116 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the Altar, and diagram of floor work as intended to be 
rendered. 

The I^IyORAI, WORK 

Brother Alonzo J. Burton, of New York, arranged a 
beautiful ceremony under this title, designed to be ren- 
dered by ten officers, which includes some of the secret 
work; if given in public, this portion of the composition 
is omitted. Many appropriate vocal selections are in- 
cluded. The work was rearranged by John N. Bunnell, 
Past Grand Patron of New Jersey, and was further re- 
vised and arranged and published by Sister Lorraine J. 
Pitkin, Past Most Worthy Grand Matron and now 
Right Worthy Grand Secretary, and since this pub- 
lication it has been adopted by many Grand Chapters 
and has been widely used. The floral march usually 
accompanies the rendering of the work, as also the can- 
didate is presented with appropriate flowers from each 
of the star officers and from the Associate Conductress. 
The floral emblems of the Eastern Star are nature's 
smiles, wrought from her own hues and materials, and 
are monitors of truth and loving kindness. They de- 
light the eye, gratify the sense, and are eloquent teachers 
of purity and love. In the ritual of our Order, they sug- 
gest, through their graceful forms and beautiful colors, 
fragrance and beauty, the womanly graces and brave les- 
sons of our heroines. 

The blue takes its tint from the cerulean sky beneath which 
the mountain maid spent the happy days of her youth. The yel- 
low borrows its golden tint from the glowing sun above, and the 
ripening grain beneath, between which throbbed the faithful heart 
of the Widow of Moab. The white suggests that dignity which 
the heroic Queen so cheerfully laid aside to preserve God's chosen 



OTHER DEGREES 117 

people from extinction. The evergreen leads the chastened 
spirit through and beyond the grave, to all that is animating in 
the thought of a glorious resurrection. The red directs our 
thoughts to the charity and hospitality inculcated in all teachings 
of the Order. 

In virtue's path my way shall be, 

Among the flowers rarest; 
And all I am and all I be, > 
A sister's love shall prove in me, 
By yon bright star that reigns above 
Through weary labyrinth I rove, 
I'll faithful be, and strive to prove, 

Among the thousand fairest. 

The: star of Bi:THLSHi:M A CHRISTMAS SE^RVICK 

This is a service compiled by Mrs. Helen H. Stires, 
Past Grand Matron of Nebraska. As originally intend- 
ed, it was for the use of her local Chapter during her 
official work as Worthy Matron and gave interest and 
enthusiasm to the work of the year. Having been ren- 
dered by a number of Chapters on the first Sunday fol- 
lowing Christmas, and found worthy of the attention 
and use of the Fraternity, it was adopted by the Grand 
Chapter of Nebraska and published in 1896. It contains 
a responsive exercise, elegant and well adapted to the 
season intended, as recognition of the original "Star in 
the East" ; a number of hymns and prayers. One of the 
most beautiful passages occurs in the "Commemoration 
of our Order'': 

O Lord, our Heavenly Father, we beseech Thee to look upon 
the members of our Order, wherever they may be throughout the 
world. Bless us in our going out and coming in. Help us to be 
faithful, constant, pure, trustful, and fervent, and to have love 
and charity among ourselves. Enable us to follow the teachings of 



118 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the Star of Bethlehem, and grant that it may shine upon our 
pathway through Hfe, and be a Ught to guide us through the 
dark valley of the shadow of death. Give unto us the blessed 
hope of immortality, that we may look for the general resurrec- 
tion of the last day, and the life of the world to come, through 
our Lord Jesus Christ; at whose second coming in glorious 
majesty to judge the world, the earth and the sea shall give up 
their dead, and the corruptible bodies of those who sleep in Him 
shall be changed and made like unto His own glorious body. 

rut VOCAI, STAR 

Though the title selected by Sister Addie C. S. Engle 
would indicate this to be a musical production, it is an 
attempt to give the star of our Chapter a voice by types 
and symbols and emblems and flowers. It was written 
for the Past Grand Matrons of Michigan and was first 
rendered by them before that Grand body in 1890. The 
author outlines the object sought in her introductory as 
follows : 

In the inception of the Order of the Eastern Star some imagery 
was used in its ritualistic work which has not been retained in 
the present initiatory ceremony. Those who remember the well 
loved symbolism, and regret its omission, will welcome this attempt 
to preserve some of it from oblivion, and the author cheerfully 
acknowledges her indebtedness to the old Mosiac work; to the 
ritual of Adoptive Masonry as formerly used in Michigan ; to the 
Connecticut Addenda, and to the first ritual of the General Grand 
Chapter, whose explanation of the resemblance between the lan- 
guage of the emblematic flowers and the heroines they represent 
had been too carefully made to be entirely lost. The balance is 
original with her who, being earnestly engaged in the work when 
these various figures were used, has treasured them in her heart 
through many changes, and with a simple arrangement of her own, 
now offers them for the enjoyment of others. 

In connection, the "Vocal Star March" is usually ren- 



OTHER DEGREES 119 

dered, wherein a number of beautiful figures and appro- 
priate letters are formed. The closing is a poem given 
as follows: 

Accept now, dear friends, as we part here tonight, 

Our wish that the bright Vocal Star 
May cheer you through Hfe with its radiance bright; 

And pierce every gloom from afar. 
The Star in the East with its lesson fraught ray, 

If taken at once for our guide. 
Shall lighten each lab'rinth we meet on life's way. 

And comfort, whatever betide. 

Its five radiant beams earth's dim pathway shall gild, 

Its blue shall combine with its gold, 
Its red and its green with rich treasures be filled, 

All teaching the same Gospel old ; 
And when their rich lessons, our spirit shall con. 

We then learn this truth (strangely odd) 
That all the colors our souls must put on. 

To make up the white light of God ! 

MAGIC I.ANTi:rN and MONITOR 

Brother Kimball Sedgwick, of Sunbury, Ohio, pub- 
lished a monitor which was indorsed by the Grand Chap- 
ter of Ohio in 1898. This was a beautiful lecture, 
formed largely from extracts taken from the poetical 
compositions of Dr. Rob Morris, Sister Addie C. S. 
Engle, Sister Susanna C. Russell, and other hymns of 
the Order, and is used in explaining the lantern slides 
illustrating the work of the Order. In 1899 the degrees 
were conferred upon the superintendent of the Masonic 
Home and his wife, at the Grand Chapter meeting in 
Ohio, at which time the monitor lectures were given by 
the author while there were shown by magic lantern 



120 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

slides illustrations of the different scenes of the degrees. 
The portraits of many of the leading members of the 
Order were included in the publication. 

SOUVENIR STAR SONGS 

This is a collection of O. E. S. songs, composed by 
Sister Elvira Adams Atwood, pubHshed in 191 1, each 
one arranged for some special occasion and dedicated to 
various prominent members of the Order. 

Many were written by request, to be sung upon a spe- 
cial occasion, and the beauty of sentiment expressed, 
together with the rare poetic value of this series of songs, 
has given them a much deserved recognition throughout 
the O. E. S. fraternity. 

Wise men in far Judea, 

Saw in the sky, 
Lo ! there the Star appear, 

Glowing on high. 
Bring now the myrrh and gold, 
For they the sign behold, 

That leadeth them afar; 

Lo ! there the Star ! 

the: guiding star and j^IvOrai, offe:ring 

Mrs. Mary T. Molyneau, Past Grand Matron of Min- 
nesota, first published this ceremony in 1903. In it poet- 
ical responses are arranged for each officer, combining 
in an impressive and elegant manner with the flowers 
emblematic of each of the heroines of the Order. 

The Blue is spoken by the Conductress as she holds a 
bunch of violets in her hand, as follows : 

Tell me why; when I lift these blossoms, blue — 
They still seem to whisper — be true! be true! 



OTHER DEGREES 121 

Perhaps when Heaven — to them their color brought — 
With its reflected hue — it bestowed the thought. 

At night, when the cloud veil is lifted on the wings of the breeze — 

And I — the auspicious moment, do most eagerly seize. 

To direct my gaze through the azure depths — afar — afar 

Beyond the seeming limit — of the rays of the guiding star — 

I find nothing there to obstruct my sight — 

And I inwardly cry — More light! More Light! 

But the failure to win, lies not above. 

When Divinity within, seeks its source, of love; 

'Tis found in this mortal cage, and the spirit, like the captive 

dove — 
When the earthly bars are broken, will soar to its home — above. 

As the gaze finds no obstruction, on its way through the azure 

blue. 
These flowers seem to say to me — neither will you — 
If while this earthly pathway — you are striving to pass through — 
You take to heart, the lesson — unto thyself — ^be true. 

God chose the Star to point out "the Way — the Truth 
— the Life" — the Christ, and ever since, to all those who 
catch a ray of its light, comes the desire to follow its 
guiding. It is fitting that this symbolic Star should 
point to the way to be traversed — the truths to be 
learned — in seeking the inner life. 

The ceremony also includes a drill in which the point 
emblems are formed with elaborate marches, etc., and 
tableau scenes connected with the heroines of the Order. 

Draping m^ Ai,tar is a memorial service written by 
Sister Addie C. S. Engle, published in 1908, to be used 
as a brief ceremonial in Grand and subordinate Chapters. 

Chapti:r of Sorrow is the title given to a publication 
by Brother Charles C. Dike, Past Grand Patron of Mas- 
sachusetts, published in 1886. 



122 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Fune:rai. Ce:re:mony. Golden Gate Chapter No. i, of 
San Francisco, published a funeral ceremony in which 
the principal part was given to the Worthy Matron. 
The first portion was arranged to be given in the Chap- 
ter room and concluded at the grave, where the floral 
star was deposited in the grave. 

The Mystic Tie is the title of a ceremony arranged 
by Sister Addie C. S. Engle, designed to be used for the 
reception of Grand officers and other distinguished 
guests. In the rendition of the work, the teachings of 
the jewels of the Order are impressively indicated and a 
series of beautiful marches by sixteen officers shows the 
formation of the star, cross, and square. 

Thk Sisterhood Degree is a degree adopted by the 
Grand Chapter of New York, as written by Alonzo J. 
Burton. It was intended to follow the degrees of the 
Eastern Star. The life of Mary, the mother of Jesus, 
was taken as the foundation of the degree, with symbolic 
teachings of Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

The Matron's Administrative Degree, written by 
Brother Robert Macoy, is so arranged that it properly is 
conferred upon Worthy Matrons before installation or 
very soon after installation, in an administrative council 
composed of Past Patrons and Past Matrons. The 
story, as taken from the Scriptures, is to symbolize the 
value of strong faith in a single woman as it may benefit 
a nation, as shown by the narrative of Deborah and 
Barak. 

The Florai, Tribute was published in 1903 by Sister 
Hattie C. Derthick, P. G. M. of Michigan, to be used in 
presenting flowers to candidate after initiation. 

The Star 01^ Light was published by Sister Lizzie C. 



OTHER DEGREES 123 

Beller in 1898. Each of the star points is given im- 
pressively — the first a poetic composition entitled "The 
Blue Veil" developing the sublime lesson of Fidelity; 
the second poem gives the example of Constancy as 
"Ruth, the Gleaner" ; the third or wife's lesson of faith- 
fulness to kindred and friends is given in the poem, "The 
Signet of Solomon" ; the sister's faith is a prose composi- 
tion, "If a Man Die, Shall He Live Again?" ; followed by 
the last symbol of a mother's love in a wonderful poem, 
"The Red Rose." 

Thk PiIvGrims is a ceremony published by Sister Ella 
A. Bigelow and so arranged that it can be rendered pub- 
licly. It is to be presented by seven pilgrims clothed in 
black and five officers. It is in poetical form, beautified 
by a number of musical numbers. 

The: Guiding Light is a poetical composition by Sis- 
ter Julia C. Tenney, presenting the impressive lessons of 
the Order in a different form, with a special part for the 
various officers. 

De:coration CkrKmony, by Sister Julia C. Tenney, is 
designed as a memorial to be given at the graves of the 
beloved dead and is written in a poetical manner. 




CHAPTER IV 

Organisation of the General Grand Chapter ^ 

THE preliminary steps leading to the organization 
of the General Grand Chapter of the Order of the 
Eastern Star are fully explained in the following : 

The Grand Chapter of Mississippi, at its session held 
in Tupelo, July 15, 1875, adopted the following: 

Whereas, We deem uniformity of rituals and lectures essential 
to the present and future prosperity of the Order ; therefore we 
respectfully recommend that a committee, consisting of seven 
members of this Grand Chapter, of which committee the Grand 
Patron and Grand Matron shall be members, shall be appointed 
to confer with like committees that may hereafter be appointed 
by other Grand Chapters of the Order in the United States, or 
elsewhere, whose duty it shall be to take under advisement, and 
present, if practicable, some feasible and judicious plan for the 
organization of a Supreme Grand Chapter; which said Supreme 
Body shall, when organized and recognized by two-thirds of the 
Grand Chapters in the United States, have absolute and supreme 
control over the Ritual and lectures of the Adoptive Rite. We 
also recommend that said committee shall be the accredited dele- 
gates from this Grand Jurisdiction to a convention of the Order 
wheresoever and whensoever convened, and they shall have all 
power and authority to do any and all acts necessary and lawful 
to be done in the premises ; and they shall report their doings to 
this Grand Chapter at each Annual Grand Convocation. 

The delegates then appointed were: Mrs. Annie T. 
Clark, Grand Matron; Mrs. Laura L. Burton, P.G.M.; 

ijohn M. Mayhew, president; John R. Parsons, secretary; Rev. 
John D.. Vincil, chaplain. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 125 

Mrs. Mary I. Hunter, P.G.M.; Mrs. C. M. Barton, 
P.G.M.; J. L. Power, G.P.; A. H. Barkley, D.G.P.; 
P. M. Savery, G. L. 

At its session, held in Vallejo, October 19, 1875, the 
Grand Chapter of CaHfornia adopted the following: 

Resolved, That the Grand Chapter constitute a committee of 
seven, of which the Worthy Grand Patron and Worthy Grand 
Matron shall be members, to confer with like committees that 
may hereafter be appointed by other Grand Chapters of the Order 
in the United States. It shall be their duty to take under advise- 
ment, and present, if practicable, some feasible and judicious plan 
for the organization of a Supreme Grand Chapter, which Supreme 
Body shall, when organized and recognized by two-thirds of the 
Grand Chapters of the Order in the United States, have absolute 
and supreme control over the Ritual and lectures of the Order. 

Resolved, That said committee be the accredited delegates from 
this Grand Jurisdiction to a convention of the Order wheresoever 
and whensoever convened, have power to do any and all acts neces- 
sary and lawful to be done in the premises, and report their doings 
to this Grand Chapter at each Annual Communication. 

Resolved, That the Grand Patron be requested to submit, or 
cause to be submitted, the action of this Grand Chapter to each 
and all sister Grand Chapters in the United States, and respect- 
fully solicit their zealous co-operation. 

At the session of the same body, held in San Francisco, 
October 17, 1876, it was 

Resolved, That this Grand Body cordially accept the invitation 
of the Grand Chapter of the State of Indiana to send seven dele- 
gates to a Supreme Grand Chapter to be holden in the city of 
Indianapolis in November next. 

Resolved, That the retiring Grand Patron, Bro. J. E. Whitcher, 
the retiring Grand Matron, Sister Emily Rolfe, the Grand Pa- 
tron-elect, Bro. Jerome Spaulding, the Grand Matron-elect, Sister 
Ada A. Libbey, the Grand Secretary-elect, Abbie E. Wood, the 
Grand Associate Patron-elect, John C. Marsh, and the Grand 
Associate Matron-elect, Elizabeth Sweasey, be such delegates. 



126 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Resolved, That the delegates present at such Grand Council cast 
the votes of absentees. 

The Grand Chapter of Indiana, at its session in Green- 
castle, April 6, 1876, took the following action: 

Whereas, Uniformity of work, modes of recognition, and regu- 
lations governing eligibility to membership are not only desirable, 
but absolutely necessary to the permanent growth and prosperity 
of our Order, now so rapidly increasing in numbers, and advanc- 
ing in the estimation of the Masonic Fraternity; and 

Whereas, Several Grand Chapters recognizing this necessity, 
have appointed committees to represent and act for them in a 
convention to be thereafter called to organize such a body, but 
have failed to take any steps which will lead to the calling of 
such a convention, and this Grand Chapter, realizing the impor- 
tance of speedy and definite action which will lead to so desirable 
an end ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That all Grand Chapters of the Order, be invited and 
requested to appoint seven delegates, of which the Grand Patron 
and Grand Matron shall be, ex-officio, two, with full power to do 
any and all acts necessary to be done in the premises for and in 
behalf of their respective Grand Chapters, to meet in convention, 
for the purpose of organizing a Supreme Chapter, at Indianapolis, 
at 10 o'clock on Wednesday, the eighth day of November next. 

Resolved That the Grand Patron appoint a committee of three 
brothers and two sisters to act in conjunction with the Grand 
Patron and Grand Matron, as delegates from this Grand Chapter 
to such convention. 

Resolved, That the said delegates be appointed the committee 
of this Grand Chapter to submit a copy of the foregoing preamble 
and resolutions to all sister Grand Chapters, and request their 
prompt and zealous co-operation. 

Resolved, That said committee be instructed to make all pre- 
liminary arrangements necessary for the accommodation of said 
convention. 

Resolved, That the necessary expenses of the said convention, 
not to exceed one hundred dollars, be paid out of the Grand 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 127 

Treasury: Provided no part thereof shall be expended for mile- 
age. 

Mrs. Mary A. Comstock, G. M., Mrs. Sallie J. Evans, 
Mrs. Mary E. M. Price, James S. M'Nutt, G. P., James 
A. Thompson, P. G. P., James Crooks, and Willis D. 
Engle were appointed as delegates. 

The Grand Chapter of Missouri, at its session in St. 
Louis, October 9, 1876, 

Resolved, To acce])t the invitation of the Grand Chapter of 
Indiana, and to appoint a committee of seven to represent this 
Grand Chapter in the proposed meeting at Indianapolis, Novem- 
ber 16th. 

Rev. John D. Vincil, Mary J. Wash, Mattie A. Yost, 
Frances E. Holden, Thomas C. Ready, P. D. Yost, and 
John R. Parsons were appointed as such committee. 

The Grand Chapter of New Jersey, on October 13, 

1875, 

Resolved, That five delegates be selected to represent this 
Grand Chapter at any meeting or convention that may be called 
for the purpose of organizing a Supreme Grand Chapter of the 
Order of the Eastern Star. 

At the session October 11, 1876, of the Grand Chapter 
of New Jersey, the resolutions of the Grand Chapter of 
Indiana were received, the invitation accepted, and the 
following delegates were elected: John M. Mayhew, 
G. P., Mrs. E. D. Tilden, G. M., George Haskins, W. V. 
W. Vreeland, Mrs. Anna M. Mayhew, P. G. M., Mrs. 
E. A. Graul, and Mrs. M. C. Dobbs. 

The Grand Chapter of Illinois, at its session October 
4, 1876, accepted the invitation of the Grand Chapter of 
Indiana, and elected Daniel G. Burr, P.G. P., H. R. 
Kent, G. P., Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, P. G. M., and Mrs. 
Laura N. Young, G. M., as delegates. 



128 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The Grand Chapter of Arkansas, on November 8, 
1876, decided that it was not expedient for it to send 
delegates to the Convention but that it would cooperate 
in the movement. 

Pursuant to the arrangements as set forth in the above 
resolutions and in accordance with the call of the Grand 
Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star in the State of 
Indiana, the delegates from the Grand Chapters of Cal- 
ifornia, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and New Jersey as- 
sembled in the Masonic Temple at Indianapolis, on No- 
vember 15 and 16, 1 876 J 

Brother James S. Nutt, Grand Patron of Indiana, 
called the convention to order, and Brother John M. 
Mayhew, of New Jersey, the Senior Grand Patron pres- 
ent, was chosen President, with Brother John R. Par- 
son, of Missouri, Secretary. A committee, consisting of 
one member from each Grand Jurisdiction represented 
at the convention, reported a form of constitution which 
was adopted and the General Grand Chapter organized. 
Thus was launched forth, in this assemblage, the begin- 
ning of the General Grand Chapter, which has now as- 
sumed proportions so great that the respect and love of 
its members, and the recognition of the world is ten- 
dered. 

A committee consisting of seven members was ap- 
pointed to prepare a ritual, which report was submitted 
at the second session of the General Grand Chapter held 
in Chicago, May 8-9-10, 1878, and the several Grand 
Chapters were instructed to continue the use of the rit- 
uals then in use until another had been adopted by the 
General Grand Chapter. 

The Most Worthy Grand Patron was authorized to 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER • 129 

issue dispensations to all subordinate Chapters holding 
charters, purporting to emanate from a Supreme Grand 
Chapter,- without expense, upon proper application from 
said Chapters. 

The meeting closed with a public installation of of- 
ficers. The Most Worthy Grand Patron-elect, the Rev. 
John D. Vincil, was installed by the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron pro tem., and the Most Worthy Grand Patron 
then installed Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, M. W. G. M., and 
the remaining officers. 

The Most Worthy Grand Patron was made the execu- 
tive head ; the name of the organization as adopted at the 
meeting is "The General Grand Chapter of the Order 
of the Eastern Star." The officers with their titles are: 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, Most Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron, Right Worthy Associate Grand Patron, Right 
Worthy Associate Grand Matron, Right Worthy Grand 
Treasurer, Right Worthy Grand Secretary, all of whom 
shall be elected by ballot and shall hold their offices until 
their successors are elected and installed. All the other 
officers who are brethren shall be appointed by the 
M. W. G. P. and all who are sisters shall be appointed by 
the M. W. G. M. 

The powers and authority of the body are given in 
articles iii, iv, and vii of the constitution, quoted below : 

Article III. — Section 1. The General Grand Chapter shall 
possess no other power than is expressly delegated to it. It can 
exercise no doubtful authority or power, by implication merely. 
All Eastern Star authority not hereby granted to it, is reserved 
for the Grand Chapters, subordinate Chapters, and their members 
individually. 

Section 2. It shall have and maintain jurisdiction over all 
Chapters established by itself in any section of any country where 



130 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

there is no Grand Chapter established, and have disciplinary 
power over such Chapters until a Grand Chapter shall be legally- 
organized and recognized by this General Grand Chapter, and no 
longer. 

Section 3. It shall have power to decide all questions of East- 
ern Star law, usage and custom which may arise between any 
two or more Grand Chapters or in any subordinate Chapter under 
its own immediate jurisdiction, and all that may be referred to it 
for its decision by any Grand Chapter, and its decision so made 
shall be regarded as of the Supreme tribunal of the Eastern Star 
in the last resort. 

Section 4. It shall be the judge of the qualifications of its 
own members. 

Section 5. It shall adopt and prescribe a uniform Ritual of 
work, and formula for installation of its own officers, as well as 
the officers of Grand and subordinate Chapters. 

Section 6. All amendments, alterations or additions to the 
Ritual that shall be promulgated by this General Grand Chapter, 
must be submitted in writing at a stated meeting, when, if ap- 
proved by a majority of the members present, shall lie over until 
the next stated meeting, when if adopted by a two-thirds vote, 
shall become a part of the same. 

Article: IV. — Section 1. The General Grand Chapter shall 
meet at least once in three years, but may meet oftener if it so 
orders, at such time and place as shall be fixed upon at its previous 
meeting. 

Section 3. Representatives from a majority of the Grand 
Chapters under its jurisdiction shall be necessary for a quorum 
to transact business. 

ArticIvE: VII. — Section 2. The General Grand Chapter may 
levy such contributions as in its judgment shall be required, which 
shall always be uniform in proportion to membership, and which 
shall not exceed five cents per annum from each paying member. 

It is a pleasant thought in this connection, that no tax 
has yet been levied by the General Grand Body, except 
that the five jurisdictions which were represented at the 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 131 

organization advanced to the General Grand Chapter 
treasury two and one-half cents for each member of its 
subordinates, the same to be applied on their dues, which 
amount was very cordially paid, amounting to a total of 

$148.43- 

Si:coND Assi:mbi.y, Chicago, Ii^linois, May 8-10, 1878^ 

At the second meeting of the General Grand Chapter, 
seven Grand Chapters were represented — Illinois with 
two delegates, Indiana four, Kansas two, Massachusetts 
one, Michigan two, Missouri one, and New Jersey one, 
with two past Grand officers entitled to recognition ; also 
Past Grand Matrons of New York and Connecticut were 
present as visitors. 

The report of the Right Worthy Grand Secretary 
shows that ten Chapters had been added to the number — 
five of them having been organized and five Macoy Chap- 
ters having exchanged their charters. 

The committee, consisting of Thomas M. Lamb, John 
M. Mayhew, and Willis D. Engle, appointed to prepare 
a ritual for the use of the members of the Eastern Star, 
reported their work finished. The result of their stren- 
uous and arduous labors was accepted and their ritual 
was adopted as the work to be used and adopted in all 
Grand and subordinate Chapters owing allegiance to the 
General Grand Chapter ; the same to be in full force and 
operation so soon as printed, and its use enjoined by 
edict of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Let the amended ritual adopted at this meeting be 
prefaced with a deserving tribute to him whose regard 

2 Thomas M. Lamb, M.W. G. P. pro tern.; Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, 

M. W. G. M. 



132 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

for the welfare of his race suggested a theory which has 
developed to be world-wide in its practice, and unlimited 
in its results. For more than a century previous to this 
time, efforts had been made from time to time, by emi- 
nent Masons, to establish an order, kindred in design to 
the Eastern Star; but only partial or temporary success 
attended their efforts. It remained for Rob Morris to 
successfully initiate a system of so great promise, not 
only to the families of Masons, but to the great Brother- 
hood from whose generous impulses it sprung. May his 
name be tenderly cherished by all who recognize in this 
Order a movement for the betterment of the condition 
of the human family. His efforts were supplemented 
and largely made successful by the zeal and executive 
ability of Brother Robert Macoy, of New York, whose 
labors have brought to him an abundant reward. The 
Order of the Eastern Star will ever gladly hold these 
distinguished brothers in grateful remembrance. 

The tenets and teachings of the Order of the Eastern 
Star imply standard virtues, and are calculated to lead 
the initiated to look on his fellow with all the kindliness 
which charity, in its fullest sense, could suggest. Thank 
God there are many, very many, strong, noble, devoted 
souls, who shrink not from labor or sacrifice in their 
efforts to promulgate principles which incite the human 
heart to a more perfect love and trust in each other and 
hasten the fulfilment of the divine mandate, "Love thy 
neighbor as thy self.'' 

Those who arranged the duties of the M. W. G. Ma- 
tron were most unwise when they assigned no duty what- 
ever to her during the vacation of the General Grand 
Chapter, her position during the three years' interval be- 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 133 

ing merely an honorary one. This was an unfair provi- 
sion, since where both sexes are to be governed, both 
should have concurrent supervisory duties. The natural 
keen intuition of woman, her quick perceptive qualities, 
combined with her strict sense of justice should fit her to 
be man's equal in this particular at least.. 

Third Asse:mbIvY, Chicago, Illinios, August 20-21, 

1880^ 

The third stated meeting of the General Grand Chap- 
ter w^as held in Chicago on August 20-21, 1880. The 
delegates who were in attendance were the representa- 
tives of eleven Grand Chapters and visitors were present 
from fourteen States. Eleven Chapters had been or- 
ganized, one Macoy charter had been changed, and two 
charters issued by the Grand Chapter of New York to 
Chapters in Maryland and Wyoming had been ex- 
changed, making a total of fourteen Chapters added. 
There were fourteen Chapters released to form two 
Grand Chapters, Minnesota on June 28, 1878, and Iowa 
on July 30, 1878. 

Brother Rob Morris was unanimously invited to be 
present and take part in the proceedings of this session, 
and he was made an honorary member of the General 
Grand Chapter. A committee of two was appointed to 
inform Dr. Morris of the action taken by the General 
Grand Body, and this action was unanimously concurred 
in by vote. 

Most Worthy Grand Patron, Brother Thomas M. 
Lamb, in his address, said in part : "I have informally 
invited to be present upon this occasion, one whom the 

3 Thomas M. Lamb, M.W. G. P.; Mrs. Elmira Foley, M. W. G. M. 



134 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Order will ever remember as the founder of the Order 
of the Eastern Star — Brother Robert Morris, LL.D., 
of La Grange, Kentucky. Our brother is not a Chapter 
member, nor is he in the ordinary sense a member of the 
Order ; but as its founder he alone may occupy the excep- 
tional position of membership in the Order universal. I 
am assured by the brother that he has watched with deep 
interest the progress of the Order through the several 
stages of its growth, and regards the organization and 
success of the General Grand Chapter as evidence of the 
Eastern Star's ultimate complete triumph. He bids us 
God-speed and assures me that he will be only too glad 
to aid us in any way in his power. Such being the case, 
I am sure that time will only increase the honor with 
which a grateful Order will remember its founder.'' 

Accordingly, at the session of the General Grand 
Chapter held on Saturday afternoon, August 21, 1880, 
upon the motion of Sister Emily Rolfe, it was ordered 
that the natal day of Brother Morris, whose birthday 
is August 31st, be appointed as a festal day of the Order. 
During the forenoon session of that same date. Brother 
Morris was invited to a seat in the East, introduced and 
saluted with the Grand Honors, whereupon he made an 
address which is of sufficient interest to the members of 
the Order to be well worthy publication in full, and it 
is given below: 

Most Worthy Grand Matron, Officers and Members of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter: 
I am too tired after my arduous labor in connection with the 
Triennial Conclave to speak to you as I would like to of the 
Order as it is, for my heart is full of interest for it. I will say a 
word of my personal connection with the origin of the Order. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 135 

Many of the present leading members have expressed surprise at 
the little interest I seem to have taken in the Eastern Star of late 
years. For this there have been two reasons : First — My life has 
been a very active, though not always a successful one ; for twelve 
years I have devoted my time to explorations in the Holy Land, 
having been abroad twice, and having sent an agent almost every 
year. This and other things have kept me poor, and prevented 
me giving my time to the Eastern Star. If I had been rich, or 
my time unoccupied, I would cheerfully have put in practical 
shape the interest I have always felt for it. The Ritual of 1868 
was the last active effort I made for it. 

As I have written Brother Lamb, I am satisfied with what has 
been done by the officers of this Body in the last three years, and 
that the basis on which the Order now rests is a permanent one. 

Second — I have always felt the warmest friendship for Brother 
Macoy and friendship is a thing not to be broken for slight causes. 
This friendship has existed for thirty years, and it would take a 
great deal to break it. I disapprove the course he has taken, and 
have labored unavailingly, to restrain him. L would never suffer 
a hard word to sever true friendship, which is of inestimable 
value, but would bear many things from friends. Others have 
borne with my faults, and I will bear with theirs. Brother Ma- 
coy's course I have disapproved from the first, although I do 
not think that he was properly treated at first ; yet, that does not 
justify him in the course he has since pursued. 

When I was informed of the unexpected honor you have con- 
ferred upon me, by electing me an honorary member of your 
Body, I felt very much complimented. I knew how such a mo- 
tion was rather outside the law, and I appreciate the delicateness 
which must have been felt about electing a non-affiliate to hon- 
orary membership. In the future you can command me to the 
extent of my ability. 

The idea of forming an Eastern Star Degree came to me when 
I was confined to my house from the effects of an accident, in 
1850. For several years I had felt the necessity of some system 
of what was then called "Lady Masonry." There were several 
degrees then in existence — such as the Good Samaritan, Heroine 



136 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of Jericho, the Master Mason's Daughter — but they did not prove 
successful and the ladies slighted them. In talking the matter 
over with my wife, she thought these degrees of little value. I 
thought that as I had been traveling for several years, and had 
considerable experience and observation, I could do better. So I 
set to work and wrought out the whole system, not as it now is, 
but the basis of what is now. This I first conferred upon my 
wife and a couple of neighbors, and they pronounced it a success. 
I see plainly now that if I had given my life to the work it could 
have been made a great and world-wide institution. I conferred 
it for many years and upon many thousand people, but it needed 
some thorough organization to make it more successful; and to 
that end, in 1855, Constellations were organized upon a Ritual 
gotten up at great expense, but it was found that the work was 
too heavy, it being almost impossible in an average town to get 
ability to render it properly, so that the movement resulted in 
utter failure. In two or three years Families were organized, the 
Manual being used as the Ritual thereof. Though several hun- 
dred of these were organized, they very soon failed from exactly 
the opposite cause that ruined the Constellations. There was not 
enough of a dramatic nature to make the work interesting. In 
1868, Brother Macoy made me a proposition that if I would assist 
him in getting up a Chapter Ritual he would furnish the neces- 
sary money to make it a success. This was accepted and carried 
out. Those here from all parts of this broad land need not be 
told that it is a grand success. I well remember when there were 
not, in the whole United States, as many Knights Templars as 
are now embraced in the membership of one Commandery of 
Chicago. Not until the Triennial meeting at Hartford in 1856, did 
people look upon Knight Templarism as a success. And what is 
written of it in the events of the last week ! It has passed through 
difficulties and strifes until it is now a perfect success. If any 
Grand Chapter has any idea of withdrawing from your Body, as 
Grand Commanderies did from the General Grand Encampment, I 
would say to them, "Don't do it, I beg of you." Wait fifteen or 
twenty years and let the General Grand Chapter have a chance to 
demonstrate the good that I am sure is in it, and which -Sivill result 



« GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 137 

in such a grand success that the Masonic Fraternity will accept it 
as a helpmeet for it, and be surprised that it did not take it up 
sooner ; for, properly worked out, it will form a grand attachment 
to Freemasonry. This I felt years ago, and I trust the day will 
come when every Lodge will have in connection with it, a Chapter 
of this Order. The more there are the cheaper they can be run, 
and the more good they can accomplish. I am sorry today that 
I have not given my own personal attention for thirty years to 
this matter, and it is with sincere regret that I realize it is too 
late for me to do the good in it that I could have accomplished 
if I had begun years ago, but I am glad to know that younger 
men and women have taken hold of the work with a zeal and wis- 
dom which will assure success; and I say to you: Preserve the 
Order in unity, frown down all secession ; keep the Grand Chapter 
in rank, for in union there is strength. 

When a sister dies she receives the same honor from the Eastern 
Star that a brother does from the Fraternity, and the little ones 
are assured of care from kind friends. It is ridiculous to attempt 
to exclude women from this good work. For forty years the ex- 
clusiveness that kept women out of almost every avenue whereby 
she might gain a lievlihood, has been passing away. Because that 
in Jerusalem and its vicinity three thousand years ago women were 
excluded from participating with men in good works is no reason 
why women today should be kept in exclusion. In the Holy Land 
no woman goes to school or church. I never saw anything more 
degrading than woman's condition in that land. Shall are treat 
woman thus? We educate our daughters better than we do our 
sons. Shall Masonry push them aside? No, a wife is just as 
interested in it as a husband, and is entitled to rights and privi- 
leges to which the Easti:rn Star enables her to prove her claims. 

Now, my kind friends, accept from an old brother and friend his 
cordial good wishes for the Order's welfare and prosperity; for 
what it is in my power to do for it you can command me to the 
utmost. May the blessing of God rest upon you, and hereafter — 
not in, but beyond the Eastern Star — in those celestial man- 
sions, may we all meet, a united family. 

Well may Dr. Morris look with pride upon the result 



138 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR ^ 

of his noble conception of founding an Order whereby 
women might become co-workers in the grand aims of 
their brothers of the Masonic Fraternity, and as it 
spreads its rays to the uttermost parts of our land, it is 
well to gratefully celebrate his natal day. The mission 
of the Order is to relieve distress, administer to the suf- 
fering, and carry healing balm to the sorrowing and dis- 
consolate. May the glorious Star, as the- life-giving 
beams of the morning, shining alike through life's vicis- 
situdes in every State of our Union from the Orient to 
the Occident, from the ice-bound caves of Boreas to the 
flower-wreathed groves of Auster, glow brighter and 
brighter to a perfect day — to guide the tempest-tossed 
as with a beacon light, and gild with ambient luster the 
very portals of the tomb. 

Fourth Assembi^y, San Francisco, Calii^ornia, Au- 
gust 17-23, 1883* 

The fourth meeting of the General Grand Chapter was 
held in the city of San Francisco, August 17-23, 1883, 
when twelve Grand Chapters were represented. Twen- 
ty-seven Chapters had been organized and two Macoy 
charters had been exchanged, making a total of twenty- 
nine. Five Chapters of the jurisdiction of Ontario had 
been released to form the Grand Chapter of Ontario on 
May 3, 1882. The withdrawal of the Grand Chapter 
of New Jersey in October, 1880, and its return in 1881, 
were reported. At this date (1883) ^^e Order was 
established in thirty-seven States, Provinces, and Terri- 
tories, in thirty of which the General Grand Chapter 
Ritual is the only one used or recognized. With seven- 

^W^ilHs Brown, M.W. G. P.; Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, M. V^. G. M. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 139 

teen Grand Chapters and the Order firmly established in 
thirty-three States and Territories and with the mem- 
bers numbering over 25,000, it was recommended by the 
Most Worthy Grand Matron that a fund to be known as 
''Widows' and Orphans' Fund'' be estabHshed. "Let us 
increase our revenue, elevate our standard, erect a living 
monument of charity; contention and strife will be 
strangers among us ; peace and harmony and prosperity 
will reign supreme. Let us exercise our prerogative as 
members of the Order for its general good. Let us pro- 
tect our sisters and brothers as far as truth, honor, and 
justice shall warrant. Let us watch our words that they 
may speak evil of none ; our actions, for they speak loud- 
er than words ; our thoughts, for with purity of thought 
our words and actions must be justice, tempered with 
charity ; our conduct, that example may clasp hands with 
precept; our hearts, for a pure and contrite heart is be- 
yond the tongue of reproach. Let us watch our words, 
actions, thoughts, conduct, and hearts, proving our fidel- 
ity to convictions of right and duty ; our obedience to the 
demands of honor and justice ; our loyalty to kindred and 
friends; our faith in the hour of trial, and our zealous 
advocacy of the Truth." 

A committee was appointed whose duty it was to re- 
ceive all proposed amendments to the Ritual and report 
upon the same at the next regular meeting of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter. Two amendments were made to 
the Constitution at this meeting, which referred to the 
legally appointed proxies and named the four officers 
who are entitled to such proxy representation. 



140 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Thd Fif^TH Statkd Assi:mbIvY, St. Louis, Missouri, 
SE:pTi:MB]i:R 23-25, 1886' 

The fifth meeting was held in St. Louis, Missouri, 
September 23-25, 1886, ten Grand Chapters being repre- 
sented. Twenty-nine Chapters had been organized and 
one Macoy Chapter reorganized, making a total of thirty, 
while thirteen Chapters had been released to form the 
Grand Chapter of Texas on July 20, 1884. The address 
of the Most Worthy Grand Matron includes her report 
of a visit to Queen Esther Chapter No. i, at Louisville, 
Kentucky, which chanced to be the regular meeting at 
which the presentation of Dr. Rob Morris's name for 
membership was made, and Dr. Morris was duly accept- 
ed and initiated. 

At this meeting, the fifth of the General Grand Chap- 
ter, Dr. Morris was conducted to the Grand East and 
saluted with grand honors, after which he addressed the 
General Grand Body as follows : 

I have no language that will fitly express my thanks for the 
complimentary introduction you have given me. It is by the 
favor of Almighty God that I am permitted once more to meet 
the General Grand Chapter. Ever since the organization of this 
honorable body in 1876, I have follovi^ed its progress with pro- 
found interest and ardent prayers for your success. I cannot deny 
that I was surprised, perhaps mortified, that I was not consulted 
in the original organization of this Body., seeing that the East- 
e:rn Star was strictly a matter of my own conception, it seemed 
strange to me and to my friends, that when the subject was 
deemed worthy of a national recognition, that I was not invited 
to the convention in 1876, though living only four hours distant 
from the place. This is my answer to the question, a thousand 
times asked me, why I did not take an interest in the movements 

5 Rollin C. Gaskill, M. W. G. P. ; Mrs. Jennie E. Matthews, M. W. G. M. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 141 

of the General Grand Chapter during the first four years of its 
existence. 

But when at Chicago, in 1880, you welcomed me with such 
honor, made me a life member and even adopted my birthday as 
the day of your annual festival, then you rolled away the re- 
proach from me. Then you awakened every sentiment of grati- 
tude in my heart. Then I promised you my best efforts in the 
promotion of the great work in which you are engaged. 

I think there are but few delegates present who have not re- 
ceived letters from me in reply to inquiries upon the laws and 
usages of the Eastern Star. You will bear witness that I always 
urged you to obey the laws of your Grand and General Grand 
Chapter, to respect the decisions of the officers set above you and 
to perform strictly the duties which you voluntarily assumed when 
you became members of the Eastern Star. When complaints 
have been made to me I have answered that I am not the execu- 
tive and have no power to decide questions referred to me. If I 
have been of any service to you since you elected me a life mem- 
ber six years ago, it has been in the interest of peace, harmony, 
and submission to law. 

As a token of respect, I beg to offer a brief poem written for 
this occasion : ^ 

If to our world dear lost ones would descend, 

If Ruth and Martha would in kindness bend, 

With Esther and Electa from the sky 

And sanctify our harmony and joy, 

I think while in these roseate bonds we meet, 
Our happiness this morning were complete. 

So hard is life, so anxious and unsure. 

So much there is to combat and endure, 

We need a greater than an earthly hope. 

To buoy our dull, despondent spirits up ; 

Oh God, Thou fountain of all-perfect love. 
Send messengers of comfort from above. 



^ I/ines composed for the convocation of the General Grand Chapter, 
O.E.S., September, 1886, by Rob Morris, LL.D., Patriarch of the Order. 



142 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

So shall this Conclave of the Eastern Star, 

Be like the gatherings where the angels are; 

So shall one purpose occupy each heart 

And give full consolation e'er we part; 

While every evil thought shall fade away 
And naught remain but one perpetual day. 

Brother Morris asked that a committee be appointed 
to define the power and duties of a life member, which 
committee reported as follows and the report was 
adopted : 

Your committee to whom was referred the question of the 
power and privileges of Brother Robert Morris in this General 
Grand Chapter, respectfully report that the liife membership 
heretofore conferred on Brother Morris by this Grand Body, was 
honorary alone and did not confer on the said brother the right 
to vote in this General Grand Chapter. We would recommend that 
the following resolution be adopted : 

Resolved, That Brother Robert Morris be accorded member- 
ship in this General Grand Chapter, so far as to allow him to 
present resolutions and other written documents for its considera- 
tion, and also to participate in all discussions. 

Jurisdiction was assumed over Mississippi by the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, in behalf of the General Grand 
Chapter, it having developed that the Grand Chapter of 
that State had become dormant and ceased to exist. 

Recognition had been withdrawn from the State of 
Minnesota, on account of gross violations of Eastern 
Star law, and a new Grand Chapter had been organized 
and recognized. This was a matter that provoked much 
controversy and occupied the attention of the General 
Grand Chapter for three consecutive meetings, and was 
a disturbing element in the progress of the work in the 
State of Minnesota for a period of ten years. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 143 

The address of the Most Worthy Grand Patron in 
1886, was largely devoted to a statement of the Minne- 
sota troubles and his action in the premises, which at- 
tempted the abolition of the old Grand Chapter and the 
assumption of jurisdiction over the Order in that State 
and the subsequent organization of another Grand Chap- 
ter. The first ofiicial manifestation of the trouble was 
in a criticism by the Grand Patron, in his address to the 
Grand Chapter in 1883, of the work as exemplified in 
Minneapolis Chapter No. 9, which resulted in a declara- 
tion by the Grand Chapter that the work was not an in- 
fraction of the Ritual, which was the only action in the 
matter ever taken by the Grand Chapter. The follow- 
ing year the matter was presented by the Grand Matron 
in her address, but before action was taken and before 
the election and other routine business had been disposed 
of, the Grand Chapter adjourned without appointing a 
day or date upon which to again reassemble. Then an 
edict was issued by the Grand Matron dated March 30, 
1885, suspending all the officers and members of the 
Minneapolis Chapter from all the rights and privileges 
of the Order until the next meeting of the Grand Chap- 
ter. The Grand Secretary being a member of No. 9, 
Minneapolis, on April 7th the Grand Matron issued a 
notice relieving her of the duties of that office and ap- 
pointing another sister to fill the vacancy. 

Following this came a call for a special meeting of the 
Grand Chapter, which was held May 13, 1885, and at 
which all the acts of the Grand Matron were approved 
and a new corps of officers elected. At this stage the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron issued an edict, and when 



144 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the matter was presented to the General Grand Chapter, 
it took action as follows : 

Resolved, That in his edict of withdrawal of recognition of the 
Grand Chapter of Minnesota the Most Worthy Grand Patron was 
justified by the exigencies of the case, and this General Grand 
Chapter confirms his action. 

Resolved, That the Most Worthy Grand Patron be authorized 
to call a convention of all the Chapters in Minnesota claiming to 
work under the authority of both the so-called Grand Chapters 
of the State, and that he, in person or by deputy, proceed to that 
convention and organize a new Grand Chapter, consisting of all 
the Chapters willing to become members of this new Grand Chap- 
ter, and that no other body but the one thus organized be recog- 
nized by this General Grand Chapter. 

The newly elected Most Worthy Grand Patron ac- 
cordingly, on October 21st following, issued the call as 
directed, fixing the time for the meeting November 3, 
1886, but before that time he cancelled the same, and 
later, finding it to be for the best interests of all con- 
cerned to do so, issued an edict requiring all Chapters to 
recognize the original Grand Chapter, and restoring rec- 
ognition to the same on March 25, 1887, to take efifect 
within ninety days thereafter. 

At the meeting of the General Grand Chapter in 1889 
this action was confirmed, and all Chapters in the State 
were ordered to make report and pay dues to said Grand 
Chapter under penalty of forfeiture of all rights, and in 
compliance herewith, on the 25th day of June, 1887, full 
recognition was effected and this action was confirmed. 
The Minnesota Grand Chapter was ordered to receive 
such Chapters as made reports and paid dues into full 
membership, under penalty of a withdrawal of recogni- 
tion of the Grand Chapter. The Grand Chapter failing 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 145 

to comply with these conditions, recognition was with- 
drawn April 14, 1 89 1, and at the meeting of the General 
Grand Chapter in 1892 what was known as Grand Chap- 
ter No. 2 was recognized as the only Grand Chaptef of 
Minnesota. By the tactful and conservative adminis- 
tration and the support of the leading members of the 
Order in both divisions, a consoHdation of all bodies 
under one head and the recognition thereby of all Chap- 
ters and past Grand Officers, was effected May 10, 1894, 
since which time peace and harmony have prevailed. 

At this meeting it was ordered that ''The jewels of a 
Grand Chapter be the emblems within a star, or triangle, 
within a pentagon. That the jewels of the General 
Grand Chapter be the emblems within a star, or a tri- 
angle, within a circle.'' At a later meeting by the adop- 
tion of the Revised Ritual in 1889, the jewels of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter were made like those of a Grand 
Chapter, with the addition of an outer circle. 

Sixth AssKMBi^Y, Indianapolis, Indiana, Si:pte:mbe:r 

25-27, 1889' 

The sixth meeting of the General Grand Chapter was 
held at Indianapolis, Indiana, September 25-27, 1889, at 
which time twelve Grand Chapters were represented, 
including two delegations from Minnesota, and one sub- 
ordinate Chapter. Twenty-eight Chapters had been or- 
ganized and twenty-seven had been released to organize 
four Grand Chapters : Grand Chapter of Washington, 
organized March 26, 1889; Grand Chapter of Ohio, or- 
ganized August 8, 1889; Grand Chapter of Indian Ter- 
ritory, organized August 19, 1889; Grand Chapter of 

7 Jefferson S. Conover, M. W. G. P. ; Mrs. Mary A. Flint, M. W. G. M. 



146 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR ' 

South Dakota, organized July ii, 1889. On August 8, 
1889, jurisdiction was resumed over the territory of On- 
tario because of the Grand Chapter having become dor- 
mant. 

For the second time, New Jersey declared her with- 
drawal from the General Grand Chapter and has since 
remained without the jurisdiction of this body. The 
Most Worthy Grand Matron was made the executive 
head of the General Grand Body, the business of organ- 
izing Chapters and granting charters still remaining the 
duty of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. The com- 
mittee on revision of the Ritual reported and it was 
adopted that all Rituals now in use be exchanged, free 
of charge, for the revised edition as adopted. 

It was during the year preceding the sixth meeting of 
the General Grand Chapter that the Order was called 
upon to mourn the loss of one who was present at the 
last meeting as an honored guest. Dr. Rob Morris. It 
is to his inspired genius that the Order owes its exist- 
ence and the entire membership recognizes him as its 
author and founder. The death of this venerable patri- 
arch occurred at his home in La Grange, Kentucky, July 
31, 1888, he having nearly completed the three-score and 
ten of life's allotted span. Immediately following his 
death, the following notice, under date of August 3, 
1888, was sent to the members of the Order throughout 
the world, giving the intelligence of the mournful event : 

Once more the grim reaper, death, has wielded the sickle; this 
time gathering into the great garner of eternity, grain fully ripe. 
Our beloved friend, the venerable Patriarch of our Order, Robert 
Morris, LL.D., has been called from this world, where his labor 
was so active, to that rest in Paradise of which he so loved to 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 147 

speak and write. He died of paralysis at his home in LaGrange, 
Kentucky, on Tuesday, July 31st, aged seventy years. 

Brother Morris made Masonry his life-work and all members 
of the Order of the Eastern Star should especially cherish his 
memory, for to him we owe the very existence of our Order. 
His fertile brain, fluent tongue and ready pen brought our Order 
into being, and sent it forth upon the grand mission in which it 
is now actively engaged. 

Brother Morris was made an honorary member of the General 
Grand Chapter in Chicago, on August 20, 1880. At the last 
meeting in St. Louis, his words of wisdom were intently listened 
to. He has gone from our midst; but the mighty influence of 
his life and work, who can estimate? They cease not with his 
mortal life, but while he rests in the arms of the tender Savior, 
whom he loved so well and so reverently worshipped, the en- 
nobling influence of his work shall be felt in an ever widening 
circle as the years roll on ; and wherever the Order of the Eastern 
Star shall be known, the name of Rob Morris shall be held in 
loving remembrance. 

Let us emulate his virtues, his unfeigned piety and his noble 
Christian character, and be guided in our lives by those pure 
principles which he enunciated, and which he learned from the 
teachings of the blessed Jesus. 

It is requested that this letter be read in all Chapters at the 
first meeting after the receipt thereof, and that all the Chapter 
rooms and jewels be draped in mourning for the space of sixty 
days, in memory of our distinguished brother. 

It is also suggested that Brother Morris' birthday anniversary 
(August 31) which was made the Festal Day of the Order, by 
action of the General Grand Chapter in 1880, be this year observed 
as a Memorial Day by the Order generally, in such appropriate 
manner as may be found practicable by the different Chapters. 
Jefferson S. Conover, M. W. G. P. 
Mary A. Flint, M. W. G. M. 

WiLUS D. Engle, R. W. Grand Secretary. 



148 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Skve:nth Assdmbi^y, C01.UMBUS, Ohio, Skpte:mbe:r 15- 

17, 1892^ 

This meeting will ever stand as a monument to the 
ability of woman to preside with the same degree of com- 
petency as is shown by man. Most Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron, Mrs. Nettie Ransford, demonstrated to the Eastern 
Star world that in the change of the executive head to 
the Most Worthy Grand Matron, the business of the 
three preceding years had been carried forward in the 
same degree of perfection, and with the greatest possible 
tact and discretion that could be exercised. It was here 
acknowledged that the added responsibility given to the 
Most Worthy Grand Matron by the change in the con- 
stitution, making her the chief executive during the re- 
cess of the General Grand Chapter, conveyed not only a 
position of honor and trust, but duties that would require 
time, thought, and wisdom, and that these demands were 
within her ability to perform with credit. 

Added to the change in the executive arrangements 
of the two highest officers, for the first time in history 
the office of Right Worthy Grand Secretary had been 
filled by a sister — Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, of Chicago, 
Illinois, who has continued to perform the duties of this 
office uninterruptedly, from her first election in 1889; she 
was reelected 1892, 1895, 1898, 1901, 1904, 1907, 1910, 
and 191 3. Twenty-four years of official service has made 
the name of Lorraine J. Pitkin familiar in every country 
where there exists a Chapter of the Eastern Star. It is 
impossible at this time to see the far-reaching effect of 
her influence or appraise the full value of her counsel 
and advice to the thousands of members and officers. 



8 Mrs. Nettie Ransford, M. W. G. M. ; Benjamin Lynds, M. W. G. P. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 149 

Sixteen Grand Chapters and two subordinate Chap- 
ters under the immediate jurisdiction of the G. G. C. were 
represented at the seventh assembly. Fifty-four Chap- 
ters under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chap- 
ter, with a membership of 2860, had been released to 
organize Grand Chapters in Oregon, Montana, Wiscon- 
sin, New Hampshire, Colorado, and Maine. As the 
years pass it is demonstrated that wherever the prin- 
ciples of the Order find a lodgment, the prejudice arising 
from lack of knowledge is speedily removed, and worthy 
men and women from every vocation in life become 
earnest seekers after the true light and knowledge of the 
Eastern Star. 

Eighth Asse:mbi.y, Boston, Massachusetts, August 

29-30, 1895^ 

At the eighth meeting, twenty-one Grand Chapters 
and nine Chapters under the jurisdiction of the General 
Grand Chapter were represented; fifty-eight Chapters 
had been organized and eighteen had been released to 
organize two Grand Chapters — one on June 14, 1894, 
at Valley City, the Grand Chapter of North Dakota, and 
one November 22, 1894, the Grand Chapter of Pennsyl- 
vania, at a meeting held at Scranton. 

The Right Worthy Grand Secretary gave a most ex- 
cellent report of the work done during the World's Fair, 
giving in detail the efiforts put forth by the Order to 
spread abroad the valuable aims and purposes of the 
Order. The result of maintaining this "Corner" for the 
Order of the Eastern Star in the organization room of 
the Woman's Building was far-reaching. It did much 

9 Mrs. Mary C. Snedden, M.W.G.M.; James R. Donnell, M. W. G. P. 



150 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

to bring the Order to the attention of Masons and their 
relatives. 

The Right Worthy Grand Secretary also reported a 
very successful program on Eastern Star Day at the 
World's Congress of Women held in Chicago, May i6, 

1893- 

By action of this General Grand Body, the officers to 
be elected were made to include the Worthy Grand Con- 
ductress and the Worthy Grand Associate Conductress. 
These two officers had previously been appointive. 

The address of the Most Worthy Grand Matron affec- 
tionately mentioned the death of Sister Charlotte Morris, 
wife of Rob Morris, the founder of the Order of the 
Eastern Star, and recommended that a page be set apart 
in the Proceedings in memory of her, which request was 
most cordially approved. 

The name of Robert Macoy will ever stand associated 
with that of the founder of the Order, Dr. Rob Morris. 
For many years they worked together, the one originat- 
ing the Order, the other with his executive ability put- 
ting it into an organized system, without which it would 
have been a failure. Robert Macoy was born October 
4, 1816, and died January 9, 1895. It is fitting to accord 
to his memory the honor due for his many years of earn- 
est labor for, and love of the Eastern Star, and the Most 
Worthy Grand Matron at this meeting asked that a suit- 
able page be set apart in the Proceedings in memory of 
Brother Robert Macoy, as well as Charlotte Morris and 
other honored dead. 

The report of the committee on necrology contained 
the following : 

Sister Charlotte M. Morris, widow of the Patriarch of our 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 151 

Order, Brother Rob Morris, was the first person upon whom the 
degrees were conferred and was a helpmeet for him throughout 
all her subsequent years, which were so actively devoted to Free- 
masonry. 

Robert Macoy, Past Grand Patron of New York, although never 
connected with this body, but rather opposed to it, rendered most 
valuable service to the Order by his talent and great executive 
ability, giving it the Chapter form of organization which has 
resulted in its present highly prosperous condition. We gladly 
then cover what we deem his failings, believing that he honestly 
held and battled for his views, with the broad mantle of charity, 
and express the sense of loss we must feel as an Order, and in- 
scribe his name upon the General Grand Chapter memorial roll. 

Ninth Assembly, Washington, D. C, Skpte^mbkr 2y- 

30, 1898- 

The ninth assembly of the General Grand Chapter was 
held in Washington, D. C, September 27-31, 1898. Six- 
ty-five Chapters had been organized and eleven Chapters 
released to form two Grand Chapters. The Grand 
Chapter of Rhode Island was organized August 22, 
1895, and the Grand Chapter of the District of Columbia 
was organized April 30, 1896. This infant Grand Chap- 
ter of less than two years of life assumed the delightful 
and responsible duty of entertaining the General Grand 
Chapter, officiating as hostess to that honorable body at 
its Ninth Triennial Assembly, and though the youngest 
of the sisterhood of Grand Chapters, she received as her 
guests the most distinguished company of sisters and 
brothers within this great fraternity. 

Twenty-six Grand Chapters were represented, to- 
gether with representatives of the Grand Chapters of 

10 Mrs. Mary E. Partridge, M. W. G. M. ; H. H. Hinds, M. W. G. P. 



152 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York, not members 
of the body. At the Eighth Triennial Assembly held in 
Boston three years previous, the Right Worthy Grand 
Secretary was instructed to invite the four Grand Chap- 
ters which had not yet become constituent members of 
the General Grand Chapter (Connecticut, New Jersey, 
New York, and Vermont) to send representatives to the 
next assembly with the result that all were represented 
except Vermont at the same assembly. A committee 
was appointed to confer with them and subsequently a 
report was submitted opening the way for the affiliation 
of the Grand Chapters above mentioned with the General 
Grand Chapter. 

The opening ceremony for the General Grand Chap- 
ter, also the closing ceremony were adopted and includ- 
ed with the printed Proceedings of the 1898 assembly. 
They provide the manner of conducting that portion of 
the assemblage of this honored body, with provisions 
further for exercises both elegant and becoming, though 
differing slightly, from that prescribed for the subordi- 
nate Chapters and for the Grand Chapters. 

The Right Worthy Grand Secretary reported that a 
copy of the "Test Oath" had been sent to all Chapters 
under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter at 
the time the report blanks were sent, December i, 1895, 
with full information for its use. 

Several Grand Chapters having requested the secret 
work in cipher, the Right Worthy Grand Secretary had 
same prepared and supplied to such Grand Chapters as 
preferred to have it in this manner. 

By the organization of seven Chapters in the State of 
Virginia, more territory engaged actively in the O. E. S. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 153 

work was recognized, where "steadily the Star shines 
brightly on, increasing in brilliancy with each added 
Chapter, to eventually become one more Grand Jurisdic- 
tion/' 

Tdnth Triijnniai, Asse:mbi,y, Detroit, Michigan, 
Si:pTE:MBi:R 24-27, 1901^^ 

The Tenth Triennial Assembly was held in the Ma- 
sonic Temple in the city of Detroit, Michigan, September 
24-27, 1901, with representatives present from thirty- 
one Grand and one subordinate Chapter. Sixty-four 
Chapters had been organized, eighty-seven Chapters had 
been released to organize the Grand Chapters of Mary- 
land, Arizona, Louisiana, Tennessee, Georgia, and Ala- 
bama, and recognition of the Grand Chapters of Con- 
necticut and Vermont as constituent members of the 
General Grand Chapter had been declared; jurisdiction 
had been resumed over the Chapters in Nevada which 
Chapters had, at a previous meeting of the General 
Grand Chapter, been placed under the jurisdiction of the 
Grand Chapter of California. 

The committee on ritual to which was referred the 
question concerning the proper position of the five-point- 
ed star, reported, and the report was adopted, that : 

Your committee finds, according to the oldest authentic Ritual 
of the Order extant, the Tessara, which was an emblem to be 
used by members, was made with one point down, and that in 
every subsequent Ritual in which reference is made to badges or 
jewels containing a star, it was to be thus worn. It finds that 
in the various signets used in the Order's history, from the Morris 
signet of about 1860 down, the star has been represented with 
the white point down. There can be but one opinion as to what 

" Mrs. Hattie E. Ewing, M. W. G. M. ; Nathaniel Gearhart, M. W. G. P. 



154 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

is the proper position of the star, so far as established both by 
its Ritual and by practice of the Order. In Masonry the five- 
pointed star is represented with two points down, and in the teach- 
ings of ancient mythology the five-pointed star with one point 
down was an emblem used to represent the goat of Mendes — a 
God of Lust — but it does not consider that this Order is com- 
pelled to conform to the Masonic custom in the use of this em- 
blem, much less to the heathen practice, feeling, as it does that, 
even if its mythological significance was one of evil, it has been 
redeemed from the domain of Satan and converted into an emblem 
of good by its half century of use by this Order, so beneficial to 
humanity. 

It is worthy the attention of all members of the Order, 
that the decision of the Most Worthy Grand Matron, 
that "gross and confirmed habits of intoxication proved 
against a member of the Order of the Eastern Star, man 
or woman, are sufficient cause for expulsion," was con- 
curred in at this session and therefore is our guide in 
this particular. In performing their fraternal duties 
members of the Order must regard their acts as the con- 
necting links which are to bind the past to the future. 
Devotion to the principles of the Order should be uplift- 
ing and soul-inspiring and with the Master's touch upon 
their acts, lives will be more earnest, with a desire to up- 
lift all mankind until they shall stand in the presence of 
Him whose Star they have seen in the East. 

The organizing of Chapters in India, British Colum- 
bia, Hawaiian Islands, and Scotland was reported, with 
active interest in each place mentioned. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 155 

Ei.e:vi:nth Trii^nniaIv Assi:mbi.y, St. Louis, Missouri, 
Si:pTKMBi:R 19-21, 1904^^ 

The Eleventh Triennial Session assembled in Scottish 
Rite Cathedral, St. Louis, Missouri, September 19-21, 
1904, thirty-nine Grand and one subordinate Chapter 
being represented. Fifty-nine Chapters had been or- 
ganized, seven in Nevada transferred from the jurisdic- 
tion of California to that of the General Grand Chapter, 
and one hundred fifteen had been released to form eight 
Grand Chapters : Grand Chapter of Oklahoma, organ- 
ized February 14, 1902; Grand Chapter of New Mexico, 
April II, 1902; Grand Chapter of Idaho, April 18, 1902; 
Grand Chapter of Kentucky, June 9, 1903; Grand Chap- 
ter of Florida, June 7, 1904; Grand Chapter of Virginia, 
June 22, 1904; Grand Chapter of Scotland, August 20, 
1904. 

Reports showed that the Order had been extended to 
the Philippine Islands and a petition for charter had been 
received from Manilla; Mayon Chapter No. i was or- 
ganized August 29, 1904, with thirty-two petitioners. 

During the year the Most Worthy Grand Matron vis- 
ited Scotland and on August 20, 1904, at a convention 
of the Chapters of the Order in Scotland, held in Glas- 
gow, the following Concordat, in the form of resolutions, 
was passed: 

A. That all the Chapters of the Order of the Easte^rn 
Star in Scotland here represented, or declaring their adherence 
thereto, shall be and are hereby united under one jurisdiction; 
and the representatives of such Chapters now present or adher- 
ing, not only bind themselves to sign this resolution in token of 
their acceptance thereof but also bind and oblige themselves and 

12 Mrs. Uura B. Hart, M. W. G. M.; L. Cabell Williamson, M. W. G. P. 



156 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the Chapters which they represent to ratify and confirm the same 
and to support and further said procedure as may be requisite 
to carry this resolution into effect. 

B. That the body formed by this resolution shall be known at 
present as the Grand Chapter of Scotland, but shall have supreme 
and exclusive jurisdiction over Great Britain, Ireland, and the 
whole British dominions (excepting only, those upon the Conti- 
nent of America) and that a Supreme or General Grand Chapter 
of the British Empire shall be formed as soon as Chapters are 
instituted therein and it seems expedient to do so. 

C. That the Constitution and the laws of the late existing 
Supreme Grand Chapter of the Order of the Easte:rn Star in 
Scotland shall, with some slight alterations, be, and are hereby 
adopted as the Constitution and Laws of the Grand Chapter now 
formed. 

D. That the Ritual to be used by all the Chapters under this 
Constitution shall be that now issued by the General Grand Chap- 
ter of America. 

E. That this Grand Chapter as now constituted shall take 
over all Assets and Liabilities of the preceding Supreme Grand 
Chapter of the Order in Scotland. 

F. That all Grand office bearers and Past Grand office bearers 
of the preceding Supreme Grand Chapter of the Order in Scotland 
shall be and are hereby accorded Past Grand Rank and shall be en- 
titled to all privileges and precedence appertaining thereto. 

G. That the office bearers of the Grand Chapter as nov/ consti- 
tuted be here and now nominated elected and installed to hold 
office till January, 1906. 

H. That the General Grand Chapter of America whose Ritual 
we have adopted will exchange with the late Supreme Grand 
Chapter of Scotland an official number (three) of said Ritual, in 
lieu of those the said body have been using, the same to be fur- 
nished free of charge. 

A detailed report from the national chairman, O. E. S. 
World's Fair ways and means committee, showed that 
the Order contributed $5,742 to the maintenance of 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 157 

Eastern Star headquarters in the Fraternity Building 
during the St. Louis Exposition, and a home was main- 
tained in the Temple of Fraternity, where a cordial wel- 
come awaited all members, during the St. Louis fair. 

Upon the invitation of the Grand Matron of Missouri, 
a visit was made to the Masonic Home of Missouri locat- 
ed in St. Louis. 

It was voted that the General Grand Chapter shall 
meet every third year at such time and place as may be 
determined by a vote of the General Grand Chapter at 
its previous meeting — the first five officers of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter to change the place of meeting in 
case of any extraordinary emergency. 

Twe:i,fth Trii:nniaIv Asse:mbly, MiIvWauke:e:, Wis- 
consin, Se:pte:mbkr 4-6, 1907^^ 

The Twelfth Triennial Assembly convened in Milwau- 
kee, September 4-6, 1907, with forty-three Grand Chap- 
ters and one subordinate Chapter represented. Twenty- 
five Chapters had been organized and fifty-nine Chap- 
ters had been released to form the following: Grand 
Chapter of North Carolina, organized May 20, 1905; 
Grand Chapter of Nevada, September 19, 1905; Grand 
Chapter of Utah, September 20, 1905; Grand Chapter 
of Mississippi, May 29, 1906; Grand Chapter of South 
Carolina, June i, 1907. 

At this time the Order had extended into every State 
and Territory of our Union, except one, and into the 
continents and islands beyond the seas; into two hemi- 
spheres; into the tropics and into that beautiful "land 

13 Mrs. Madeleine B. Conkling, M. W. G. M. ; Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn, 
M. W. G. P. 



158 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of the midnight sun." They were bound together by the 
golden links of love, animated by purposes lofty and 
aspirations high, each following the Star as it lights the 
way to that higher plane toward which the race has been 
toiling for centuries — a plane where the war of creeds 
will cease, the voice of selfishness be hushed, the conten- 
tions of unholy strife be forgotten — a plane where the 
people of each race and every clime will join hands as 
one great family, kneel at a common altar, and offer a 
common plea for the protective watchfulness and care 
and guidance from God the Father. Following the 
guiding light of our Star, armed with the sword of 
Truth, the shield of Charity, and the armor of Loving 
Kindness, a victorious triumph will be the reward. 

The Grand Chapter of Washington, which had with- 
drawn from the General Grand Chapter, resumed al- 
legiance thereto. A German version of the Ritual — the 
translation as made by Brother August Torpe — was 
adopted and ordered printed. 

Upon the filing of the official report of the chairman 
of the St. Louis Order of the Eastern Star headquarters 
fund, it was learned that a balance of more than a thou- 
sand dollars was in the hands of the Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary from this source. This amount, with 
sufficient added to increase the total amount to $2,738, 
was given to the maintenance of Eastern Star headquar- 
ters at the Lewis and Clark Exposition at Portland, Ore- 
gon, through the Right Worthy Grand Secretary. 

For several triennial terms, the executive officers of 
the General Grand Chapter had felt that its constitution 
was deficient in many particulars. The organic law of 
1876 had become, in 1907, incompetent, leaving the 
weightier matters of law and jurisprudence of the Order 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 159 

of the Eastern Star to the individual opinion of the mo- 
ment, and to the intelHgence of whomsoever happened 
to be in office, both in the General Grand Chapter and 
in the Grand Chapters of its constituency. Therefore, 
a committee, consisting of five representative members 
from the east, west, north, south, and middle States, had 
been officially appointed by the Most Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron, with instructions to formulate an instrument of 
organic law that would meet the requirements of the 
highest body of the Order, which body is the sole source 
of the ritual and its control. The Most Worthy Grand 
Matron incorporated in her address this new constitu- 
tion, rules, and regulations to govern both the General 
Grand and the Grand Chapter deliberations, which were, 
after amendment, adopted. The powers of the General 
Grand Body as defined therein, give it exclusive sov- 
ereignty over the Ritual and government of the Order, 
but the words "and government" were stricken from the 
laws at the 1910 meeting. 

It was adopted that the color appropriate to the office 
of Worthy Matron and Associate Matron shall be 
purple; for the points of the star, the color appropriate 
to the several degrees, and for all the remaining officers, 
the five colors combined. 

The following poem was ordered printed in the Pro- 
,ceedmgs : ^^^ eastern star " 

God bless our Eastern Star, 
Thy praise we sing; 
Our homage from afar, 

1* Adapted to the tune of "Nearer My God, to Thee." 
To our loved Worthy Grand Matron, Sister Alice M. Metcalf, these 
lines are affectionately dedicated by Dr. S. M. M'Millan, Worthy Grand 
Patron, O. E. S., Maryland. Riverdale, Md., June 25, 1907. 



160 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

To thee we bring. 
We love thy precepts true; 
Thy lessons ever new; 
And to thee cling. 

Oh, may we ever stand 

In thy pure light, 

To labor hand in hand, 

For truth and right, 

Our cause will not be vain. 

For "Strength to strength" we'll gain. 

To our loved "Golden Chain," 

By Thy great might. 

We then should strive to prove 

Our loyalty. 

By our unselfish love 

And "Charity." 

Then we will surely find 

Our lives with Thee entwined. 

And teach to all mankind 

Fraternity. 

The three years administration which closed with the 
1907 assembly, was marked by the great effort of the 
executive officer to bring about uniformity of ritual 
work, as well as law, and to the end that the Grand Chap- 
ters and the General Grand Chapter should maintain a 
mutual feeling of confidence one toward the other, thus 
uniting the interests and efforts into one harmonious 
whole, resulting in more beneficial effort than could 
otherwise obtain. Many of the Grand Chapters, in 
order to comply, gave up customs, some of which were 
very dear to them through long association. For the 
first time since its organization in 1876, the General 
Grand Chapter exemplified its own ritual work. 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 161 

Thirti:i:nth Trie:nniai, Asse:mbi.y, JacksonviIvIvE:, 

F1.0RIDA, NovE:MBi:R 8-10, 1910^^ 

The Thirteenth Triennial Assembly convened in Jack- 
sonville, Florida, November 8-10, 1910, with forty-five 
Grand and seventeen subordinate Chapters under the 
immediate jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter. 
Eighteen Chapters had been organized, as well as one 
Grand Chapter. On February 12, 1909, at Guthrie, the 
Grand Chapter of Oklahoma was organized from the 
territorial domain formerly representing the Territory 
of Oklahoma and Indian Territory, which were, by 
mutual consent of the two Grand Jurisdictions, consol- 
idated and emerged on the date above named as the 
Grand Chapter of Oklahoma. 

In the address of the Most Worthy Grand Matron, she 
called attention to the fact that all Grand Jurisdictions 
had either established a home for the care of its members 
or had some home interests ; in many having united with 
the Masonic Order and assisting in the work of the 
Masonic Home. Others had established a home fund, 
looking toward the erection of a home at such a time as 
finances will render same practicable. 

During her term of office, the Most Worthy Grand 
Matron had been the guest of the Grand Matron of the 
Grand Chapter of New Jersey, by invitation of Golden 
Link Chapter No. i, with the official stafif of Grand of- 
ficers, and witnessed the work of the ritual of the Order 
beautifully rendered, followed by the Floral Addenda. 
She had also been invited to be the guest of the Grand 
Chapter of New York, to be present at the dedication of 

15 Mrs. Ella S. Washburn, M. W. G. M. ; William H. Norris, W. M. G. P. 



162 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the Home at Waterville. Thoroughly appreciating the 
invitation, coming from this Chapter not a member of 
the body which she represented, yet showing their mu- 
tual interests to be identical in effort, she greatly re- 
gretted her inability to attend. 

Included in the Proceedings is a copy of the "J^wel 
of the General Grand Chapter,'' as designed by Sister 
Kitty Lee M'Clain, showing the various official positions 
of honor during the O. E. S. life of the Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary, Lorraine J. Pitkin, and presented to 
the General Grand Chapter at the meeting held in Jack- 
sonville, Florida. "Twenty-one years of official service 
have made the name of Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin familiar 
in every country where there exists a Chapter of the 
Eastern Star. Who can see the far-reaching effect of 
her influence ? Who can appraise the full value of her 
counsel and advice to the hundreds of members and of- 
ficers ? Who can fathom the great depth of her love for 
an Order which she has served from the days of her 
younger womanhood ? But we all agree that among our 
vast collection of gems or jewels treasured in the hearts 
of our members there is no duplicate, there is none other 
just like Lorraine J. Pitkin, the Jewel of the General 
Grand Chapter." 

We as a people need sunshine. We need bright 
things around us. We crave the affection of our fellow- 
beings and aspire to such degree of excellence in our life- 
work that we may in return gain the approval of our 
associates. Our well-being is advanced when we look 
upon bright and happy faces. God has created us with 
these requirements and in order to best attain them, we 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 163 

must first look into our own hearts and cast out all bitter- 
ness and jealousy, and never let an opportunity pass for 
doing some kind act, be it apparently trifling at the time. 
If we go to our Chapter with a smile and a pleasant 
greeting, and are ever ready to do our part toward mak- 
ing our Chapter among the very best in the jurisdiction 
to which we belong, then shall we reap a rich harvest of 
thoughts and deeds. Doctor Morris builded well when 
he gave to us this Order founded upon the principles of 
charity, truth, and loving kindness, and may we today 
give to it our best thought and effort. Are we sowing 
the good seeds or are we careless about the little things 
that formed together make the great things of this life ? 
The Order of the Eastern Star needs to be taught fra- 
ternalism as much as it needs constitutions, rules and 
regulations, or by-laws. 

He calleth us to words and deeds of love, 
As Spring calls forth from wintry crust the flowers, 
He breathes within us, spirit from above, 
As zephyrs breathe within the sunny bowers; 
He saith, "Arise, and forth you must go. 
Where duty calls, where sorrow hath its sway;" 
He points our feet the proper path, and Lo! 
He promiseth to be with us alway 

Fourte:e:nth Triknniai, Assembly, Chicago, Ii.IvI- 
Nois, Se:pte:mbe:r 23-25, 1913" 

The Fourteenth Triennial Assembly convened in Ori- 
ental Consistory Temple, Chicago, Illinois, September 
23-25, 191 3, with forty-eight Grand Chapters and eleven 
Chapters under the immediate jurisdiction represented. 

16 Mrs. M. Alice Miller, M. W. G. M. ; Rev. Willis D. Engle, M. W. G. P 



164 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Twenty-one Chapters had been released to form the 
Grand Chapter of Alberta, which was organized at Cal- 
gary, July 20, 1912, and the Grand Chapter of British 
Columbia, organized at Vancouver, July 23, 191 2. 

This vast army of workers assembled under the ban- 
ner of charity, truth, and loving kindness, brought 
the records of labor performed during the past three 
years and counseled together for the good of the Order. 
By thus meeting, friendly relations are cemented; all 
are encouraged to further efforts for good, and cheered 
on their way, with the purpose in view of promoting 
peace and harmony and advancing all that is good and 
beautiful in the Order, which, numbering about 700,000 
souls, tingles with thrift, and is riding on the high tide 
of prosperity. To these many co-workers is appointed 
the work of carrying forward the torch, already lighted, 
that will illumine the dark places of men's souls. Be- 
cause, with science-aided eyes, men have peered into the 
starlit vestibule of the Infinite and found no shape or 
form of God, they have denied His being. Engrossed 
in the present, they have thrown doubt on the future. 
The work of the Order is to stay and uphold the out- 
stretched hand of Faith, and thus aid in bringing spirit- 
ual victory to mankind ; to be so true to every friendship, 
so loyal to every trust, so faithful to every duty, that 
when the day breaks and the shadows fall, all may meet 
in a glorious reunion in the Grand Chapter above. 

A box of heather was sent from Maggie J. Foulds, 
Past Grand Matron of Scotland, and presented to the 
assembled members with greetings in part as follows : 

A sprig o' bonnie bloomin' heather, 

Pu'ed frae Grampian Mountain's grand, 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 165 

A greetin' kind, to Sisters dear, 
Frae Scotia's historic land. 

That a' the blessin's God can gie, 

May be the gree o' ane an' a' 
Wha loe the ''Star" an' lift the e'e 

To "sacred symbol" shepherds saw. 
Whilk we hae seen, an' hand sae dear, 

To worship come, frae far an' near. 

This remembrance from members across the ocean 
was a most pleasant and gratifying recognition of the 
kindly interest of the absent ones, bound together by the 
strongest of fraternal ties. 

Brother Rob. Morris, Past Grand Patron of Kentucky, 
and son of Dr. Rob Morris, the founder of the Order 
of the Eastern Star, was presented, made some very 
interesting remarks, and was the recipient of a pro- 
nounced ovation. Upon motion, the General Grand 
Chapter gave a rising vote of thanks to Brother Morris, 
with a Chautauqua salute. It was the vision of Dr. Rob 
Morris that made possible this great Order with its more 
than half a million members, who have for their guid- 
ance ''His Star in the East'' and in whose interests this 
meeting was held. 

With the compliments of the Right Worthy Associate 
Grand Matron and Right Worthy Associate Grand Pa- 
tron and in recognition of the Canadian delegates, a 
British flag was draped with the Stars and Stripes. 
Great enthusiasm was manifested by all present and the 
entire assembly arose and sang a medley composed of 
the national songs of both countries. 

Pursuant to a condition that had come about from 
different and diverging interpretations of the Concordat 



166 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

with the Grand Chapter of Scotland, it was deemed ex- 
pedient to adopt the following : 

Resolved, That this General Grand Ghapter do at this time, in 
14th Triennial Assembly, deem it expedient and in the promotion 
of harmony, to again declare and reaffirm, in accordance with 
the aforesaid Goncordat, the boundaries and confines of its juris- 
diction to be as follows : 

The entire civilized world outside the confines of the British 
possessions, except those located on the continent of America, 
which British possessions on said continent of America shall be 
under the jurisdiction of this General Grand Ghapter; and be it 
further 

Resolved, That no other body of the Order be permitted to or- 
ganize Ghapters or a Grand Ghapter within the jurisdiction of 
this General Grand Ghapter. 

This meeting was strengthened by a large attendance, 
two members of which were present not only at the or- 
ganization of the General Grand Chapter in 1876, but 
who also attended every one of the assemblies of this 
body. Thirty-seven years previous there gathered in In- 
dianapolis, Indiana, fourteen members of the Order of the 
Eastern Star, eight brothers and six sisters, representing 
five of the twelve then existing Grand Chapters, two of 
which had been organized the previous month. The 
Order, at that time, numbered 228 Chapters, and 11,814 
members. In addition to this there was a Grand Lodge 
of Adoptive Masonry in Michigan numbering 22 Lodges 
and 1,135 rnembers, which organization antedated the 
organization of the first Grand Chapter of the Order by 
nearly three years. The Grand Chapters represented 
were : New Jersey, two delegates ; California, one dele- 
gate; Indiana, five delegates; Illinois, one delegate, and 
Missouri, five delegates. Of the fourteen, ten have 



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 167 

passed out of this life, leaving four surviving, only three 
of whom have maintained an interest in the Order: 
The Rev. Willis D. Engle, who presided as Most Worthy 
Grand Patron during this meeting and whose work for 
the organization exceeded any other one member, and 
further, who is the only brother who has been present at 
every assembly; Brothers John R. Parson, of Missouri, 
and James A. Thompson, of Indiana. There was also 
at the first meeting, one sister, Mrs. Nettie Ransford, 
who at that organization meeting and all the subsequent 
meetings has rendered most valuable assistance and who 
is the only sister who has been present at every meeting. 

Considering the state of the Order at that time, the 
chaotic condition of the ritual work and jurisprudence, 
and the total lack of cooperation that had previously 
prevailed, it is evident that it required both energy and 
faith to organize a general body. The movement met 
with strenuous opposition from many of its most active 
members and workers, which required years and years 
of constant effort to eliminate and place the Order upon 
a prosperous and enduring basis. 

It required fifteen years to reach the number of a 
thousand Chapters and fifty thousand members. Con- 
trast the condition of the Order thirty-seven years ago 
and the condition today. Then we had 228 Chapters 
with 11,000 members; now we have 52 Grand Chapters, 
over 7,800 subordinate Chapters, and over 650,000 mem- 
bers, with absolute uniformity of ritual prevailing in 
every essential particular in the fifty Grand Chapters, 
with the Order making such progress that we have an 
average increase of 600 Chapters and 38,000 members 
annually. 



168 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Almost every Grand Chapter has a Home or is ac- 
cumulating a fund for that purpose. Texas has two 
Masonic Homes and is planning for a distinctively East- 
ern Star Home in the near future. The new Grand 
Chapter of Alberta, Canada, has started a fund to be 
known as "The Masonic Home and School Fund." 
Hundreds of boys and girls are in training for good 
noble citizens, who, but for Masonic influence and their 
special care at these homes and schools, might have been 
vagabonds on earth — a menace instead of a blessing to 
society. 

The Most Worthy Grand Matron prepared and em- 
bodied in her report, "Instructions to subordinate Chap- 
ters under the General Grand Chapter Order of the 
Eastern Star," which gives definite interpretation of 
the ritualistic work. The Eastern Star is a distinctive 
Order, with its own work and method of executing it. 
It needs no embellishment from other Orders; if well 
done, it is second to none in beauty, and its foundation 
principles are as enduring as truth, constancy, purity, 
faith, and love can make them. Enjoyment of every 
good is measured by the amount of interest we put into 
it, and that for which we sacrifice most seems of greatest 
value to us." 



1'^ See Appendix F for tables of statistics concerning General Grand 
Chapter and Grand Chapters. 




Mrs. Rata A. Mills, M. W. G. M. 

Most Worthy Grand Matron of the General Grand 
Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, 1913-1916 



CHAPTER V 

OiUcers of the General Grand Chapter 
Mrs. Rata Aucd Mills' 

A NATIVE-BORN Pennsylvanian who became a 
member of the Order of the Eastern Star in 1888, 
joining Keystone Chapter No. 2 which for six years was 
under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter. 
At that time there were about sixty members in the 
State, now there are over 18,000. 

From the beginning, Mrs. Mills manifested a most ten- 
der and earnest solicitation for the Order, promoting 
its interests in every way possible, and her activity was 
remarkable. When in 1894 the Grand Chapter was 
constituted she was chosen on a committee to formulate 
the first Constitution of the Grand Chapter of Pennsyl- 
vania and was elected Associate Grand Matron and in 
the following year was advanced to Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron. In 1898 she was elected Grand Secretary. By 
her untiring efiforts and unselfish devotion she did more 
than any other person to build up the O. E. S. in the 
great Keystone State. 

Sister Rata A. Mills first attended the General Grand 
Chapter, which assembly was held in St. Louis, Missouri, 
in 1904, when she was elected Right Worthy Associate 
Grand Conductress; at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1907, 

1 Most Worthy Grand Matron, Order of the Eastern Star, 1913-1916. 
Died February 9, 1916. 



170 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

was elected Right Worthy Grand Conductress; at Jack- 
sonville, Florida, in 1910, was elected Right Worthy 
Associate Grand Matron, and at Chicago, Illinois, in 
1913? was elevated to Most Worthy Grand Matron. 
Her loyalty to the good of the Order was the strength 
of her leadership in the subordinate Chapter and the 
spirit of her success in the Grand Chapter. Wherever 
she visited the Chapters her presence was felt as an in- 
spiration to better work and higher ideals. In addition 
to her zealous work in our beloved Order, she took an 
active interest in church work, being a life long attendant 
and member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mrs. 
Mills was a charter member and an officer of the Wo- 
man's Club, organized in 1899, and a member of the 
Federation of Pennsylvania Women. Mrs. Mills came 
of Revolutionary stock. Her ancestor located in Boston 
and participated in the Battle of Bunker Hill ; later set- 
tled near Philadelphia and enlisted in the Revolutionary 
War. Sister Mills was educated for the teacher's pro- 
fession but early in life married and became the helpmate 
of John C. Mills, who has been an enthusiastic Mason 
ever since reaching his majority and is now a Knight 
Templar. With his wife he joined Keystone Chapter 
No. 2, serving as Worthy Patron for three terms. Sis- 
ter Mills was a competent pharmacist and always took 
an active interest in business afifairs, but never once 
forgetting or neglecting her home. 

In honor of the first member of the Order in Pennsyl- 
vania to be elected to the most exalted position in the gift 
of the Order, Sister Margaret K. Griffith dedicated her 
composition, ''Our Beautiful Eastern Star," to Sister 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 171 

Rata Alice Mills. ^ In her letter of acceptance in recogni- 
tion of the honor conferred, she expressed the wish that 
the mission of this very expressive song could be further 
extended and that more benefits might accrue to the 
Order from this commendable effort of one of the splen- 
did workers in Pennsylvania. Following this sugges- 
tion, after careful consideration, it was decided that the 
tenets of the Order would be most fittingly served by 
making this music a gift to the O. E. S. Home Associa- 
tion of Pennsylvania. 

2 Words and music by Mrs. Margaret K. Griffith, P.W.M., Brookline 
Chapter No. 117, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Our Beautiful Eastern Star 

When the angels sang on that first Christmas morn 
To a waking world that a Saviour was born, 
Whose birth was foretold by the prophets of old, 
Our "Bright and Morning Star." 

CHORUS 

The way of the Star leads home, 

The sign of the Star means life; 
No more in sadness shall we roam. 

No more in sorrow, no more strife — 
But we'll walk with Him in white, 

In that City where all is light; 
For we have seen His Star in the East, 

And have come to worship Him, 
Oh! Star, Shine on! For we have seen 

His Star in the East, 
And have come to worship Him. 

Since that morn of morns countless voices still sing 
That the manger of Bethlehem cradles a King, 
Who is Jesus our Lord and whose Name we adore, 
Our "Beautiful Eastern Star." 

So today may we, like the shepherds of old. 
And the wise men who traveled so wide and afar, 
When we all reach Home we the face will behold, 
Of our "Bright and Morning Star." 



172 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The Home Association had the song published and 
have offered it to the Fraternity anticipating the cordial 
support of the members of the Order in this noble work, 
knowing that it will assist them in this just and laudable 
cause, and that their splendid new home so recently ac- 
quired may be benefited by this work of charity and 
loving kindness. 

Sister Rata Alice Mills, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 
passed to the higher life on February 9, 19 16, after a 
brief illness. She had but recently returned from a 
three months' trip, extending as far as the Hawaiian 
Islands, in the interests of the O. E. S. and had men- 
tioned to her friends that this trip was one of the most 
pleasing experiences of her life. The members of the 
various Grand Jurisdictions and Chapters which she 
visited are fortunate in having had the opportunity to 
meet Sister Mills, whose inspiring personality won for 
her many friends. Her presence has ever been an in- 
centive to higher ideals and nobler purposes, and her loss 
to the Order of the Eastern Star will be keenly felt 
throughout the General Grand Chapter jurisdiction. 
This is the first time in the history of the Order that the 
Most Worthy Grand Matron died during the term of 
her office. 

"1 have: sttN HIS star" 

BY MRS. RATA ALICE MILLS, M. W. G. M. 

(Written for this volume) 

When upon the mountain height, 

Piercing clouds, like dazzling snow, 
Sparkling, glowing in the light — 

All around — above, below — 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 173 

Far beyond the ethereal bar, 
I have seen His shining Star. 

When in vales of darkest gloom, 

Shadowed by the mountains vast. 
Earth seemed buried in a tomb. 

Every ray of light o'ercast. 
Still there gleamed, although afar. 
Brightly beamed that glorious Star. 

When the waves in breakers roll 

With the might of awful power. 
Threatening wreck to every soul. 

And dark silence fills the hour, 
Through the blackest clouds afar, 
Still I see Thee, wondrous Star. 

When wild storms sweep o'er the earth, 

Spreading desolation bare, 
Bringing pestilence and dearth 

On the wings of blank despair. 
Shining still, although afar, 
Kindly beams that lovely Star. 

Whatsoe'r the day shall be. 

Bleak as night or blessed with light. 
Coming ages still shall see 

Over all, that Star so bright 
Shining clear, through gates ajar, 
Look beyond and see His Star. 

GOD BLESS OUR STAR 
BY MRS. RATA AI^ICK MILLS, M. W. G. M. 

All the earth is clothed in splendor, 

Towering mountains lift their heads 
O'er the tiny, fragrant blossoms, 

Springing from their mossy beds. 
O'er head the sun is shining. 



174 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Or the moonbeams softly fall, 

Oh ! this world is full of beauty, 

And the stars watch over all. 

Sparkling streams and foaming torrents, 

Lakes, where mirrored landscapes lie, 
Perfect in their tranquil beauty, 

'Neath the azure of the sky. 
Gems of verdure clothe the branches 

Of the trees, so straight and tall, 
Oh, this world is full of beauty. 

And the stars watch over all. 

Hearts that throb with love's deep passion. 

Hearts that closely clasp our own. 
Songs that thrill the soul with gladness. 

Beauty everywhere is shown. 
And the star, our sacred emblem. 

In its glory seems to call 
Us to join in the grand vigil. 

Sweetly watching over all. 

God bless you ! So I've wished you all 

Of brightness life possesses, 
For, can there any joy at all 

Be thine, unless God blesses? 
God bless you ! So I breathe a charm 

Lest grief's dark night oppress you. 
For, how can sorrow bring you harm. 

If 'tis God's way to bless you. 

GREETING 

BY MRS. RATA ALICE; MILLS, M. W. G. M. 

Greeting to Stars, the greatest and least, 
Whose radiance is not dim, 

**For we have seen His star in the East, 
And are come to worship Him." 




Mrs. Emma Cragkr Ocobock, Acting M.W G.M. 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 175 

Charity, Truth and Loving Kindness, 

Is our motto true. 
Guiding each other through our blindness. 

As is our duty to do. 

A rich reward awaits you 

If you but do your part, 
To make the world grow better, 

By cheering a weary heart. 

Yes, we love the Eastern Star, 
With a love that naught can sever, 
"Fairest among ten thousand, thou 
Art lovely, altogether." 



Mrs. Emma Crager Ocobock^ 

Mrs. Emma Crager Ocobock was born in Berrien 
County, Michigan, and has spent her entire life in the 
southwestern portion of the Wolverine State. She was 
married in 1890 to George W. Ocobock, a prominent 
merchant and an enthusiastic Master Mason of Hart- 
ford, Michigan, where she has since resided. From Mr. 
Ocobock came the inspiration which led to the subsequent 
interest which Mrs. Ocobock has ever had in Masonry, 
the Eastern Star, and all kindred subjects. 

Being naturally imbued with the principles of char- 
ity, truth, and loving-kindness, and in order to enlarge 
her powers for doing good, Sister Ocobock was instru- 
mental in organizing Benevolence Chapter No. 46, 
O. E. S., at Hartford, Michigan, and served as its first 
Worthy Matron in 1902. 

3 Acting Most Worthy Grand Matron, General Grand Chapter 
Order of the Eastern Star. 

Written by Minnie Evans Keyes, P.G.M. of Michigan. 



176 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Upon visiting the Grand Chapter of Michigan as a 
delegate, the unusual talents and charming personality 
of this sister made for her many friends who, in 1903, 
elected her to the office of Grand Conductress. She was 
advanced in office and in 1906 became the Worthy Grand 
Matron of Michigan. She at once entered upon a period 
of unselfish and beneficial effort for the Order. Her 
presence in the subordinate Chapters, where she so kindly 
directed and encouraged the officers in the work of the 
Order and inspired in the members everywhere a greater 
effort in dispensing real fraternity, made for the better- 
ment and upHft of the Eastern Star. 

As member of the Masonic Home board of control, 
where she served for three years on the finance commit- 
tee, she again brought into play the spirit of benevolence 
and loving-kindness and the old friends in the Home will 
never forget her loving smile and kind words of com- 
fort and cheer as she took occasion to visit them at each 
meeting of the board. 

At present Sister Ocobock is a member of the board 
of control of the Masonic Home relief fund, Order of 
the Eastern Star, which fund is used to assist Chapters 
which are financially unable to maintain in the Home 
worthy sisters. 

In all her Eastern Star affiliations Sister Ocobock has 
served with a distinction which has won for her the high- 
est appreciation of the members of the Order through- 
out her State. 

She was elected to the office of Right Worthy Asso- 
ciate Grand Conductress at the General Grand Chapter 
meeting in 1907 and was advanced to the office of Right 
Worthy Grand Conductress in 1910. At the Triennial 




Dr. Geo. A. Pettigrew, M. W. G. P. 

Most Worthy Grand Patron of the General Grand 
Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, 1913-1916 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 177 

Assembly in 191 3 Sister Ocobock was made Right 
Worthy Associate Grand Matron and now, by the un- 
timely death of our esteemed and beloved sister, Mrs. 
Rata A. Mills, Most Worthy Grand Matron, Sister Oco- 
bock will assume her privileges and prerogatives. She 
will enter upon the duties of this new station with the 
same spirit of unselfish and generous devotion with 
which she served the Order in her own State. 

Michigan is proud of this queenly woman, who pos- 
sesses the love and esteem of every member of the East- 
ern Star in her State, and the large membership will 
follow her efforts into this larger field with the knowl- 
edge that refliected honors will be theirs as she carries 
out to fulfilment the plans of the General Grand Chapter. 

Ge:orgk Atwood Pe:ttigrkw, M. D.* 

George Atwood Pettigrew was born in Ludlow, Ver- 
mont, April 6, 1858, the son of Josiah Walker and Susan 
Ann (Atwood) Pettigrew, natives of Ludlow and Lon- 
donderry, Vermont, respectively. He was educated at 
the Black River Academy, of Ludlow, Vermont, the Col- 
by Academy, of New London, New Hampshire, and was 
graduated from the medical department of Dartmouth 
College, at Hanover, New Hampshire, with the class of 
1882. He began the practice of his profession at Flan- 
dreau. South Dakota, February 2, 1883, and in June, 
1884, entered into professional partnership with Dr. 
P. A. Spafford, which lasted until February, 1891, when 
he retired from the active practice and engaged in the 
real estate, loan, and banking business. He was the 
surgeon of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Rail- 

4 Most Worthy Grand Patron, Order of the Eastern Star, 1913-1916. 



178 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

road for eight years; government physician to the In- 
dians for eight years ; surgeon of the Second regiment of 
Territorial Guards and their successors, from 1885 to 
1893; surgeon-general of South Dakota under Governor 
Sheldon for two terms ; member of the board of United 
States pension examiners from 1884 to 1901 with the 
exception of one year ; surgeon of the First and Second 
regiments of South Dakota National Guard from organ- 
ization to departure for the Philippines. 

Dr. Pettigrew assisted in organizing the Flandreau 
State Bank in May, 1891, and was its president until 
July, 1903, when he resigned and moved to Sioux Falls, 
September 3d following. Until the fall of 191 3 he was 
president of the Union Savings Association of Sioux 
Falls. He served as coroner of Moody County for many 
years, and was the first to organize the movement to 
advance the interests of Flandreau and Moody County. 
He located hundreds of prosperous farmers in this coun- 
ty and lands have advanced from eight dollars per acre 
in 1891 to the present high and satisfactory prices. 

He is a Mason, and has attained the thirty-third de- 
gree. Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the Royal 
Order of Scotland, and the Red Cross of Constantine.^ 

5 Masonic Record of Dr. George Atwood Pettigrew 

King Solomon Lodge No. 14, New Hampshire: Entered Apprentice, 
July 2, 1879; Fellow Craft, June 14, 1880; Master Mason, June 14, 1880; 
dimitted, November 7, 1883. 

Flandreau Lodge No. 11, South Dakota: Admitted, January 5, 1884; 
Secretary, 1884-1885; Senior Warden, 1886-1887; Worshipful Master, 1888- 
1889 ; dimitted, October 4, 1905. 

Unity Lodge No. 130, South Dakota: Admitted November 3, 1905. 

Minnehaha Lodge No. 5: Honorary member, April 8, 1908. 

Grand Lodge of South Dakota A. F. and A. M. : Grand Pursuivant, 
1889; Grand Secretary, June 13, 1894, to 1914. 

Orient Chapter No. 18, South Dakota: Mark Master Mason, May 18, 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 179 

He served as Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter 
of Royal Arch Masons of the State since 1889 with the 
exception of one year when he served as Grand High 
Priest; has been Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge 
since 1895, and Grand Recorder of the Grand Com- 

1885; Past Master, May 21, 1885; Most Excellent Master, May 22, 1885; 
Royal Arch Mason, May 27, 1885; Secretary, 1885-1886; Principal So- 
journer, 1887-1892; High Priest, 1893; dimitted, August 23, 1905. 

Sioux Falls Chapter No. 2: Admitted, September 6, 1905. 

Order of High Priesthood: Initiated, June 11, 1896, Huron; Grand 
Recorder, 1896 to 1914. 

Grand Chapter of South Dakota, R. A. M. : Grand Secretary, organ- 
ization, 1890-June, 1906; Grand High Priest, June, 1906-1907; Grand Sec- 
retary, June, 1907-present. 

Grand Chapter of Illinois : Grand Representative, 1890-present. 

Royal and Select Masters, Koda Council, Flandreau, S. D. : Royal 
Master, December 18, 1894; Select Master, December 18, 1894; Super- 
Excellent Master, December 18, 1894; dimitted, December 2, 1896. 

Alpha Council No. 1, Sioux Falls : Admitted, November 7, 1903 ; 
Thrice Illustrious Grand Master, 1896 and 1897; Deputy Illustrious Grand 
Master, 1903. 

Cyrene Commandery No. 2 K. T., South Dakota : Red Cross, Febru- 
ary 28, 1888; Knights Templar, February 28, 1888; Knights of Malta, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1888; dimitted, November 2, 1892. 

Ivanhoe Commandery No. 13, Flaudreau : Charter member, November 
15, 1888; Captain General, 1893, 1894, 1895; Generallissimo, 1896; Eminent 
Commander, 1897; dimitted, November 27, 1905. 

Cyrene Commandery No. 2, Sioux Falls : Admitted, December 5, 1905. 

Grand Commandery K. T., South Dakota : Grand Standard Bearer, 
1892 and 1893; Grand Recorder, June, 1895-1906; Grand Commander, June, 
1907-1908; Grand Recorder, 1909 to present. 

St. George's Conclave No. 6, Red Cross of Constantine, St. Paul, Min- 
nesota: April 25, 1911. 

Grand Commandery of Iowa : Honorary Member, August 9, 1907. 

A. A. A. Scottish Rite: Alpha Lodge of Perfection, Yankton, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1894; Mackey Chapter, February 15, 1894; Robert de Bruce 
Council No. 2, February 16, 1894; Oriental Consistory No. 2, February 
17, 1894; Master of Ceremonies, 1897; Chancellor, 1899 and 1900; Pre- 
ceptor, 1901 ; Khurum Lodge of Perfection, Sioux Falls, Charter Mem- 
ber; Albert Pike Chapter, Charter Member; Coeur de Leon Council, 
Charter Member; Occidental Consistory No. 2, Charter Member; 
K.C.C.H., Washington, D. C, October 19, 1897; Honorary 33d Degree, 



180 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

mandery since 1894 except one year when he served as 
Grand Commander; in 1896 was elected Grand Recorder 
of the Order of High Priesthood, and is also secretary of 
the Masonic Veterans' Association. 

He is a member of the Order of the Eastern Star and 
was Grand Patron of the State from 1891 to 1893. In 
the General Grand Chapter of the Order he served as 
chairman of the board of trustees during the term 1907- 
1910; as Right Worthy Associate Grand Patron, 1910- 
191 3 ; and at the session of 191 3 was elected and installed 
Most Worthy Grand Patron of the Order. 

He is a member of the Odd Fellows, Modern Wood- 
men of America, Elks, and the Association of Military 
Surgeons of America. 

At Troy, New York, October 19, 1887, he was mar- 
ried to Eudora Zulette Stearns, who was born at Felch- 
ville, Vermont, July 28, 1858. This union has been 
blessed by the birth of one child, Addie Stearns, born 
September 17, 1890. 



January 16, 1900; Deputy Inspector General for Sioux Falls, November 
28, 1902; Royal Order of Scotland, October 19, 1903. 

A.A.O. N. M. S, El Riad Temple, Sioux Falls, June 8, 1899; held all 
intermediate offices; elected Potentate, December 12, 1908; reelected 
Potentate, December 15, 1909; Grand Representative New Orleans, 1910; 
Rochester, July 11, 1911. 

Masonic Veterans' Association, South Dakota, June 11, 1901; Secre- 
tary, June 14, 1911, to 1914. 

Order of the Eastern Star: Beulah Chapter No. 2, Flandreau, Feb- 
ruary, 1885; Worthy Patron, 1885-1896. 

Grand Chapter O. E. S., South Dakota : Second Grand Patron, May, 
1890; Third Grand Patron, 1891; Fourth Grand Patron, 1892. 

Jasper Chapter O. E. S., No. 4, Sioux Falls : Admitted, 1905. 

General Grand Chapter O. E. S. : Chairman board of trustees, 1907- 
1910; Right Worthy Associate Grand Patron, November 1910-1913; Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, 1913 to 1916. 



officers of general grand chapter 181 
grke:ting song 

BY KUDORA Z. PETTIGRKW, P. W. G. M. 

We come from all over our beautiful State, 

And join our glad voices in greeting elate. 

We welcome you all, with right merry good cheer. 

And thank Him, who kept us through all the glad year. 

CHORUS 

"Happy greeting to all, happy greeting to all, 

Happy greeting, happy greeting, happy greeting to all." 

We hail with true pleasure, our bright "Eastern Star," 
Which shines on us all, and its beams scatter far. 
It brightens our lives, fills each heart with pure love, 
And praise, and thanksgiving, to our Father above. 

CHORUS 

Our chain has been lengthened by many links, bright; 
Our lives have been strengthened, to enter life's fight, 
We've sought to bring sunshine to sad hearts we know, 
And "love" is our watchword, wherever we go. 

CHORUS 

Shine on may the light from our beautiful Star, 
Its radiance shed o'er us, till we "cross the bar" 
And sing the glad song on the bright, shining shore. 
To dwell in the presence of "love" evermore. 

CHORUS 

NKw Yi:AR's grke:tings, igo2 

BY EUDORA Z. PETTIGREW, P. W. G. M. 

To the Sisters and Brothers of the 0. B. S.: 

The bright New Year again has come, 

So full of joy and gladness; 
We bid "good by" to Nineteen One, 

With all its care and sadness. 



182 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The year just past, to some brought joy, 
Increased their earthly treasure, 

And filled their hearts with peace and love, 
And life seemed only pleasure. 

But others tell a sadder tale. 

The hopes of life seem ended; 
A shadow rests upon their home. 

Despair and grief are blended. 

What New Year work have we to do? 

To cheer our hearthstone only? 
Our Eastern Star is full of love 

For all the sad and lonely. 

Reflect the light from our bright star, 

Be each a faithful Martha, 
And strive to lead the sad ones home 

To trust a loving Father. 

I send you greetings one and all. 

My sister and my brother. 
May peace and sunshine fill your hearts, 

Because you've helped another. 

Be Bethlehem's star our guide this year 

To high and holy living, 
And next New Year's day find our hearts 

O'erflowing with thanksgiving. 

Faster and faster the years go by. 
How swiftly the time is fleeting. 

A Happy New Year to every one. 
To all, I send this greeting. 

orde:r o^ thi: e:aste:rn star 

BY E:uDORA Z. PE:TTIGRE^W, P. W. G. M. 

The work is done, how well, 
Only the Master knows. 



•^ 



Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, P.M.W.G.M. 

Right Worthy Grand Secretary 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 183 

One never sees the fruit 
Of all the seed he sows. 

It may be only our part 

To patiently turn the sod, 
One plants, another waters. 

But the increase comes from God. 

The golden fruit is ripening, 

With dew, the meadows wet, 
The sheaves are few in number. 

The harvest is not yet. 

We live, we dream, we think. 

We hope, we love, we plan, 
The future, with its mystery 

Is not revealed to man. 

I give you back the gavel 

You trusted to my care, 
To always use it wisely 

Has been my fervent prayer. 

May Heaven's richest blessing 

Upon our labors rest, 
And its glories meet our vision 

As the sun sinks in the west. 

Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin ^ 

In writing a sketch of the life of Mrs. Lorraine J. Pit- 
kin, the Right Worthy Grand Secretary of the General 
Grand Chapter, O. E. S., and senior living Past Most 
Worthy Grand Matron, it is like writing a history of the 
Order of the Eastern Star to attempt anything that 
would be a true account of Sister Pitkin's fifty years of 
Eastern Star life. One who has illuminated the path in 

6 Senior living Past Most Worthy Grand Matron; Right Worthy- 
Grand Secretary, 1883 to present 



184 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR .. 

so many phases of O. E. S. history as has this honored 
and devoted member, is met with in every point of con- 
tact with Eastern Star affairs, and the task assumes such 
great and magnificent proportions that only a brief out- 
line of her brilHant and well-rounded career can here be 
presented. 

To chronicle the events of even an ordinary life and 
do justice to it, is not an easy task ; but when an attempt 
is made to record the events which have combined to 
compose the well-spent years of the subject of this 
sketch, whose usefulness has been so far-reaching in its 
effects, then the impossibility becomes evident, the effort 
to be complete is a recognized failure, and only an ap- 
proximate idea can be reached. 

Lorraine J. Dickinson was born July 15, 1845, ^ farm- 
er's daughter, in Waddington, St. Lawrence County, 
New York. Her parents, who were formerly of New 
England, removed west in 1849 and settled near Elgin, 
Illinois. At the age of eleven she was sent to Rutland, 
Vermont, to attend a young ladies' seminary at that 
place, and having returned home in 1861, she was mar- 
ried October 22, 1863, to Captain E. P. Pitkin, A. Q. M., 
U.S.A. 

The call for volunteers brought a response from Cap- 
tain E. P. Pitkin, who enlisted at Annapolis, Maryland, 
in the quartermaster's department. At the battle of 
Stone River he had charge of an ammunition train, and 
was captured, but by strategic measures he escaped his 
captors. He was soon after promoted to assistant quar- 
termaster with the rank of captain. He entered the ser- 
vice when the first guns were fired on Sumter and was 
appointed colonel and chief quartermaster of the defense 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 185 

of New Orleans. Before his death, as a reward for his 
faithful service, his commission as colonel was issued, 
too late, however, to secure to his family a colonel's pen- 
sion. 

He spent about a year in Brazos, Texas, as master of 
marine transportation. While stationed in Chicago he 
met and married Miss Lorraine J. Dickinson, the mar- 
riage occurring on the date above mentioned, October 
22, 1863. Very soon afterwards, the young husband 
was ordered to New Orleans. After an absence of 
seven months he returned on a month's furlough, going 
back to his post of duty on June 6, 1864. The good-bye 
spoken at that time was the final farewell, for on October 
6th, just four months later. Captain Pitkin was called to 
journey to the home beyond. An escort brought the re- 
mains to the bereaved young wife, and they were taken 
to the family burying place in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Before a twelve month rolled by Sister Pitkin was a 
wife and a widow, and the following March, the day that 
Abraham Lincoln was, for the second time, inaugurated 
President of the United States, a little daughter was 
born to her. 

The great sorrow which swept the joy from her young 
life when her lover-husband gave up his life for his coun- 
try, so darkened the woof of life's web that many would 
have broken these delicate threads and have given up in 
utter despair; but not so with this courageous woman. 
Bravely clasping to her heart the little one, the sole 
pledge of her earthly love, she began the battle of life, 
determined that she could and would support herself and 
little child, dedicating herself to the widowhood she has 
ever held sacred. 



186 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

How well she has woven the web of her earthly life 
with the bright and glorious filling of the blue thread of 
fidelity, the yellow thread of constancy, the white thread 
of light, purity, and joy, the green thread of hope and 
immortality, and the red thread of fervency ! These five 
beautiful colors of the Eastern Star have been exempli- 
fied and she has seen them honored in every State in the 
Union, with a respect second only to our glorious flag. 

From the records of the Eastern Star life of Sister 
Pitkin, the following will suffice to establish her useful 
and honored service in the Order : 

Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin joined the organization known 
as "Miriam Family No. iii," which was organized 
October 6, 1866, by D. W. Thompson, who conferred 
the Eastern Star degrees upon thirty members. In Jan- 
uary, 1867, she was elected Conductress. In the latter 
part of 1867, the Michigan ritual (as arranged by John 
F. Tatem) was adopted and Sister Pitkin was elected 
Worthy President. July 18, 1877, Sister Pitkin organ- 
ized Queen Esther Chapter No. 41, and became its first 
Worthy Matron and still holds her membership in this 
splendid chapter. She was elected Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron of the Grand Chapter of Illinois in 1878, and at the 
Grand Chapter session of 1879, her report or address, 
which contained her decisions, official acts, amendments 
to the by-laws, and recommendations, indicated a thor- 
ough knowledge of the workings of the Order and a rec- 
ognition of the possibilities to be accomplished by the 
work of this organization of women. To her belongs 
the credit of first advocating practical charity, which has 
become the rallying cry of the Order in every Grand 
Jurisdiction. In her address she said: 'If our Chap- 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 187 

ters had something to labor for, some little bare feet to 
clothe, there would be no time for contention and strife, 
the seeds of discord would never be sown, and a spirit of 
harmony and unity would prevail." 

It can truthfully be said that to this devoted member 
the Order is indebted for much of the pioneer work, the 
ideas which have developed our laws of the present and 
the advancement of our principles, and its present posi- 
tion as the greatest secret organization among women, 
for now its strong arms of charity, truth, and loving 
kindness encircle the world and its beautiful story of 
fidelity to kindred and friends is told, not only in the 
English language, but also in the German and the Span- 
ish languages as well. 

Thus far, consideration has been given to Sister Pitkin 
as a local and State organizer and worker, but it is as a 
national worker in the Order that she shines as a bright 
jewel, eclipsing for years of service, diversity of experi- 
ence, conservative judgment, thorough acquaintance 
with Eastern Star laws, as well as a full understanding 
of the usages, all of our grand galaxy of pioneer 
workers. 

In August, 1880, in the city of Chicago, Mrs. Pitkin 
was elected Most Worthy Grand Matron of the General 
Grand Chapter, and her address and report at the ses- 
sion of 1883, held in San Francisco, California, evi- 
denced the same indomitable energy and wise legislation 
that had characterized her previous services, and her 
election to the office of Right Worthy Grand Secretary 
at this assembly established the appreciation of her asso- 
ciates for her business ability. Circumstances seemed 
to warrant her resignation at this time, but at Indian- 



188 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

apolis, in 1889, she was again elected to that honorable 
and responsible position, which she has filled continu- 
ously for nine consecutive terms of three years each, 
making a total of twenty-seven years, and is yet filling 
most creditably and acceptably to the Order. 

During the thirty-eight years of uninterrupted service 
in the General Grand Chapter, many positions of honor 
and trust have been her reward for earnest and devoted 
services to duty. The World's Fair records of May 16, 
1893, contain the work as accomplished by the O. E. S. 
The World's Congress of Women, with Mrs. Potter 
Palmer as its president, accorded to Sister Pitkin a day 
that should be given wholly to an O. E. S. program, and 
it was rendered in a manner that reflected great credit 
upon our Order, and obtained for us the respect and 
esteem of a large body of representative women. In 
1902, Mrs. Pitkin was honored by an appointment on the 
board of directors of the World's Fair Fraternal Build- 
ing Association, held in the city of St. Louis, and her 
experience and executive ability aided greatly in this im- 
portant work. It was only fitting that she should be 
invited to give her assistance, also her presence, at the 
Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Oregon, in 
1905, where her large acquaintance and Eastern Star 
knowledge added much to the happiness of the visiting 
members of the Order. 

For three years she had charge of the O. E. S. depart- 
ment in the American Home and in connection with 
Sister Jennie E. Matthews, P.M.W.G.M., she com- 
pleted and published a collection of music for Chapter 
use entitled. Gems of Song. A more recent publication 
is The Floral Work, which is used extensively through- 



OFFICERS OF GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER 189 

out the O. E. S. world. The membership badge, of 
which she holds the copyright, is the handsomest in use 
and is distinctively an Eastern Star badge. 

She is an earnest and devoted member of the Women's 
Relief Corps in its great work of patriotism and relief, 
and has been accorded the highest office in Illinois. 

In her business Hfe, Sister Pitkin served as post- 
mistress of the House in the Illinois legislature, and such 
was her record that in the following year she was elected 
to a similar position in the Senate, receiving from the 
members of the Thirty-sixth General Assembly a beau- 
tiful gold watch and a recommendation for ability signed 
by every member of that assembly. 

Sister Pitkin has agitated the question of an objective 
work for the Order of the Eastern Star almost the entire 
time of her membership, which is almost all the term of 
its existence. She has a money interest in nearly every 
Home or Home Fund in the United States and was one 
of the strongest factors in organizing the Masonic 
Orphans' Home and the Eastern Star and Masonic" 
Home at Macon, Illinois. She also gave the first $ioo 
to start the fund for the O. E. S. Home. In 1895 she 
saw the beginning of that splendid work and served on 
the Home board for two years. 

Much more could be added without exhausting the 
subject. Mrs. Pitkin's record of fifty years' service in 
this, the grandest Order of women, and the greatest 
Order, except Masonry, in the world, has been produc- 
tive of lasting and untold good. She has lived to see the 
Order grow from a few scattering members, incomplete- 
ly organized, to almost a million enthusiastic members; 
to see Homes for the aged and dependent members estab- 



190 



HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 



lished in many States, and if not yet completed, a fund 
for this purpose created in every Grand Jurisdiction; to 
see the Order honored and respected wherever the five 
colors are known; to see the effect upon women of its 
influence for broadening and developing stronger char- 
acters, their lives sweetened and elevated by the memory 
of good deeds and kindly words. 




CHAPTER VI 

Brief Histories of the Several Grand Chapters 

Grand Chapte:r of^ Ai^abama^ 

AT THE organization of the Alabama Grand Chapter 
J- ^ there were no chapters holding charters of the 
Macoy system, so far as known, although quite a num- 
ber of persons throughout the State had taken the de- 
grees known as the Macoy degrees. 

The first Chapter organized by the General Grand 
Chapter was Charity No. i, located at Burlson, Franklin 
County, April 25, 1891, followed by Corona No. 2, 
Corona, July 24, 1895; Ruth No. 3, Lewisburg; Fellow- 
ship No. 4, Gordo, February 6, 1897; Florence No. 5, 
April I, 1897; Golden Rule No. 6, Trussville, September 
II, 1897; Temple No. 7, Marion, July 11, i%9; Ben 
Brecken No. 8, Rutledge, September 2, 1899; Columbia 
No. 9, Columbia, October 6, 1899; Elizabeth Armstrong 
No. 10, Montgomery, March i, 1900; JuHan No. 11, 
Berry Station, January 27, 1900; Adah No. 12, Birming- 
ham, April 16, 1900; Julia Shelton No. 13, Fayette, 
August 24, 1900; Bertha Rubenstine No. 14, Andalusia, 
July 20, 1900; Green Hill No. 15, Green Hill, September 
8, 1900. 

The Grand Chapter was organized March 6, 1901, in 
the city of Birmingham, by Mrs. Hattie E. Ewing, Most 

iData by Mrs. Elizabeth Salter, P. G. M., Grand Secretary, 1906 to 
present 



192 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Worthy Grand Matron, with nine chapters represented: 
Corona No. 2, Fellowship No. 4, Temple No. 7, Colum- 
bia No. 9, Julian No. 11, Adah No. 12, Julia Shelton No. 
13, Bertha Rubenstine No. 14, Green Hill No. 15. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Salter, of Birmingham, was elected 
Grand Matron, Daniel A. Gibson, Corona Chapter No. 
2, Grand Patron, and William M. Cunningham, Corona 
Chapter No. 2, Grand Secretary. 

The first annual session of the Grand Chapter was 
held in Fayette, November 7 and 8, 1901 ; other sessions 
were held at Avondale, 1902; Montgomery, 1903; New 
Decatur, 1904; Ensley, 1905; Montgomery, 1906; Bir- 
mingham, 1907; Montgomery, 1908; Montgomery, 
1909; Mobile, 1 910; Anniston, 191 1; Dothan, 191 2; 
Montgomery, 1913; Birmingham, 1914. 

At Ensley, 1905, a resolution was adopted to amend 
the constitution so as to allow ten cents per capita to be 
collected by the Grand Chapter to form a scholarship 
fund. This fund was lost sight of, nothing being done 
to carry out the objects of the resolution. At the meet- 
ing in Montgomery, 1906, a resolution was adopted, 
providing that twenty-five cents additional tax be made 
into a fund to be known as "The Eastern Star Widows' 
and Orphans' Fund,'' to be used in the erection of a 
home, either by the Eastern Star or in conjunction with 
the Masons of Alabama; to be decided as soon as the 
fund reached such proportions as to justify independent 
action of the Eastern Star, or the Masons of Alabama 
shall have made such progress towards building a home 
as shall justify cooperation. From this date began the 
Home fund which has continued to grow. 

A Masonic Home in this Grand Jurisdiction was 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 193 

talked of for a quarter of a century, but as it required a 
change of the constitution before any fund could be col- 
lected, the advocates of the Home were unable to ac- 
compHsh anything until the year 1907, when Brother 
Ben M. Jacobs as Grand Master A. F. and A. M. of 
Alabama, began a campaign of education and kept it up 
until the desired change was accomplished. In the re- 
port of 1907 Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Ala- 
bama, A. F. and A. M., we find: ''There was no help, 
however, in reference to the Home movement more ef- 
fective than that of the Order of the Eastern Star. Five 
thousand letters sent out by the Grand Secretary of this 
Order during the campaign had untold influence with the 
subordinate Lodges of the Grand Jurisdiction, while five 
hundred dollars contributed by the Grand Chapter last 
year, five hundred dollars this year, and one-half of the 
per capita tax of the Order will be a future contribution.'' 
In 1908 the Masonic Grand Lodge began to collect a 
fund for the Home. The administration building was 
completed and dedicated in December, 191 2; in Novem- 
ber, 1912, the Grand Chapter, O. E. S., donated $2500 
to furnish the dining-room and lower hall; Elizabeth 
Armstrong Chapter No. 10, Montgomery, $100 to fur- 
nish a Matron's room; Brundridge Chapter No. 27, 
Wylam, $225 to furnish a sitting room ; and Salter Chap- 
ter No. 21, Birmingham, $300 to furnish parlor; and 
the desired and necessary legislation was enacted by the 
State of Alabama, conveying the legal rights prayed 
for, which resulted in great benefit to the Order of the 
Eastern Star as well as to the Masonic Fraternity.^ 

2 The petition for charter was addressed to the Hon. S. E. Greene, 
Probate Judge of Jefferson County, Alabama, as follows : 

The undersigned would most respectfully certify unto your Honor that 



194 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

In an act which was approved August 14, 1907, it 
was provided that all property, both real and personal, 

the "Order of the Eastern Star" is a fraternal and benevolent association, 
organized solely for fraternal and charitable purposes, with subordinate 
Chapters located at various places throughout the State and a Grand 
Chapter composed of representatives from such subordinate Chapters. 

That said association is desirous of incorporating under the laws of 
the State of Alabama and in conformity to such laws have, within thirty 
days prior thereto, elected the following persons as Trustees : J. H. Ed- 
wards, Wylam, Alabama; Mary Camps, Wylam, Alabama; Elizabeth 
Salter, Flyton, Alabama. 

Said above named persons have been elected as Trustees to hold office 
until the annual meeting of said Grand Chapter, to be held in November, 
1908, at which three Trustees will again be elected whose term of office 
shall be for one year and until their successors shall be elected and qual- 
ified. The name of such corporation shall be: The Grand Chapter oe 
THE Order of the Eastern Star oe the State oe Alabama. 

Said corporation shall have and exercise all the rights, powers and 
privileges conferred on such corporations under the general laws of the 
State of Alabama as well as those granted to said Order of the Eastern 
Star under an act of the Legislature of Alabama at the adjourned session 
held in the year 1907. 

Signed by those mentioned above as Trustees. 

The charter granted provided : 

(1) That the title to all real property, whether acquired by the Grand 
Chapter directly or by a subordinate Chapter, shall vest in the Grand 
Chapter, and no conveyance thereof can be made except by the properly 
constituted authorities of such Grand Chapter. 

(2) When any real property is acquired by a subordinate Chapter the 
title thereto shall be taken in the name of the Grand Chapter of the Order 
of the Eastern Star of Alabama, but the use, income and privileges there- 
of shall remain and be wholly devoted to the benefit of said subordinate 
Chapter so long as its charter shall remain in force. 

(3) The real property held by the Grand Chapter for the use of a 
subordinate Chapter may be conveyed in the same manner as the property 
held directly by the Grand Chapter, provided no conveyance thereof shall 
be made except upon a resolution of such subordinate Chapter adopted at 
a regular meeting thereof and duly certified to the Trustees of the said 
Grand Chapter under seal of the subordinate Chapter. 

(7) When any subordinate Chapter becomes defunct, either by a sur- 
render, revocation or forfeiture of its Charter, any real property held by 
the Grand Chapter for its use and benefit, shall at once become uncondi- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 195 

belonging to the Grand Chapter, O. E. S., or subordi- 
nate Chapters, be exempted from taxation.^ 

In 1 91 3 the Grand Chapter donated money to build a 
hospital at a cost of $10,000, which building was dedi- 
cated December 2, 19 14. 

The Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., adopted a resolu- 
tion authorizing the Grand Chapter to appoint a com- 
mittee to act as advisory committee with the board of 
control in the management of the Home and the follow- 
ing were appointed: Mrs. EHzabeth Salter, Birming- 
ham; Mrs. Mattie W. Hand, Bay Minette; Mrs. Callie 
L. French, Columbia; and Mrs. Mary Youngs, Mont- 
gomery. This committee undertook to solicit donations 
to furnish the hospital and to date this committee has 
realized $2,000 from their efforts. 

The Home has 236 acres of land ; main building, three 
stories high with basement ; two ten room cottages, and 
hospital; built of hollow tile and concrete tile floors, 
tile roof, with all modern improvements and conven- 
iences, first class in every particular, at a cost of 
$135,00 0. 

tionally vested in the Grand Chapter, to be held or disposed of as said 
Grand Chapter may determine. 

(8) The title of all furniture, regalia, jewels, and every form of per- 
sonal property acquired by a subordinate Chapter becomes at once vested 
in the Grand Chapter; however, such subordinate Chapter has the ex- 
clusive right to the use of and the control of the said furniture, etc., so 
long as its Charter remains active and it may sell, exchange, convey or 
dispose of such property at will while holding such Charter, without the 
express consent of the Grand Chapter. In case any subordinate Chapter 
becomes defunct by non-use, surrender, forfeiture or revocation of its 
Charter, the Grand Chapter at once becomes entitled to the possession of 
all such personal property held by the Chapter at such time and if not 
surrendered, may take possession of same. 

3 An act to exempt from taxation all the property both real and per- 
sonal belonging to the Eastern Star. Approved August 14, 1907. 



196 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The Eastern Star is working in conjunction with the 
Masonic Order and members of the Eastern Star are ad- 
mitted to this Home upon the same terms as the Masonic 
Fraternity. 

Think beautiful thoughts and set them adrift 

On eternity's boundless sea! 
Let their burden be pure, let their white sails lift, 
And carry from you the comforting- gift 

Of your heartfelt sympathy. 
For a beautiful thought is a beautiful thing; 

And out on the infinite tide 
May meet, and touch, and tenderly bring 
To the sick, and the weary and sorrowing 

A solace so long denied. 

Grand Chaptkr ot^ Albe:rta (Canada)* 

The Order of the Eastern Star was introduced into the 
province of Alberta by Sister Rosetta West, a demitted 
member of Gloaming Chapter No. 255, of Milford, Iowa, 
who after a great deal of trouble succeeded in getting the 
names of nineteen eligible persons on a petition for a new 
Chapter. Dispensation was granted by the General 
Grand Chapter on March 20, 1906, and on April 12 the 
Mountain View Chapter was instituted at Olds by Sister 
Rosetta West, acting Deputy for the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron. 

On September 3, 1907, the second chapter, Venus, of 
Red Deer, was instituted by Brother John Dufif of Moun- 
tain View Chapter. This Chapter started with a mem- 
bership of twenty-three. 

4 Organized July 20, 1912. Data by Brother Samuel J. Blair, P. G. P., 
Grand Secretary, 1913 to present. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 197 

During his term as Most Worthy Grand Patron 
Brother W. H. Norris instituted in person, Chinook 
Chapter, Calgary, June lo, 1908; Alexandra Chapter, 
Lacombe, June 11, and Bow Valley, Calgary, August 6, 
1909. The visit of Brother Norris in June, 1908, was 
the first visit of any of the General Grand Chapter offi- 
cers to the Province. 

In 1910 Sister Beulah MacLaren of Chinook Chapter, 
represented Alberta at the assembly of the General Grand 
Chapter in Jacksonville and her report of that meeting 
was a source of great pleasure and profit to all who had 
the pleasure of hearing it. 

In July, 191 1, Brother WilHs D. Engle, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, instituted the following Chapters : Miz- 
pah, Maple Leaf, Connaught, Electa, Killam, Areme, and 
in July, 1 91 2, Occidental. On both occasions he was ac- 
companied by Sister Engle and a great amount of East- 
ern Star knowledge was obtained by the members of the 
young Chapters in this Province. 

During the autumn of 1911 the Chapters of Alberta 
were honored by the Most Worthy Grand Matron, Sister 
M. Alice Miller, who visited a number of the Chapters 
and met representatives of nearly all. It would be diffi- 
cult to estimate the amount of good resulting from this 
visit. Her ability to impart valuable information in a 
most impressive manner, together with a perfect knowl- 
edge of the requirements, made the visit of Sister Miller 
a treat that will long be remembered and appreciated. It 
was the beginning of an era of improvement, both of the 
work in the Chapter room and in the daily work of the 
members outside. To this visit the members in Alberta 



198 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

trace any degree of success which has attended their 
efforts, as from her came the inspiration to make the 
effort. 

The initiatory steps in connection with the formation 
of the Grand Chapter of Alberta were taken by Moun- 
tain View Chapter No. i, of Olds, in 191 1, when their 
Secretary took the matter up with the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron and after considerable correspondence 
wrote to each Chapter asking for an expression of opin- 
ion as to the advisability of the plan. The result was a 
unanimous vote in favor of the movement. On June 28th 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron issued a summons re- 
questing each Chapter to send representatives to attend 
a meeting to be held in the Masonic Temple, Calgary, 
on July 20, 191 2. On that date the twelve Chapters (one 
only two days old) in the Province met and the Grand 
Chapter was formed. Sister Isabella Duff, of Mountain 
View, was elected first Worthy Grand Matron and 
Brother S. J. Blair, of Chinook Chapter, the first Worthy 
Grand Patron. Sister M. Alice Miller, Most Worthy 
Grand Matron, Brother Willis D. Engle, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, and Sister Engle were made honorary 
life members. 

In September, 1913, the Worthy Grand Matron and 
Worthy Grand Patron attended the assembly of the 
General Grand Chapter in Chicago and very much en- 
joyed the entire proceedings. They were particularly 
impressed with the reception accorded visitors and the 
presentation of the Union Jack, to which the Worthy 
Grand Patron referred in his address to Grand Chapter 
in the following words: "One of the most pleasing 
events in which it has been my privilege to participate. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 199 

was when the Right Worthy Associate Grand Matron 
and Patron presented the Canadian flag. All the visitors 
from Canada were invited to the Grand East and wel- 
comed by the Most Worthy Grand Matron in a manner 
that left no doubt as to its sincerity. The Canadian flag 
was then entwined with the Stars and Stripes in the 
decorations of the Chapter room, while the Canadian 
visitors sang 'The Maple Leaf Forever.' This very 
thoughtful and courteous act was much appreciated by 
all the visitors from Canada, as I know it will be by you, 
to whom it is my pleasure to report it." 

Since the formation of the Grand Chapter ten Chap- 
ters have been added and the membership more than 
doubled. The growth has not been rapid, but it has the 
appearance of health and every Chapter reports con- 
siderable progress. The present great European War, 
in which Canada is participating, instead of dampening 
the ardor of the members, has inspired them with a de- 
sire to display, in tangible form, those beautiful teach- 
ings of our Order, charity and loving kindness. 

It is pleasing to note that the Masonic Lodges have 
extended their approval and support to the O. E. S. and 
so long as this confidence is deserved there is a bright 
future for the Order in this Province. 



200 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapti:r oi^ Arizona^ 

By authority of the Most Worthy Grand Patron Broth- 
er Wilhs Brown, the Right Worthy Grand Secretary, 
Rev. Wilhs D. Engle, issued a commission to Brother 
Morris Goldwater, of Prescott, Arizona, as Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron for the Territory of Arizo- 
na, 1 880-1 883, to organize Chapters. Consequently, on 
February 6, 1882, a charter was issued for Golden Rule 
Chapter No. i, Prescott, which was organized by Morris 
Goldwater on March 9, 1882, with Mrs. G. W. Curtis as 
Worthy Matron and William H. Kelly as Worthy 
Patron. White Mountain Chapter No. 2, Globe, was 
chartered November 3, 1885, ^^^ organized by Alonzo 
Bailey, special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron. Alsap Chapter No. 3, Phoenix, was chartered 
April 30, 1887, and organized by H. B. Lighthizer, 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. Mount 
Frisco Chapter No. 4, located at Flagstafif, was chartered 
July 13, 1888, and organized by J. Guthrie Savage, 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with twenty- 
six members. 

White Mountain Chapter No. 2 at Globe, Alsap Chap- 
ter No. 3 at Phoenix, and Mount Frisco Chapter No. 4, 
at Flagstaff, had become dormant. White Mountain 
Chapter No. 2 surrendered its charter after having paid 
all dues to January i, 1892, and members were given 
dimits. Alsap Chapter No. 3 never paid any dues to 
the General Grand Chapter and Mount Frisco Chapter 
paid dues for the year it was organized, but never paid 
any more. When a petition was received for a Chapter 
at Tucson, the Chapter was chartered November 19, 

5 Organized November 15, 1900. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 201 

1898, as Arizona Chapter No. 2, and was organized by 
J. H. Langdon, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with forty-three charter members and with Mrs. 
Annie L. Tilton as Worthy Matron and Lanis Stanley 
Wilson as Worthy Patron. 

A meeting of the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter Royal 
Arch Masons, and Grand Commandery was to be held at 
Tucson in November, 1899, ^^^ Arizona Chapter re- 
quested the privilege of conferring the degrees upon 
eligible members for the purpose of extending the Order 
in the Territory. On November 4, 1899, the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron granted a special dispensation to 
this Chapter to confer the degrees, November 16, 1899, 
upon members of the Grand Lodge not residing in Pres- 
cott, Tucson, Winslow, Phoenix, Flagstaff, or Globe. 
By authority of this dispensation, the degrees were con- 
ferred upon eight members of the Grand Lodge, of 
whom four were from Wilcox, two from Nogales, one 
from Florence, and one from Bisbee. 

Ruby Chapter No. 3, Winslow, was chartered June i, 

1899, and organized June 24, 1899, by H. A. Simms, 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with twenty- 
three charter members. Grand Canon Chapter No. 4, 
at Flagstaff, was chartered September 9, 1899, and or- 
ganized October 27, 1899, by John Maurer, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with twenty-eight 
charter members. Phoenix Chapter No. 5, at Phoenix, 
was chartered November 3, 1899, and organized Decem- 
ber 13, 1899, by Mrs. Annie L. Tilton, Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, with fifty-one charter 
members. Pearl Chapter No. 6, at Bisbee, was chartered 
December 21, 1899, and organized January 5, 1900, by 
Mrs. Annie L. Tilton, Deputy, with forty-nine charter 



202 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

members. Diamond Chapter No. 7, at Jerome, was 
granted a charter February 21, 1900, and organized 
March 24, by Mrs. Annie L. Tilton, with thirty-four 
charter members. White Mountain Chapter No. 8, at 
Globe, was chartered May 23, 1900, and organized June 
23, 1900, by Mrs. Annie L. Tilton, Deputy, with fifty 
charter members. 

Of the eleven Chapters that had been organized, only 
eight were active at the time of the organization of the 
Grand Chapter, November 15, 1900. The convention 
was held at Phoenix and representatives of five Chap- 
ters participated in the organization in the reception 
room of the Commercial Hotel. The convention was 
presided over by Mrs. Annie L. Tilton, who was elected 
the first Grand Matron. A tax not to exceed twenty- 
five cents per capita was levied to meet the expense of 
organization. 

The constitution adopted fixed the meeting at the same 
time and place as Masonic Grand Lodge. Past Grand 
Secretaries and Treasurers and Past Matrons and Past 
Patrons were made members of the Grand Chapter. All 
officers elected by ballot except the Grand Warder, Grand 
Sentinel, Grand Chaplain, Grand Marshal, and Grand 
Organist. Revenues are derived from the following 
sources : $30 for charter, if the $30 required for dispen- 
sation had not previously been paid ; special dispensation, 
fifty cents ; for affixing seal of Grand Chapter to any doc- 
ument not otherwise provided for, twenty-five cents ; and 
the per capita tax, which was fixed at fifty cents, but in 
1903 raised to seventy-five cents. 

In 1905 the Territory was divided into districts, and 
in 1906 each Chapter was directed to give one enter- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 203 

tainment each year to raise funds to be known as a 
Charity Fund, which could be used for the erection of 
a Masonic and Eastern Star Home, and in 1907 a per 
capita tax of twenty-five cents was levied for the same 
purpose. In 1908 it was voted to hold the next meeting 
February 10, 19 10, which left 1909 without any session 
of the Grand Chapter. In 191 1 Sister M. Alice Miller, 
Most Worthy Grand Matron, was the guest of honor 
and installed the Grand Officers elected. Sister Miller 
was presented with a handsome loving cup by the mem- 
bers of the Grand Chapter. 

At every session of the Grand Chapter, it has met 
with the most courteous attention from the Masonic 
Fraternity, and the Grand Chapter and Grand Lodge 
have had social entertainments after the business ses- 
sions closed, at each annual meeting. Auto rides, re- 
ceptions, card parties, and balls make the social life at- 
tractive. In 1906 a visit was made to the room known 
as "Lone Star Stope,'' deep under ground and about 700 
feet from the mouth of a tunnel — a room 50 feet from 
the floor to ceiling, 45 feet wide, and no feet long, bril- 
liantly lighted. The Grand Lodge held its annual ses- 
sion in this room, which is near the City of Morenci, 
which place, by the way, has many interesting features. 
The Grand Matron's address, 19 12, contained a splen- 
did O. E. S. thought : "We don't want to be theoreti- 
cally good, but we do need to be more practically true. 
Our great trouble is we talk too much and we do too 
little." 

The golden chain whose links of love, 
Forged by the hand that rules above, 
Will bind the race — Oh ! that it would — 
Into one blessed brotherhood. 



204 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapte:r oi^ Arkansas^ 

During the existence of the Supreme Grand Chapter 
of the Adoptive Rite of the Order of the Eastern Star a 
number of charters were issued, including five Chapters 
in Arkansas, but of these the records are not complete. 
The first Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star, 
as we now know it, organized in Arkansas, was Enola 
No. I, Mount Vernon, in July, 1870, though in the pres- 
ent roll of Chapters, the records show Witcherville Chap- 
ter as No. I, which was organized in February, 1906, 
and chartered in November, 1906. This apparent im- 
perfection is due to the fact that Enola Chapter No. i 
had become dormant and Witcherville was given the 
vacant place. The number indicates that it was the first 
Chapter organized and therefore the oldest, but it is 
not, for it was organized about thirty-six years after the 
Order had been in active existence, and it occupies the 
place of honor in preference to 170 Chapters organized 
before Witcherville No. i. 

In the order of organization, there were Martha Chap- 
ter No. 2, Jacinto No. 3, Carlton No. 4, Searchy No. 5, 
and Massey No. 6. These six Chapters, represented by 
their delegates, assembled at Searcy October 2, 1876, 
in convention called by Brother W. B. Massey and or- 
ganized the Grand Chapter. It is a peculiar condition 
and one to be regretted, that all of the six Chapters 
which participated in the organization of the Grand 
Chapter are now dormant and the statistics of the earlier 
meetings were not printed, rendering the particulars 
not accessible. 

6 Organized October 2, 1876. Data furnished by Mrs. Nora G. Rush- 
ing, P. G. M., Grand Secretary, 1913 to present. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 205 

The first Grand Matron was Mrs. Kiddy A. Neal and 
the first Grand Patron was Brother J. M. Mallett. At 
the first regular meeting held in Searcy, November 8, 
1876, at which time the original six Chapters were rep- 
resented, the Grand Chapter decided that it was inex- 
pedient for it to send delegates to the convention to be 
held at IndianapoHs, Indiana, in November, 1876, for 
the purpose of organizing the General Grand Chapter, 
but that it would cooperate in the movement. 

At the second regular meeting, which was in 1877, 
only four Chapters were represented. Legislation was 
enacted adopting the regalia of the Order : ''A scarf of 
five colors, three inches wide, with a rosette on the 
shoulder, one on the breast, and one at the crossing, to 
be worn from the right shoulder to the left side." Past 
Matrons, Past Patrons, and Past Associate Matrons 
were made members of the Grand Chapter for one year 
after their term of ofiice had expired; the Grand Matron 
was made the executive officer of the Grand Chapter; 
dues were fixed at ten cents per member, but were raised 
to twenty cents in 1882 and to twenty-five cents in 1886. 

Again, at the third meeting, 1878, only four Chapters 
were represented and but very little business was trans- 
acted. 

At the session of 1879, a Grand Orator was elected, 
whose duty it was to deliver an address at the installa- 
tion of the Grand Officers, each year. 

At the session of 1880, allegiance was acknowledged 
to the General Grand Chapter and its ritual was adopt- 
ed. There were then seven Chapters and 304 members 
in the State. A committee was appointed to visit the 
Grand Lodge to present the claims of the Order before 



206 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

that Grand body and ask recognition of the Order by 
the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M.; and an edict was 
issued forbidding any member of the Order conferring 
the degrees in any other way than in the manner pre- 
scribed by the constitution. 

In 1886 the State was divided into districts, and a 
Deputy Grand Matron and a Deputy Grand Patron ap- 
pointed for each, which arrangement is still in force, 
and in 1891 district schools of instruction were inau- 
gurated. 

Immediately following the introduction of the Order 
of the Eastern Star into Arkansas, the Alasonic Fra- 
ternity treated the organization with indifference, and 
in some instances opposition was manifested. Many of 
the older Masons were disposed to an unfriendly feeling 
toward it, but as the years passed and the Order indi- 
cated its purposes and its principles, together with ef- 
forts to be in harmony with the best interests of the 
Masonic Fraternity, this condition gradually changed 
and in 1894 the Grand Lodge voted that the board of 
control of the Masonic Temple should provide rooms 
for the meetings of the Grand Chapter, if practicable. 
Leading Masons throughout the State became members 
of the Eastern Star, and there developed a beautiful 
harmony which resulted in the adoption by the Grand 
Lodge of 1904, of a resolution introduced by Brother 
John M. Oathout, Grand Lecturer of the Grand Lodge, 
as follows: 

Whereas, The Order of the Eastern Star is composed of Mas- 
ter Masons, their wives, widows, mothers, sisters, and daughters ; 
and. 

Whereas, Said Order is engaged in works of charity and 




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O 

W 

o 
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BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 207 

benevolence that merit our highest encouragement and approba- 
tion; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we commend the Order of the Eastern Star 
to the Masonic Fraternity of this Grand Jurisdiction as an institu- 
tion worthy of their regard, and as such we wish the Order 
abundant prosperity and success. 

At the session of the Grand Chapter of 1904, a com- 
mittee, composed of Brothers George Thornburgh, T. J. 
Shinn, and E. E. Ammons, was appointed to secure 
passage by the legislature of a bill incorporating the 
Grand Chapter. The committee prepared the bill, which 
was introduced into the State Senate by Brother B. E. 
McFerrin, who at that time was a member of the Senate. 
It passed both houses and was approved by the Governor 
March 2, 1905. 

The Order is proud of the fact that the first money 
contributed for the building of the Masonic Orphans' 
Home was by Esther Chapter No. 217, Little Rock. At 
its meeting February 4, 1904, it was voted to raise $100 
toward the establishment of the Home. A social and 
literary entertainment was held in the Grand Lodge 
room at which $103.15 was raised, $100 of which was 
contributed to the purpose named. 

At the session of 1904, the Grand Chapter sent the 
following communication to the Grand Lodge: 

The Grand Chapter Order of the Eastern Star, in session 
assembled, congratulates the Grand Lodge upon its contemplated 
action relative to a Masonic and Eastern Star Home in Arkansas, 
and hereby tenders its assistance, both moral and financial, to 
bring about this great blessing to the Craft throughout the State. 

At the same session the Grand Chapter adopted an 
amendment to its constitution, whereby it could and did 
levy an extra tax of twenty-five cents per capita for the 



208 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

building of a Masonic and Eastern Star Home. This 
action, together with the above, was taken the day pre- 
ceding the 1904 session of the Grand Lodge. A beauti- 
ful Home has been erected upon the plat of one hundred 
acres near Batesville, in the dedication of which the 
Grand Chapter participated in 1909. The Grand Chap- 
ter is represented by two members upon the board of 
trustees of the orphanage at Batesville and has con- 
tributed liberally to its erection and support, having do- 
nated about $7,500 to the Home fund. 

In 191 1 the constitution was amended to permit the 
Grand Chapter by vote to order a regular session to be 
held at Batesville, in connection with the Orphans' 
Home, at such time of the year as the Grand Chapter 
might designate. 

At the session of 1908, the Grand Chapter elected 
Mrs. Josie Frazer-Cappleman, Poetess Laureate of the 
Order in Arkansas. On the evening of February 4, 
1909, in Esther Chapter, Mrs. Cappleman was crowned 
Poetess Laureate, using a wreath made of laurel gath- 
ered by Mrs. Lucy Thornburg, Past Grand Matron, 
from the Virginia mountains. 

It has become an established custom for the Grand 
Lodge to invite the Grand Chapter O. E. S. to be present 
when the Grand Orator delivers his address, and the 
Grand Matron is invited to the East and also invited to 
address the assembly. 

In 1 9 14 the president of the board of trustees of the 
Albert Pike Consistory tendered the use of that building 
to the Grand Chapter O. E. S. for use during the annual 
meetings, which kindly courtesy is greatly appreciated 
by the Grand Chapter. This courtesy and valuable 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 209 

assistance from the Masonic Fraternity is greatly appre- 
ciated by the members of the Order in this State, with 
its 252 Chapters and 9,850 members all earnestly labor- 
ing to spread the cloak of charity, truth, and loving kind- 
ness over the entire State and to practice the principles 
of fidelity, constancy, light, purity, faith, and endurance. 

Grand Chapter 01^ British Coi^umbia^ 

In the beginning of the twentieth century the Most 
Worthy Grand Matron of the General Grand Chapter 
referred to the State of Massachusetts as being in the 
East and Indiana as in the west. Where then (in the 
north, the south, the east, the west, or out of the 
world) would one locate Rossland, British Columbia, at 
that time a thriving mining town with a population of 
some 10,000 people. 

Here, on the western slope of the Canadian Rockies, 
on the 8th of June, 1899, John A. J. Moore, acting as 
Deputy for the Most Worthy Grand Patron, Nathaniel 
Gearhart, organized Alpha Chapter No. i, with forty- 
two charter members and with Mrs. Kittie E. Bristow, 
Worthy Matron; J. A. J. Moore, Worthy Patron; Mrs. 
Eleanor Jacobs, Associate Matron. Thus the seed of 
one of the noblest and most interesting of women's or- 
ganizations was first planted on Canadian soil, and al- 
though nearly ten years passed before another Chapter 
was organized in British Columbia, yet this Chapter 
remained staunch and true to its teachings, ever ready 
to extend the hand of fellowship to the stranger, and 

"^ Organized July 23, 1912. Data furnished by Mrs. Fannie N. Jones, 
Grand Secretary. 



210 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

today its past officers are active members of the Grand 
Chapter of the Province. 

In the city of Vancouver on June 15, 1908, WilHam 
H. Norris, Most Worthy Grand Patron, organized Van- 
couver Chapter No. 2, with twenty-five charter members, 
Mrs. Myra D. Heath, Worthy Matron; J. G. Elliott, 
Worthy Patron ; Mrs. Stella Smiley, Associate Matron. 
The next year, on August loth. Brother Norris organ- 
ized Burrard Chapter No. 3, of North Vancouver, with 
a membership of thirty-one, Mrs. Mary Prances Fugler, 
Worthy Matron ; David J. Dick, Worthy Patron ; Mrs. 
Mary Wheeler, Associate Matron. Two days later 
(August 1 2th) he organized Sharon Chapter No. 4, at 
Ladysmith, with sixty charter members, Mrs. Lilas Skil- 
ling, Worthy Matron; Hugh T. Fulton, Worthy Patron; 
Mrs. Mary Harries, Associate Matron. 

Two years later, 191 1, Brother Geo. M. Hyland, 
chairman of the board of trustees of the General Grand 
Chapter, and special Deputy for the Rev. Willis D. En- 
gle. Most Worthy Grand Patron, organized in Victoria, 
on the 8th of March, Queen City Chapter No. 5, with a 
membership of 109, Mrs. Helen M. Richdale, Worthy 
Matron; Wm. H. F. Richdale, Worthy Patron; Mrs. 
Gertrude H. Preston, Associate Matron. On March 7, 
191 1, Alexandra Chapter No. 6 was organized by 
Brother Hyland with a membership of thirty-three, Mrs. 
Janie F. Jamieson, Worthy Matron ; Charles F. Alston, 
Worthy Patron; Mrs. Alice M. Roberts, Associate 
Matron. A few months after the organization of this 
Chapter Sister Jamieson moved from the jurisdiction 
and Mrs. Mary M. Douglas was elected to fill the office 
thus made vacant. Sister Douglas has been a member 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 211 

of this Chapter since April, 1911, and a member of the 
O. E. S. since May 31, 1887, having been initiated in 
Winona Chapter No. 141, of Winona, Minnesota. She 
has the honor and distinction of bein^ the first Grand 
Matron of the Grand Chapter of the Province of British 
Columbia and has proved herself efficient in her work, 
impartial in her judgment, and at all times considerate 
of the opinions of others. 

The same year (1911) the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, the Rev. Willis D. Engle, on July 27th organized 
in New Westminster, Royal City Chapter No. 7, with 
thirty-nine charter members, Mrs. Annie F. Gilley, 
Worthy Matron; Samuel J. Ritchie, Worthy Patron; 
Mrs. Edith Laird, Associate Matron. On July 26th he 
organized Grandview Chapter No. 8, with thirty-four 
charter members, Mrs. Elizabeth Munro, Worthy Ma- 
tron ; Wm. Coates Taylor, Worthy Patron ; Mrs. Fannie 
N. Jones, Associate Matron. This Chapter has the 
honor of having its first Worthy Patron chosen as the 
first Grand Patron of the Grand Chapter of British 
Columbia and its first Associate Matron as the first 
Grand Secretary. 

One year later, July 21, 191 2, Princess Patricia Chap- 
ter No. 9 was organized by Brother Engle, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with thirty-two charter members, Mrs. 
Kate L. Greene, Worthy Matron; Rev. Chas. S. Rush, 
Worthy Patron; Mrs. M. Mabel Merkley, Associate 
Matron. 

On July 23, 19 1 2, the representatives of the nine Chap- 
ters of the Order of the Eastern Star of the Province of 
British Columbia having assembled in the city of Van- 
couver, the Rev. Willis D. Engle, Most Worthy Grand 



212 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Patron of the General Grand Chapter, organized the 
Grand Chapter of British Columbia and the following 
officers were duly elected and installed : Mrs. Mary M. 
Douglas, Worthy Grand Matron; Wm. Coates Taylor, 
Worthy Grand Patron; Mrs. Elizabeth Bestwick, of Al- 
pha Chapter No. i. Associate Grand Matron; Hugh T. 
Fulton, of Sharon Chapter No. 4, Associate Grand 
Patron; Mrs. Katherin H. Irwin, of Burrard Chapter 
No. 3, Grand Treasurer ; Mrs. Fannie N. Jones, of Grand- 
view Chapter No. 8, Grand Secretary; Mrs. Anna D. 
Perry, of Vancouver Chapter No. 2, Grand Conductress ; 
Mrs. Sarah Cody- Johnson, of Queen City Chapter No. 5, 
Associate Grand Conductress. The officers conducted 
the business of the Grand Chapter during this term in a 
very able manner. Peace and harmony prevailed 
throughout the year. One new Chapter was added, on 
October ist, by the Worthy Grand Patron, that of Cres- 
cent No. 10, of Nanaimo, with a membership of thirty- 
one, Mrs. Margaret Langham, Worthy Matron ; Dalton 
Alexander, Worthy Patron; Mrs. Margaret Cameron, 
Associate Matron. 

The second session of the Grand Chapter was held in 
the city of Victoria June 17, 1913, and was royally en- 
tertained by Queen City Chapter No. 5. After a very 
pleasant and profitable session the following Grand Offi- 
cers were installed to serve for the following year : Mrs. 
Anna D. Perry, Worthy Grand Matron; Wm. H. F. 
Richdale, Worthy Grand Patron; Mrs. Alice M. Rob- 
erts, Associate Grand Matron; B. E. Bears, Associate 
Grand Patron; Mrs. Katherine H. Irwin, Grand Trea- 
surer; Mrs. Fannie N. Jones, Grand Secretary; Mrs. 
Myrtle Rees, Grand Conductress; Mrs. Viola Low, As- 
sociate Grand Conductress. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 213 

The following year seven new Chapters were added 
to our ''Golden Chain." Robert Morris Chapter, of 
Eburne, named in honor of the founder of our beautiful 
Order, and having a membership of twenty-nine, with 
Mrs. Mina Commiskey, Worthy Matron; Robert J. 
Roach, Worthy Patron; Mrs. Alice Lawrence, Associate 
Matron. This Chapter was organized by Wm. H. F. 
Richdale, Grand Patron, on the 17th of November, 1913. 
Robert Morris Chapter has always been studiously devot- 
ed to the principles of our Order and has taken the initia- 
tive in estabhshing a fund to be used, at some future time, 
for a home for sick and indigent O. E. S. members. On 
December 20th Queen Esther Chapter was organized by 
Wm. Coates Taylor, Past Grand Patron, who acted as 
Deputy for the Worthy Grand Patron, this Chapter 
having a membership of forty, with Mrs. Christine S. 
Hosey, Worthy Matron ; Nelson Jensen, Worthy Patron ; 
Mrs. Marie Harvie, Associate Matron. On the loth of 
March, 1914, Maple Leaf Chapter, of South Vancouver, 
was organized by the Worthy Grand Patron, with a 
membership of twenty-eight, Mrs. Isabella Shirley, 
Worthy Matron; James A. Shirley, Worthy Patron; 
Miss Rose Campbell, Associate Matron. On the occa- 
sion of the organization of all of these Chapters the 
work was exemplified by the Grand Officers of the Grand 
Chapter. 

On April 17th, Thomas Proctor, special Deputy for 
the Worthy Grand Patron, organized Merritt Chapter, 
Merritt, with Mrs. Margaret M. Grimmett, Worthy. 
Matron; Sidney J. Solomon, Worthy Patron; Mrs. 
Louise M. Rankine, Associate Matron, this Chapter hav- 
ing a membership of thirty. On April 24th, Revelstoke 



214 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Chapter, of Revelstoke, was organized by Brother Proc- 
tor acting as Deputy for the Worthy Grand Patron. A 
membership of eighty-two was here enrolled and the 
officers appointed were Mrs. Fanny Howson, Worthy 
Matron; Thomas C. Rea, Worthy Patron; Mrs. Isabella 
Hopgood, Associate Matron. On April 25th, Brother 
Proctor organized Adah Chapter, at Kamloops, with 
thirty-three members enrolled, Mrs. Adelaide R. John- 
stone, Worthy Matron ; Charles Hirst, Worthy Patron ; 
Mrs. Mabel A. Martin, Associate Matron. On the oc- 
casion of the organization of all of these Chapters the 
Deputy was accompanied by the Worthy Grand Matron, 
Mrs. Anna D. Perry, who had charge of the exemplifi- 
cation of the ceremony of initiation. 

April 30th, the Worthy Grand Patron, Wm. H. F. 
Richdale, organized Victoria 'Chapter, of Victoria, with 
a membership of sixty-six, Mrs. Margaret Risser, 
Worthy Matron; Clarence B. Deaville, Worthy Patron; 
Mrs. Jewel Wallace, Associate Matron. Here again the 
work was exemplified by the Grand Officers. During 
the year over four hundred new members were added 
to our Order. 

The third session of the Grand Chapter closed with 
the following Grand Officers installed: Mrs. Alice M. 
Roberts, Worthy Grand Matron; B. E. Beers, Worthy 
Grand Patron; Mrs. * Myrtle Rees, Associate Grand 
Matron; James Wilby, Associate Grand Patron; Mrs. 
Katherine H. Irwin, Grand Treasurer ; Mrs. Fannie N. 
Jones, Grand Secretary; Mrs. Viola Low, Grand Con- 
ductress; Miss Catherine McTavish, Associate Grand 
Conductress. 

The Chapters in the city of Vancouver and immediate 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 215 

vicinity have established a fund for the relief of any 
members of the Order who may need assistance. This 
fund is placed in the hands of a general committee, elect- 
ed from all the Chapters, and by this one charitable act, 
if no other could be attributed to the members in the 
Province, the Order of the Eastern Star in British 
Columbia have accomplished something "worth while." 

Grand Chapter oi^ Cai^ii^ornia^ 

A number of true and earnest men and women, en- 
dowed with sufficient power to direct and unite the blue 
ray of fidelity, the yellow ray of constancy, the white ray 
of charity, the green ray of hope and immortality, and 
the red ray of fervency and zeal into the illuminated 
Eastern Star in the State of California, organized Golden 
Gate Chapter No. i, San Francisco, May lo, 1869. This 
was the first organization of the Order, though the de- 
grees had been conferred in April, i860, and much in- 
terest in the Order had been manifested previous to the 
organization in Chapter form. 

Ten Chapters were organized, only seven of that num- 
ber being represented at the organization of the Grand 
Chapter in San Francisco on April 9, 1873, and six of 
the number remained in active condition throughout 
their entire history. By the constitution adopted, the 
Grand Patron was made the executive officer and has 
remained so until the present time. The first Grand 
Patron was Brother George J. Hobe and the first Grand 
Matron was Sister Maria Anderson. No provision was 
made for Grand Officers at the star points, but at the 

8 Organized April 9, 1873. 



216 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

October meeting in 1873 ^^ey were added to the corps 
of Grand Officers. Differing in their arrangements 
from almost all other Grand Jurisdictions, this State has 
continued the Grand Patron as the presiding officer and 
also the chief executive head. 

In addition to the three principal officers and Past 
Matrons and Past Patrons, each Chapter was given an 
additional representative for each twenty-five members, 
and one for each fraction of twenty-five members more 
than seventeen, but this additional representation was, 
by vote of the Grand Chapter, annulled in 1875. 

As was true of other Grand Chapters organized pre- 
vious to the organization of the General Grand Chapter, 
necessity demanded that a committee be appointed to 
prepare a ritual, and when prepared, the report was ac- 
cepted, the ritual adopted and published in 1873. In it 
ceremonies were provided for opening the Chapter, con- 
ducting its business, form for initiation, closing the 
Chapter, and installation of officers. At the meeting in 
1875 ^ committee was appointed to revise the Ritual with 
instructions to abbreviate the ceremonies of initiation 
so far as could be done without impairing the sense or 
value of same, and that the responses for the star points 
as given in the New York Ritual known as the Adoptive 
Rite revised, be adopted by subordinate Chapters. This 
committee reported in 1877,, their report was adopted, 
and the California Ritual, revised, was published by 
authority of the Grand Chapter. 

At its session, held in Vallejo, October 19, 1875, the 
Grand Chapter adopted a resolution "That the Grand 
Chapter constitute a committee of seven, of which the 
Worthy Grand Patron and the Worthy Grand Matron 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 217 

shall be members, to confer with like committees that 
may hereafter be appointed by other Grand Chapters of 
the Order in the United States. It shall be their duty to 
take under advisement, and present, if practical, some 
feasible and judicious plan for the organization of a 
Supreme Grand Chapter, which Supreme Body shall, 
when organized and recognized by two-thirds of the 
Grand Chapters of the Order in the United States, have 
absolute and supreme control over the Ritual and Lec- 
tures of the Order." 

By resolution, at its session held in San Francisco on 
October 17, 1876, it was decided to accept the invitation 
of the Grand Chapter of Indiana to send seven delegates 
to a Supreme Grand Chapter to be held in Indianapolis 
in November, 1876, and that delegates present at that 
time be authorized to cast the votes of the absentees. 

After some discussion and deliberation it was resolved 
that the Grand Chapter of California should not recog- 
nize the authority of the General Grand Chapter until 
the Ritual be published and opportunity was given to 
examine the same; and further, that it would be proper 
to grant dispensations for the formation of Chapters in 
adjacent States or Territories where there was no Grand 
Chapter. In 1878 all resolutions and motions relating 
to the adoption of rituals and the form thereof were re- 
scinded and the General Grand Chapter Ritual was 
adopted. 

At the first session the use of a pass-word was inau- 
gurated and was continued until 1878. 

In 1882 the State was divided into districts and a 
Deputy Grand Matron appointed in each district and this 
plan has continued in force. In 1898 and 1899 a system 



218 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of schools of instruction was carried forward, with the 
Grand Matron directing same. They were very helpful 
and satisfactory and each year the work is continued 
along similar lines. 

In 1880 a Chapter of Sorrow was held and in 1888 a 
memorial service was held by the Chapters of San Fran- 
cisco in memory of Dr. Rob Morris, the founder of the 
Order, and the Grand Chapter attended the same. The 
same year the Grand Chapter adopted the following: 

Resolved, That while we recognize the lamented Rob Morris 
as the author and founder of the Order, we recognize Robert 
Macoy as the Master Builder, who systematized the work of the 
Order, and through whose instrumentality the Order has assumed 
its present grand proportions; and that we are proud to hail 
Brother Macoy as the Patriarch of the Order, and hope that his 
useful life may be spared many years to adorn and dignify the 
Order of the Eastern Star. 

Referring to the efforts of some persons to introduce 
other degrees as higher or as dependent upon member- 
ship in the Eastern Star for eligibility, the Grand Chap- 
ter of California 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Grand Chapter that it is 
not conducive to the upbuilding of our Order, and opposed to the 
well established rules, regulations and edicts of the Fraternity, 
that any of the so-called side degrees not prescribed by the ritual 
of our Order, be conferred by our Chapters as such, at any time, 
or in the Chapter room during the evenings of our meetings, or 
under the auspices or countenance of our Fraternity, but that it 
is the sense of this Chapter that all entertainments of an exclusive- 
ly social nature be reserved for a time subsequent to the close of 
the Chapters, to the end that matters of a fraternal nature be not 
rendered secondary to social festivities. 

In 1902 the Grand Patron's decision was approved as 
follows: "That persons visiting in the State, with no 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 219 

intention of making it their permanent home, although 
remaining more than six months, cannot be received 
into any Chapter in this Jurisdiction, nor can the Grand 
Matron grant special dispensation for such purpose." 
The total receipts for the Home fund were $1,216.55. 
This was to be given to the trustees of the Masonic 
Home for the benefit of the girls only, to educate them 
in music or any line of work which would assist them, 
when older, to be self supporting. At this session $100 
was appropriated for the purchase of a jewel for the 
retiring Grand Matron. It was also adopted ''That it is 
the sense of this Grand Chapter that all alcoholic bev- 
erages be prohibited in serving refreshments at Subordi- 
nate Chapters.'' In 1904 the committee on finance was 
authorized to expend $100 annually for a gift for the 
Grand Matron, consulting her wishes in the matter. 

In 1905 a resolution was adopted "That the use of 
flowers in the initiatory work is optional with Chapters, 
but if flowers are used they must be the emblematic 
flowers of the several Degrees, designated in the ex- 
planation of the Signet.'' In 1903 regalia for the Grand 
Officers, consisting of jewels and collars, was purchased 
at a cost to the Grand Chapter of $270. In 1906 a relief 
fund of $16,673 was collected and wonderful help was 
rendered by the Grand Matron, Grand Patron, Grand 
Secretary, and Grand Treasurer, who personally super- 
intended the distribution of clothing, bedding, and trans- 
portation to those made needy by the disastrous earth- 
quake and fire. This Grand Chapter greatly appreciated 
the assistance so generously given by sister Grand 
Chapters. 

In 1909 an official book of instructions to be used by 



220 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

subordinate Chapters was presented by the committee 
on ritual and adopted by the Grand Chapter. An amend- 
ment to the constitution was adopted authorizing the 
Grand Matron to preside during the opening and clos- 
ing ceremonies and the reception of the representatives 
of other Grand Chapters and of Past Grand Officers ; at 
all other times the Grand Patron continues to preside 
and also remains the highest authority in the Grand 
Chapter. 

In 1910 the practice of issuing "Certificates of Quali- 
fication" to District Deputy Grand Matrons was inau- 
gurated. That the true fraternal spirit richly abounds, 
is shown by the adoption by unanimous vote of the fol- 
lowing: "There is hereby created the title Venerable 
Past Grand Patron, with all the rights and privileges of 
membership, to be conferred upon our beloved brother, 
William S. Moses, of Golden Gate Chapter No. i, in view 
of the fact that he was the first Deputy Grand Patron, 
and as such organized the first Chapters in this State.'' 

In 1901 memorial tiles were placed in the Masonic 
Home in loving remembrance of Brother George J. 
Hobe, the first Grand Patron, and Sister Maria Ander- 
son, the first Grand Matron. 

In 1913 a resolution was adopted: "Desiring to show 
the love and esteem that we feel for thirty-one years of 
continuous active service as Grand Secretary, . . . 
we create Sister Kate Josephine Willats Past Grand 
Matron of the State of California, Order of the Eastern 
Star." 

In 191 2, Grand Matron Lena Walker Stannard rec- 
ommended that an amendment to the constitution be 
made that would make the Grand Matron the first and 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 221 

the presiding officer of the Grand Chapter, but her 
recommendation did not meet with an approving vote 
and thus CaHfornia remains as the only one of the Grand 
Jurisdictions now presided over by a brother. With the 
sisters in California vested with the highest prerogatives 
of citizenship — the right of the ballot — it must soon 
follow that her right to the highest position in the Order 
of the Eastern Star will be accorded the sisters of that 
Grand Chapter. 

Although there are two Masonic Homes in the State, 
the demand is not fully supplied and a fund for an East- 
ern Star Home is now receiving very generous contribu- 
tions and this must soon result in the realization of the 
desired arrangements for the care of their dear ones. 
The sisters and brothers of this State appear to be ob- 
serving the teachings of our Order, that justice at all 
times may prevail, making the Order of the Eastern Star 
the advance guard of a clean fraternity, and its ideals 
the standard of all womankind. 

ORIGIN OF the: orde:r OF the: e:asti:rn STAR^ 

ROB MORRIS, LL.D. 

Your kind welcome will bear testimony to the advocates of the 
Order throughout the world that the spirit which animates it — 
a spirit of tenderness, of gratitude, of respect to age, is not con- 
fined to any locaHty, but is co-extensive with the Order itself. 

The gentlemen under whose tutelage I was made a Mason 
were warm advocates of what is often styled "Ladies' Masonry." 
One of them was making a practice of calling together the Ma- 
sonic Craft with their wives and daughters, in every place he 

9 Extracts from an address prepared at the request of the Grand Chap- 
ter of the Order of the Eastern Star of California, and delivered at a 
called session of that body in San Fancisco, April, 1876. Published by 
request. 



222 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

visited, and conferring upon them such degrees as the Mason's 
Daughter, the Good Samaritan, the Heroine of Jericho, and others 
of the class. But, truth to say, they made but little impression 
upon the mind and were soon forgotten. Like the numerous 
"side degrees" of Freemasonry there was no philosophy or system 
in them. No models of feminine character were presented, and 
there was little Biblical allusion. It was plain that the ladies 
regarded them but as trifles, only invented to amuse. They were 
far, therefore, from suggesting a correct idea of Freemasonry 
itself. 

When I had determined upon consecrating my life to Masonic 
teaching, I gave careful reflection to this subject. I sought to 
understand the true relationship which woman sustains to Ancient 
Masonry. Surely the question is worthy the attention of the 
wisest. If it is so that a Mason's wife has an interest here, the 
fact should be explained to her before she becomes a widow. We 
have in our country one-half a million Freemasons. Multiply 
this by three to include all the ladies who enjoy the traditional 
relationship to them which Freemasonry recognizes, and the num- 
ber is one and a half million ! What a field of enquiry, said I. I 
will investigate it. 

Now it demands but little knowledge of Masonry to perceive 
that its founders, whoever they were, never designed to separate 
husband from wife, father from child, etc., in the distribution of 
Masonic benefits. The ladies are secured in tlieir full share by 
the strongest of our Masonic engagements, whatever advantages 
the Order presents to the man in his relations as husband, father, 
and brother, the same advantages accrue to the woman in her 
relations as wife, daughter, and sister. This is true, or else I 
must begin again to learn what is the purpose of Freemasonry. 

The contrary theory has been very poorly maintained. "Be- 
cause a woman cannot be a Mason, she has no interest in Ma- 
sonry." "Because a woman cannot visit the lodge meetings, 
therefore she has no interest in the lodge meetings." Such argu- 
ments have no basis of truth. They who maintain them err rad- 
ically in confounding the two Ideas of labor and zvages. "Because 
woman is not permitted to labor in partnership with her husband, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 223 

therefore she cannot be permitted to share in the wages paid to 
her husband." See what such argnments tend to. 

Now the contrary is true; the man labors in the work of Ma- 
sonry, that the woman may share in the wages he receives. As 
the carpenter builds the house without female aid, but hands them 
his weekly wages ; as the sailor braves the ocean voyage that his 
helpless ones at home may live in comfort upon his pay; as all 
who toil with head or hand do it that the household lamp may be 
kept alight and the fireside be made secure, so the Freemason 
attends his lodge and performs his part in the technical work 
without requiring aid from his family, but when the Masonic 
benefits enure to him he appropriates a full share to the stay-at- 
homes who love him and are dependent upon him. 

Do you ask. What is this pay, this wages, to which allusion has 
been made, this reward which is to compensate the loving wife 
for the occasional absences of him she best loves ? The wages of 
Masonry, as you have often been told, are of three classes — relief 
in time of distress, sympathy in time of affliction, and protection 
in time of peril. The results of lodge-labor are to make the 
Mason a better husband, a better father, brother, and son. To 
make him better because more temperate, more industrious, 
kinder, more genial and amiable, more economical, more rever- 
ential to God and His law, more careful of the honor of his 
brethren and their families, more honest, virtuous, and truthful. 
A genuine Mason is a genuine man, having for his model and pat- 
tern the highest; drawing his rules of guidance from no earthly 
source ; acting as in the presence of the Most High God ; feeling 
that the All-Seeing-Eye inspects him; that an accurate record is 
kept in heaven of his earthly life and his wages in eternity will 
correspond with his labors in time. A Mason learns in the lodge 
teachings to be temperate, brave, prudent, and just. These, my 
sisters and brethren, are the deductions of my personal observa- 
tions extended through many years. 

Now, constituted as society is, the happiness of the wife must 
run parallel with the just behavior of her husband. If the man 
of the house is under a cloud there can be no light and sunshine 
for the woman. The uprightness of the son makes the joy of 



224 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the mother. The disgraceful life and death of the brother makes 
the misery of the sister. If, then, Freemasonry tends to promote 
the higher virtues of the man it is a thing to be exalted by the 
tongue of the woman. 

And these were the views upon which I projected my life-work 
nearly forty years ago. This conception of Freemasonry led me 
to originate the Eastern Star. The degrees common at that time 
were unworthy of our Order. The system practiced in France 
cannot be modified to suit American ladies. I sat down to the 
work of originating an entirely new system, actuated by the belief 
that it would fill a place. Drawing to my aid the Holy Scrip- 
tures — a wealth of noble examples of women as well as men, I 
began in the winter of 1849-1850 to prepare the rituals. 

First. I sought for a female character, willing to place her life 
in the scale of honor, and found it in the history of Jephthah's 
Daughter. 

Second. I sought for a female character willing to forsake all 
earthly attachments for the love of God, and found it in the his- 
tory of Ruth. 

Third. I sought for a female character high in rank and posi- 
tion, willing to surrender them for the dear love she bore her 
nation, and found it in the history of Esther. 

Fourth. I sought for a female character, whose Christian faith 
was so strong and fervent that the most untoward event could not 
shake it, and found it in the history of Martha. 

Fifth — lastly. I sought for a female character, willing to 
surrender all life's allurements and even life itself for the great 
love she bore to Jesus and found it in one of the old legends of 
Holy Land in the history of Electa. 

Having thus set up my five Queens of female Fame, the rest 
was easy. 

The emblems, the colors, the regalia, the lectures, the esoteric 
work, the odes and poems (more than forty) being composed and 
settled upon, the American Adoptive system was complete. The 
Eastern Star ascended the Masonic sky, shedding abroad a luster 
far greater than its author had ever anticipated. 

The history of thirty-one years is before you. More than 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 225 

100,000 ladies have received the degrees. A generation of our 
beloved, the virtuous and true, have accepted it. Its light is 
spreading further and further. I believe it will survive not only 
your aged brother, its founder, but all this large company, and 
will be cherished when we are in the dust. 

Nothing that I have ever attempted for Masonry has given 
me so much pleasure as the origination of this degree. It was 
from the outset a labor of love. I have never made any pecuniary 
profit from it. The time, the research were given cheerfully 
under the belief that good would result from it. 

It will appear strange to you, my sisters, that any Freemasons 
should be found to oppose this system. Yet to me, it is not 
strange. Freemasonry deals with the past. Its principles are 
fixed. There is a suspicion of all innovations. When Mr. Webb 
originated the Royal Arch System, ninety years ago, the opposi- 
tion was so decided that had there been Masonic newspapers then 
as now, to warn the Fraternity, I think it could never have 
struggled into being. So with what is called the Cryptic System ; 
so with the Templar Order. They are all modern and each in its 
day met a vigorous opposition. They outlived it because they 
were good things and supplied a want. So with the Eastern Star, 
the opposition has become unworthy of notice. It has gone on 
with steady and ever increasing momentum and its work has been 
useful. Freemasonry itself, the great oak whose branches have 
sheltered it, is the better for it. Humanity is the better for it. 
It must and will succeed. 

May I say a word as to the attacks upon myself. I have been 
made the subject of ridicule, nay, of reproach for my attachment 
to "Ladies' Masonry." For many years there was a set of Ma- 
sonic journals that made me a standing subject of invective. 
Some think that I might employ my time better. But have I not 
been industrious? Who has labored harder than I have? This 
right arm of mine, now suffering from paralysis — whose arm 
has been raised more frequently in teaching Masonic movements 
than this? These eyes of mine, so dim that I can scarcely read 
the notes that I have prepared for my guidance — whose eyes 
have been tried more frequently in Masonic research than mine? 



226 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

In what respect has my devotion to 'Xadies' Masonry" interfered 
with my calling as a Masonic writer and lecturer? 

A word of exhortation will close my address. The fraternal 
relationship I bear to all devotees of the Eastern Star justify me 
in offering you some counsel that may assist you in the future 
opening so pleasantly before you. 

First. A Chapter of the Eastern Star to be useful must be 
made entertaining. All that charms and enlivens — music, poet- 
ry, recitations — must enliven its exercises. It must be the patron 
of social interests among its members. 

Second. The officers of the Chapter should become skillful 
in the funeral ceremonies of the Order, so that when a sister, 
esteemed and respected, passes to that boundary to which we are 
all "nearer than we think," surviving sisters and brethren may 
hasten to bestow these loving honors, those marks of respect that 
prove to the world that our friendship does not cease at the grave. 

Third. The Chapter should be prompt to attend the needs of 
the distressed widow and orphan who possess claims upon our 
charity. This is an indispensable duty, nor need we expect the 
blessing of God upon our labors if we neglect it. 

Success, success long and lasting, success striking and brilliant 
follow all your doings as members of the Eastern Star ! Thanks, 
grateful and many for the honors you have bestowed upon me. 
May great peace attend you. And when each in your turn shall 
be summoned by that call which is irresistible and cannot be 
denied, may your transit be glorious from this imperfect to that 
all-perfect, glorious and celestial Lodge above, where the Supreme 
Architect of the Universe presides! 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 227 

Grand Chapte:r oi^^ CoIvOrado '"^ 

Though Brother Macoy had chartered Chapters at 
Black Hawk and at Silver Cliff some years previous 
(about 1877) to the Chapters chartered by the General 
Grand Chapter, those Chapters soon became inactive and 
the active work of the Order of the Eastern Star dates 
from the charter issued to Trinidad Chapter No. i, at 
Trinidad, January 7, 1881, by Willis Brown, Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, M. Beshour being deputized to 
conduct the constituting ceremony. Mrs. M. Jaffa, 
Worthy Matron; Wilson L. Smith, Worthy Patron; 
Louisa Burnett, Associate Matron. 

Colorado Chapter No. 2, located at Leadville in Lake 
County, was granted a charter by Willis Brown, Most 
Worthy Grand Patron of the General Grand Chapter, 
on June 15, 1882, B. Fancher being deputized to con- 
stitute the Chapter, Mrs. A. E. Johnson, Worthy Ma- 
tron; S. O. Hervey, Worthy Patron; Miss Maggie 
Braden, Associate Matron. 

Eminence Chapter No. 3 was chartered by Rollin C. 
Gaskill, Most Worthy Grand Patron, at Salida, Chaffee 
County, April 19, 1884, and was constituted May 21, 
1884, by James M. Bradbury, Deputy. The first officers 
were Miss Rose A. Slaughter, Worthy Matron; Syl- 
vanus O. Harvey, Worthy Patron; Mrs. Vianette C. 
Lawrence, Associate Matron. 

Adah Chapter No. 4, located at Aspen, Pitkin County, 
was granted a charter by Rollin C. Gaskill, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, February i, 1886, who deputized W. H. 
Bright to constitute the Chapter, February 15, 1886, 
Mrs. JuHa A. Bright, Worthy Matron; J. W. Campbell, 

10 Organized June 6, 1892. 



228 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Worthy Patron; Mrs. Sarah M. Gillespie, Associate 
Matron. 

Garden City Chapter No. 5, located at Greeley, was 
chartered February 22, 1886, by Rollin C. Gaskill, Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, who deputized W. B. Mason to 
constitute the Chapter March i, 1886, Mrs. F. L. Childs, 
Worthy Matron; F. L. Childs, Worthy Patron; Mrs. 
C. H. Wheeler, Associate Matron. 

Trinidad Chapter No. i having lapsed into a dormant 
condition and failed to pay dues for two or more years, 
thirty-nine petitioners asked for a new charter which 
was granted by Benjamin Lynds, Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, May 11, 1891, when M. H. Murphy was depu- 
tized to constitute the same and Chapter was reorgan- 
ized June 4, 1891, Mrs. Alice Leslie, Worthy Matron; 
J. M. Baker, Worthy Patron. 

Queen City Chapter No. 6, located at Denver, was 
chartered September 3, 1890, with 135 petitioners and 
organized September 9, 1890, by Rev. H. A. Guild, of 
Lincoln, Nebraska, who was deputized by the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron to constitute the Chapter, Mrs. 
E. E. Condit, Worthy Matron; W. H. L. Miller, Worthy 
Patron. 

Queen Esther Chapter No. 7, located at Boulder, was 
chartered December 4, 1890, by Benjamin Lynds, Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, who deputized H. A. Baker, of 
Denver, to constitute the Chapter, December 20, 1890, 
Sarah Conwell, Worthy Matron; T. K. Carmack, 
Worthy Patron. There were sixty petitioners. 

Electa Chapter No. 8, Durango, was chartered Janu- 
ary 2y, 1891, with twenty-seven signers to the petition. 
N. Nagengast was deputized to conduct the constituting 
ceremony in February, 1891, Mrs. Charles Newman, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 229 

Worthy Matron; Jethro C. Sanford, Worthy Patron. 

Pueblo Chapter No. 9, located at Pueblo, was char- 
tered August I, 1891, and organized September 22, 1891, 
by H. D. Hathaway, of Pueblo, who was deputized by 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron. There were twenty- 
five petitioners, who chose Mrs. F. P. Wormley, Worthy 
Matron; H. D. Hathaway, Worthy Patron. 

Twenty-nine petitioners, with John McCoach, of Col- 
orado City, deputized to constitute the Chapter, were 
granted a charter by the Most Worthy Grand Patron 
September 4, 1891, and organized Glen 'Eyrie Chapter 
No. 10, Colorado City, September 12, 1891, with Hattie 
Stephens, Worthy Matron, and John McCoach, Worthy 
Patron. 

October 30, 1891, a charter was issued to Ramona 
Chapter No. 11, Colorado Springs, and H. A. Baker of 
Denver was deputized by the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron to constitute this Chapter on November 4, 1891, 
with Mrs. Ella L. C. Dwinnell, Worthy Matron ; Cassius 
E. Stubbs, Worthy Patron. 

Ruxton Chapter No. 12, Manitou, was chartered Feb- 
ruary 9, 1892, and constituted by John McCoach, deputy 
of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, on February 27, 
1892, with Mrs. Eva J. Aldrich, Worthy Matron, and 
Charles M. Elerick, Worthy Patron, having twenty- 
seven signers upon the petition. 

Columbine Chapter No. 13, Longmont, was chartered 
March 17, 1892, by the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
who deputized H. A. Baker, of Denver, to constitute the 
Chapter on March 28, 1892, with Mrs. Mary L. Carr, 
Worthy Matron, and E. J. Coflfman, Worthy Patron. 

The convention to organize the Grand Chapter was 
called by Romona Chapter No. 1 1 of Colorado Springs, 



230 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

and met at Colorado Springs, June 6, 1892, and there 
amidst the beautiful and sublime scenery of this mag- 
nificent stretch of nature's handiwork, ten of the thir- 
teen Chapters in the State, represented by thirty-four 
representatives and past officers, organized the Grand 
Chapter. The Grand Matron was made the executive 
head and the per capita dues fixed at twenty-five cents 
per year. Past Matrons and Past Patrons were made 
permanent members and charters were issued to the 
Chapters working under the General Grand Chapter, 
numbering same according to date issued. Colorado 
Chapter No. 2 presented the new Grand Chapter with 
$50 toward paying the expenses of organization. Mrs. 
Carrie Reef, of Leadville, was elected Worthy Grand 
Matron, Henry D. Hathaway, of Pueblo, Worthy Grand 
Patron, and Mrs. Eliza S. Cohen, of Colorado Springs, 
Grand Secretary. With the completion of organization, 
the Order began a glorious field of labor, looking well 
to the noble purposes and loving kindnesses as framed 
by the solemn obligation, with their motto of their lives 
for the past. Charity, for the present, Hope, for the 
future. Faith, and in that spirit nobly entered upon the 
duties of the Order. In 1896 it was decided that "Mem- 
bers belonging to any of the independent States can visit 
Chapters if they can stand a thorough examination, and 
that they have the right of affiliation.'' 

In 1 90 1 the Grand Secretary reported the donation of 
$253.15 to the Galveston sufferers; seven Chapters 
pledged themselves to donate the sum of $320 toward a 
sinking fund for the purpose of starting a Home fund, 
and $180 annually toward its support; ten per cent of 
the receipts were set aside as a benevolent fund. In 
1902 the sum of $50 was appropriated to the St. Louis 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 231 

Temple of Fraternity. During the National Encamp- 
ment of the G. A. R., 1905, the Grand Chapter extended 
fraternal courtesies to all visiting O. E. S. members in 
the parlors of the Masonic Temple at an expense of 
$93.45, during which time more than eight hundred vis- 
itors ^were registered. In 1906 a relief fund was pre- 
sented to the San Francisco sufferers amounting to 
$403.49. At the meeting in 1909, the Floral Addenda 
was exemplified by the Denver Chapter. A "System of 
Notice'' was adopted in 1910, intended to protect the 
Chapters from visits by clandestines, also expelled or 
suspended persons, which notice was mailed by the Sec- 
retary to the home Chapter of the visitor. In 1909 the 
Grand Patron was appointed as advisory trustee to co- 
operate with the trustees of the Masonic Benevolent 
Association as a representative of the O. E. S. The 
Grand Chapter relief fund was started in 1911 and 
contributions aggregated $4,602.15. An Eastern Star 
relief board was organized in Denver in 1907 with the 
object in view to more efficiently promote the charitable 
efforts of the Order. 

Grand Chapte^r 01^ Conne:cticut '^ 

On Good Friday, March 26, 1869, at the home of Mrs. 
Mary Abigail Woodward, No. 25 Front Street, just 
opposite Potter Street, Hartford, Connecticut, there 
gathered eight Master Masons and nine wives of Master 
Masons "to devise some method for a social lodge of 
Master Masons, their wives, widows, and daughters, so 
that in a strange land they could be recognized by any 
Master Mason." 

11 Organized August 11, 1874. Data by Edward E. Fuller, P. G. P. 
of Connecticut. 



232 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

A committee was appointed on by-laws, which com- 
mittee prepared a report which they presented at another 
special meeting held April 14, 1869, at the home of Mrs. 
Joseph Smith, No. 530 Main Street, Hartford, where 
the by-laws were considered, and the same committee 
was continued with the additional duty of preparing a 
ritual and secret work, and to report as soon as con- 
venient. 

They reported at another meeting called at the home 
of Brother George Giddings in West Hartford on May 
12, 1869, where the by-laws, ritual, and secret work were 
discussed and adopted. 

They also decided upon a name for the Order, voting 
that it be called Giddings Lodge No. i, A. M. (Adopted 
Masons). A committee was appointed to procure a 
suitable hall in which to hold their meetings. This com- 
mittee secured the hall known as Stedman Hall in the 
building owned by Benjamin Bliss, corner of Main and 
Pratt Streets, Hartford, and the Lodge met there on 
Wednesday, December 8, 1869, and elected their officers, 
which consisted of a President, Vice President, Treas- 
urer, and Secretary. At this meeting many applications 
were presented and referred to committees, much in- 
terest being shown. 

At the annual meeting in December, 1872, in order to 
be in closer touch with the other bodies of like character 
in the State, the name, Ivanhoe Chapter No. 10, A. M., 
was printed on the ritual and during the year following, 
the Lodge and Chapter worked together as one body, 
after which time it ceased to be Giddings Lodge and 
became Ivanhoe Chapter No. 10, receiving its charter 
February 28, 1874. 

Previous to its receiving its charter, there had been 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 233 

organized in Connecticut, through the efforts of Brother 
Rob Morris, and of Brother Chauncey M. Hatch, nine 
Chapters of the Order of the Eastern Star, and shortly 
afterward, one other Chapter was organized, making 
eleven in all, as follows: Orient Chapter No. i, Bridge- 
port, April 22, 1869; Azalia No. 2, Stratford, May 9, 
1869; Excelsior No. 3, New Haven, April 24, 1870; 
Grace No. 4, Danbury, May 27, 1870; Floral No. 5, 
Georgetown, April 18, 1872; Myrtle No. 6, Fairhaven, 
June 19, 1872; Unity No. 7, Guilford, November, 1872; 
Meriden No. 8, Meriden, December 4, 1873; Laurel 
No. 9, Northford, December 15, 1873; Ivanhoe No. 10, 
Hartford, February 28, 1874; Radiant No. 11, Willi- 
mantic, March 31, 1874. 

On August II, 1874, in Odd Fellows Hall, New Ha- 
ven, a convention of the several chapters of the Order 
in the State was held, at the request of the several Chap- 
ters, to organize a Grand Chapter, a call having been 
issued for same by Brother Chauncey M. Hatch, of 
Orient Chapter No. i, of Bridgeport, by reason of his 
appointment (before the system of organized Chapters 
was instituted) by Brother Rob Morris, the Grand Pa- 
tron of the Order in the United States, as Grand Patron 
of the Order in Connecticut. 

At this convention the eleven Chapters were repre- 
sented, a constitution was adopted, and officers elected, 
as follows : Grand Patron, Brother C. M. Hatch, No. i ; 
Grand Matron, Sister A. C. Thorpe, No. 3; Associate 
Grand Patron; Brother W. H. Ford, No. 10; Associate 
Grand Matron, Sister W. D. Weld, No. 7 ; Grand Treas- 
urer, Addie C. S. Bario, No. 8; Grand Secretary, Kate 
L. Tuttle, No. 9; Grand Conductor, H. C. Holaday; 
Associate Grand Conductor, J. E. Gregory, No. i ; Grand 
Warder, M. J. Smith, No. 3. 



234 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

All present, by vote of the convention, signed the 
constitution. The installation of officers was postponed 
until October 14, 1874, that being the time appointed by 
the Grand Chapter for its annual meeting in New Ha- 
ven, to which date the convention adjourned. The 
Grand Patron was made the executive officer of the 
Grand Chapter, but this was changed in 1876 by placing 
the authority in the hands of the Grand Matron. Grand 
Chapter dues were arranged for by fifty cents for each 
member admitted during the year, with no per capita 
dues, but in 1878 dues were levied of two and one-half 
cents per capita, which was increased in 1880 to five 
cents, and in 1899 to ten cents, and later to twenty cents. 

On October 14, 1874, the first annual meeting of the 
Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star of Connecti- 
cut, was held in Grand Army Hall, New Haven, and 
was called to order by Grand Patron C. M. Hatch, repre- 
sentatives of each of the eleven Chapters being present. 
The Grand Patron was installed by M. W. Brother Wil- 
liam Wallace Lee, who was present and who was then 
the Most Worshipful Grand Master of the Grand Lodge 
of Connecticut, assisted by Brother F. Turner De Bussy, 
of No. 3, as Grand Marshal, and the remaining officers 
were installed by Grand Patron C. M. Hatch, assisted 
by Brother S. T. Bartlett, of No. i, as Grand Marshal. 
A petition for a charter for a Chapter in Thomaston was 
received, and it was recommended that it be granted and 
be known as Electa Chapter No. 12, and that it be al- 
lowed to participate in the doings of the Grand Chapter 
at this session. 

At this session charters were granted, bearing date of 
October 14, 1874, to the twelve above named Chapters, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 235 

whose total membership at this time numbered thirteen 
hundred and twenty-five. 

All the Chapters used the ritual prepared by the com- 
mittee appointed in 1874 and reported at a special ses- 
sion, held February i, 1875, the ritual as usually prac- 
ticed (Adoptive Rite), with some additions taken from 
the ancient ritual (the Mosaic Book) which was adopted 
and known as the Connecticut Addenda. Excelsior 
Chapter No. 3, of New Haven, exemplified portions of 
the dramatized work (Mosaic), and it was decided that 
Chapters in the jurisdiction of Connecticut might dram- 
atize such portions of the work as they chose, provided 
the same be in accordance with the text and ceremonies 
as exemplified at this time. Brief exemplary dramatiza- 
tions were printed by the Grand Chapter for the use of 
Chapters desiring to use them. 

The Grand Matron's address in 1876 contained the 
following : 

In the brief time that the Chapter at Meriden has been in exist- 
ence it has used three varieties of rituals, and I have seen a 
fourth, the revised work recently adopted by the Grand Chapter 
of New York {Macoy Ritual). The Grand Chapter of Con- 
necticut adopted a ritual, and upon sending for more copies, are 
informed that they are not in print, thus compelling us to adopt 
the new ones for any new Chapters that may be formed. 

In 1877 a resolution was adopted favoring the effort 
to ofifer a uniform ritual as was then in progress by the 
ritual committee of the General Grand Chapter and in 
1878 the General Grand Chapter Ritual was adopted and 
the Grand Chapter of Connecticut, then an independent 
Grand Chapter, recognized the General Grand Chapter 
as a sister body, and expressed their willingness to co- 
operate with it in such matters as in their judgment will 



236 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

advance the interests of the whole Order. In the latter 
part of 1879 the new Rituals (General Grand Chapter 
Revised) was adopted as the Ritual of the Grand Juris- 
diction of Connecticut. 

In 1876 the Grand Chapter decided that the condition 
of the finances was such that they would be unable to 
bear their proportion of the legitimate expense attendant 
upon the formation of a Supreme Grand Chapter. 

In 1897 a committee was appointed to visit the General 
Grand Chapter in 1898 in response to the invitation of 
the Right Worthy Grand Secretary and this committee 
reported in 1899, recommending affiliation with the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter, but action was indefinitely post- 
poned. It was again taken up in 1900 and the recom- 
mendation of the committee adopted on October 10, 1900. 
On November 30, 1900, official notice from the Grand 
Secretary, Mrs. A. E. L. Stebbins, was sent to the Right 
Worthy Grand Secretary stating that the Grand Chapter 
of Connecticut had declared its desire to become a con- 
stituent part of the General Grand Chapter and the 
formal recognition notices which declared the Grand 
Chapter of Connecticut a constituent member of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter were duly issued. 

The Grand Chapter of Connecticut has now been in 
existence forty-one years. In these years, of the twelve 
original Chapters only two have relinquished their 
charters, and new Chapters have since been instituted 
in these same localities, while of the entire number of 
eighty-one Chapters, including the twelve original Chap- 
ters, only nine have surrendered their charters, and in 
almost every one, if not indeed every one of the localities 
in which these nine were located, new Chapters have 
since been instituted. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 237 

In these years also the Chapters have increased from 
twelve to seventy-three, with two others under dispensa- 
tion, while the membership has grown from thirteen 
hundred and twenty-five to about ten thousand. 

The generosity of the Order has been exhibited in a 
gift of $128 to the Eastern Star headquarters at the St. 
Louis fair, and the California earthquake sufferers were 
given $712 to assist in their relief. 

The Sunday nearest June 12th is recognized as "Dec- 
oration Day" of the Order, while the Order unites with 
the Grand Lodge in celebrating ''Grand Master's Day'' 
at the Masonic Home at Wallingford. Over $5,000 has 
been contributed in cash to the Masonic Home and a 
fund for an Eastern Star Home has been started, which 
now is increasing rapidly, and the Grand Chapter is 
striving toward the erection of a Home at a date not far 
distant. 

The Order in Connecticut, it can therefore be truly 
said, is prosperous, harmonious, and enthusiastic ; grow- 
ing in membership and in influence every year, and look- 
ing forward toward still greater prosperity and influence 
in the years which are to come. 

Grand Chaptcr, District o^ Coi^umbia^^ 

The first Chapter chartered by the General Grand 
Chapter was Ruth No. i, at Brightwood, July 16, 1892, 
with fifty-seven petitioners. As Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, John A. Becker constituted the 
Chapter August 11, 1892, with Mrs. Jennie Johnson, 
Worthy Matron, W. E. Nally, Worthy Patron, Mrs. 
Alcena Lamond, Associate Matron. 

12 Organized April 31, 1896. 



238 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Electa No. 2, at Anacostia, was chartered July 12, 
1894, with eighty-five petitioners; Naomi Chapter No. 3 
was chartered January 25, 1895 ; Martha Chapter No. 4, 
Washington, chartered May 2.2, 1895; Esther Chapter 
No. 5, Washington, was chartered January 6, 1896; 
Adah Chapter No. 6, Washington, was chartered Janu- 
ary II, 1896. 

Brother H. H. Hinds, Most Worthy Grand Patron of 
the General Grand Chapter, called the convention that 
organized the Grand Chapter, April 30, 1896. For the 
third time Elmira Foley, Past Most Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron, was given the distinction of assisting in the organ- 
ization of a Grand Chapter, and all six Chapters, repre- 
senting a membership of eight hundred and twenty-two 
earnest workers, assembled in the Scottish Rite Cathe- 
dral, Washington, by their representatives. The con- 
stitution adopted provided for two stated sessions each 
year, the annual session to be held in January and the 
second in June; the usual recognition was accorded to 
Past Matrons and Past Patrons, they being made per- 
manent members of the Grand Chapter ; the Grand Ma- 
tron was made the executive officer and differing from 
the usual manner of filling offices in the Grand Chapter, 
all the Grand Officers were elected by ballot, but this 
was changed in 1901, making the point officers and 
Grand Organist appointive. 

During the first year following organization, the 
Grand Chapter held its sessions as provided in the con- 
stitution, June 6, 1896; two special sessions, one October 
6th to exemplify the degrees before the Grand Officers, 
and on December 26th for the purpose of granting char- 
ters to new Chapters. 

During 1896 and 1897 the Matrons of the Chapters 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 239 

held monthly meetings in the interests of the charitable 
work of the Order. The accumulated funds for the Na- 
tional Masonic Fair in 1897 amounted to $1,435.96 as 
collected by the committee appointed for that purpose. 
Each Chapter was asked to appoint a committee annu- 
ally, to communicate to members the secret work, and it 
was made mandatory that all new members especially 
be instructed in the obligation and impressed with the 
necessity of a faithful conformity to its requirements. 
At the June meeting in 1899 a committee on O. E. S. 
Home was appointed and reported at a special session 
held November 4th of the same year, the report request- 
ing that the constitution be so amended as to provide for 
the establishment of a Home, its incorporation, etc., 
which report was adopted and the O. E. S. Home com- 
mittee appointed. Continued care was given to orphan 
children and in 1900 a tea was held which brought in 
$303-30 for their support. A series of luncheons were 
also given, the proceeds amounting to almost $500 placed 
in the O. E. S. Home fund. In 1902, by an act of Con- 
gress, an Eastern Star Home for the District of Colum- 
bia was incorporated. In 1903 an O. E. S. Fair was 
held and $1,177.59 was realized to be added to the Home 
fund. With earnest effort and united consecration to 
the upbuilding of the beloved Order, determined to pro- 
vide for their own who may need the assistance of the 
Fraternity, the Masonic and O. E. S. Home was com- 
pleted and on October 16, 1905, it was dedicated free 
from encumbrance; after paying all bills, a balance of 
$2,945 was in the Home fund — a wonderful tribute to 
lay at the shrine of devotion to duty. 

In addition to the charitable work mentioned, $175 
was contributed to the relief of the Galveston flood suf- 



240 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ferers; $162 was sent to the relief of the earthquake suf- 
ferers in San Francisco; 1,600 volumes of reading matter 
were sent to our soldiers in China and a Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Relief Association, formed for the purpose of 
assisting the Red Cross Society in the care of the sick 
and wounded United States soldiers and bailors in the 
Spanish-American War, furnished funds for carrying 
forward that portion of the charitable work. With the 
rising of each morning's sun come solemn responsibili- 
ties and obligations which must be discharged before the 
evening shadows shroud the day, or our record of life 
through time and eternity must remain clouded and de- 
fective. There is much work for the members of this 
greatest Order of organized fraternal charity to do, and 
this we can best accomplish by living the principles of 
our Order in our daily lives. Its purpose is to set before 
us a higher ideal, to give us greater inspiration toward 
good, and to teach us by precept and example the sacred 
duties which we owe to one another and to God. 

In 19 1 3 a new Masonic and Eastern Star Home was 
built, which was dedicated with the usual ceremonies and 
addresses and general rejoicing that the object sought 
had been attained. This home receives the hearty sup- 
port of the Masonic Fraternity, and continues its divine 
mission in the care of our sisters and brothers for whom 
fortune makes such an institution necessary. The re- 
view of the accomplishments of this Grand Jurisdiction 
must inspire, ennoble, and uplift all those who may have 
the opportunity to study this enduring monument and 
practical demonstration of the teachings of Masonry 
and its co-worker, the Order of the Eastern Star. 

The history of the Grand Jurisdiction of the District 
of Columbia could not be written without giving special 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 241 

mention to Mrs. Alcena Lamond, Right Worthy Grand 
Treasurer of the General Grand Chapter. For nearly 
a quarter of a century she has continued, without inter- 
mission, her work for the good of the Order and, judged 
by the resuhs, it places her in the front rank of those who 
have toiled and sacrificed to build and make our Order 
useful in the District of Columbia. A charter member 
of Ruth Chapter No. i, its second Worthy Matron, first 
Worthy Grand Matron of the Grand Chapter of the 
District of Columbia, the first president of the board of 
directors of the Masonic and Eastern Star Home and 
continuing in that capacity each year since that time, one 
of the members of the first board of trustees of the 
General Grand Chapter, she continuing in such ofiice 
until appointed by the Most Worthy Grand Matron, 
Mrs. Rata A. Mills, to the office of Right Worthy Grand 
Treasurer of the General Grand Chapter to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Sister Harriette 
A. Ercanbrack. 

Sister Lamond is fully competent to discharge the irri- 
portant duties which this appointment has placed upon 
her and the members are deeply grateful for the honor 
conferred upon one of their number as well as the recog- 
nition accorded the jurisdiction of the District of Col- 
umbia. 



242 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapter of Florida " 

By authority of the Supreme Grand Chapter of the 
Adoptive Rite, a Chapter of the Order of the Eastern 
Star was organized in Florida, though httle is known 
further than the fact that a charter was issued. 

The first Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star in 
Florida having authentic records was organized in Jack- 
sonville, December 17, 1872, by the wife and daughters 
of Judge D. C. Dawkins, Mrs. O. P. Knapp, Mrs. J. H. 
Abbott, Mrs. David Jones, Mrs. E. Wasgate, Mrs. O. L. 
Keene, and others. This Chapter was named Ever- 
green No. I and held its meetings the first and third 
Tuesdays of each month. The first Worthy Matron was 
Mrs. O. P. Knapp; Worthy Patron, Judge Dawkins; 
Associate Matron, Mrs. David Jones. 

The first ritual used by this Chapter was the Macoy 
Ritual of the Adoptive Rite published in 1871, which is 
now in possession of Sister Cora R. Franz, P. G. M. 
She also has the Macoy Ritual used by this Chapter pub- 
lished by Brother O. L. Keene in 1880. This Chapter 
existed for a few years and then from deaths, removal, 
and lack of funds, suspended, but some of its members 
are still residents of Jacksonville. 

Evergreen Chapter No. 2 was chartered by the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter June 18, 1880, by Brother R. B. 
Thomas, special deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron, with Mrs. Mary E. Mitchell, Worthy Matron, R. B. 
Thomas, Worthy Patron, Mrs. Mary E. Randolph, As- 
sociate Matron. It was reported dormant in 1886, sent 
no report to the General Grand Chapter in 1889, and 
never paid any dues. 

13 Organized June 7, 1904. Data by Brother Arthur H. Carter, P. G. P., 
Grand Secretary from 1907 to the present. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 243 

Magnolia Chapter No. 3, Palatka, was organized by 
Brother W. E. Ransom, special Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, on June 30, 1882, the charter 
having been issued by the General Grand Chapter on 
June 13, 1882, with Mrs. Martha A. Bowen, Worthy 
Matron, W. E. Ransom, Worthy Patron, Mrs. Adeline 
D. M'Leod, Associate Matron. This Chapter did not 
report to the General Grand Chapter in either 1886 or 
in 1889 and upon recommendation of the Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary the two Chapters (No. 2 and No. 3) 
were stricken from the records. 

At the seventh assembly of the General Grand Chapter 
in 1892 a record was given of Electa Chapter No. i, 
Green Cove Springs, which was granted a charter De- 
cember 24, 1889, and organized December 29, 1889, by 
Dewitt C. Dawkins, of Jacksonville, special Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron ; Worthy Matron, Miss 
L. Dova Greer; Worthy Patron, A. W. Monroe; Asso- 
ciate Matron, Miss Jane L. Moss; with twenty peti- 
tioners. This Chapter paid dues in 1891, 1892, 1894, 
and 1895. 

The Charter of Magnolia Chapter No. 2 (reorgan- 
ized), located at Palatka, was dated October 23, 1893, 
with forty petitioners, and was organized by W. H. Han- 
cock, special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with Mrs. N. C. Clark, Worthy Matron; B. T. Flowers, 
Worthy Patron; Miss Maude V. M'Kenzie, Associate 
Matron; paying dues in 1893, 1894, and 1895. In 1896 
Magnolia Chapter No. 2 was represented in the General 
Grand Chapter assembly by Sister Alice H. Haskell, who 
served upon one of the committees at that session. She 
further had the distinction of being the first representa- 
tive of the Order from Florida to attend the Triennial 
Assembly. Again, in 1899, Magnolia Chapter No. 2, 



244 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of Palatka, became dormant and was not revived again 
until May 25, 1909, when it was chartered by the Grand 
Chapter of Florida as Palatka Chapter No. 33. The 
original "Star Floor Carpet or Cloth" of the first Chap- 
ter of Palatka was kept as an heirloom by the Masonic 
Lodge of Palatka; it was among its properties in 1886, 
and was used when Magnolia Chapter No. 2 was organ- 
ized in 1895. It is now used by the members of Palatka 
Chapter No. 33 in their meetings. 

Tropical Chapter No. 3 was organized at Bartow on 
December 15, 1894, by James Harden as Deputy for the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, with fifty-one petitioners. 
They selected as their first Worthy Matron, Mrs. Beulah 
R. Stevens; Worthy Patron, James Harden; Associate 
Matron, Mrs. Bessie E. Johnson, and did not pay dues 
after 1896. 

Inverness Chapter No. 4 was organized April 12, 
189s, by Dr. J. F. Miller, Deputy of Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with sixty-two petitioners. Worthy Matron, 
M. Lottie Wells ; Worthy Patron, Dr. J. F. Miller ; Asso- 
ciate Matron, Mrs. Louise Zimmerman. Dues were 
paid in 1895 for fifty members. 

The charter for Live Oak Chapter No. 5, Daytona, 
was issued December 31, 1896. It was instituted Janu- 
ary 15, 1897, by Jesse Oren, member of Lyra Chapter 
No. 129, Iowa, with twenty-five charter members. 
Worthy Matron, Mrs. Ida A. Peck; Worthy Patron, 
George H. Clark; Associate Matron, Mrs. Martha H. 
Carter ; the last named being now a Past Grand Matron 
of Florida. This Chapter was rightly named Live Oak; 
it was the Chapter that lived and is now Chapter No. i 
of 'the Florida Stars. It is the home Chapter of three 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 245 

Grand Patrons and the present Grand Secretary, who is 
one of the Past Grand Patrons. 

A charter was issued July 12, 1897, for Seminole 
Chapter No. 6, at Sanford. It was instituted July 20, 
1897, by Rev. Harry Cassit, member of Fort Worth 
Lodge No. 148, Texas, with nineteen charter members. 
Worthy Matron, Mrs. Jennie Cassit; Worthy Patron, 
H. E. Munson; Associate Matron, Mrs. Annie B. S. 
Munson. Seminole Chapter gave to Florida her first 
Grand Matron, Mrs. Alice E. Robbins, who presided 
over the Grand Chapter for two years. 

May 4, 1898, a charter was issued to Dolores Chapter 
No. 7, New Smyrna. It was instituted May 20, 1898, 
by Brother Jas. Carnell, with twenty charter members. 
Worthy Matron, Mrs. Minnie L. Moore ; Worthy Patron, 
F. A. Barrett; Associate Matron, Miss Amelia Moeller. 
This is the home Chapter of Past Grand Matron Nettie 
V. Turner. 

Queen Esther Chapter No. 8, Clearwater, was char- 
tered June 12, 1899, with forty-five petitioners, and in- 
stituted August 8, 1899, by H. L. Snyder as special 
Deputy. Worthy Matron, Mrs. Ella M. Padgett; 
Worthy Patron, John W. Williamson; Associate Ma- 
tron, Mrs. Anna Williamson. This is the home Chapter 
of Past Grand Patron R. H. Padgett. 

The charter of Eureka Chapter No. 9, at St. Peters- 
burg, was granted December 2J, 1899, and the Chapter 
was organized February 15, 1900, by R. H. Padgett, of 
Clearwater, with thirty-four charter members. Worthy 
Matron, Mrs. Virginia Ainslee; Worthy Patron, Jason 
L. Taylor; Associate Matron, Mrs. Kittie Holshouser. 

To De Soto Chapter No. 10, at Punta Gorda, a charter 



246 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

was granted April 2^, 1899, and Chapter organized June 
8, 1900, by J. M. Samuel, as special Deputy, with thirty- 
nine petitioners. Worthy Matron, Mrs. Bertha L. 
Johnson; Worthy Patron, John M. Samuel; Associate 
Matron, Mrs. Leonora G. Earnest. 

A charter was granted to Friendship Chapter No. 11, 
Titusville, on May 16, 1901, and a Chapter was organ- 
ized June 4, 1 901, by Jas. Carnell, special Deputy, of 
Ormond, and member of Daytona Chapter. He was 
accompanied by several members of Live Oak Chapter 
and Dolores Chapter, who assisted in instituting Friend- 
ship. This is the home Chapter of Past Grand Patron 
George M. Robbins, and was organized with a charter 
membership of twenty-seven. Worthy Matron, Mrs. 
Cora B. Schuyler; Worthy Patron, Dr. B. R. Wilson; 
Associate Matron, Mrs. Josephine M. Chaffee. 

The first Most Worthy Grand Matron to visit Florida 
was Sister Hattie E. Ewing, who visited Dolores Chap- 
ter, New Smyrna, on February 11, 1901 ; Live Oak 
Chapter, Daytona, on February 12, 1901, and Seminole 
Chapter, Sanford, on February 15, 1901, which Chapter 
she reorganized. She held a school of instruction with 
Eureka Chapter, St. Petersburg, on February 16, 1901, 
and visited Queen Esther Chapter, Clearwater, on Feb- 
ruary 18, 1 901. These are the first visits of any General 
Grand Chapter officer recorded. 

Ruth Chapter, Fort Pierce, was granted a charter July 
18, 1902, and organized July 23, 1902, by Frederick A. 
Morgan, special Deputy, with twenty-one charter mem- 
bers. Worthy Matron, Mrs. Frances S. Cross ; Worthy 
Patron, Henry L. Klopp ; Associate Matron, Mrs. Eme- 
line R. Tyler. 

A charter was issued to Grace Chapter No. 13, at 
Wellborn, September 17, 1903, to twenty petitioners. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 247 

with Mrs. Laura J. Oliff, Worthy Matron; C. B. OUff, 
Worthy Patron; Mrs. Jennie Spencer, Associate Ma- 
tron. 

Florida Chapter No. 14, Pensacola, was chartered July 
2, 1903, with thirty- three charter members, and con- 
stituted by W. E. Anderson, special Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, L. Cabell Williams. Worthy 
Matron, Mrs. Marie S. Weeks ; Worthy Patron, W. E. 
Anderson, a Past Master of Florida A. F. and A. M. ; 
Associate Matron, Mrs. Eva Gibbs. This is the home 
Chapter of Sister Marie S. Weeks who served as Grand 
Matron of Florida 1906-1907. This Chapter observes 
with banquet and suitable literary and musical exercises, 
"Founder's Day'' August 31, and has commenced to ob- 
serve an annual "Chapter of Sorrow." At every meet- 
ing a march is led by the Worthy Matron and as the 
members pass the charity box on the altar by the open 
Bible, a contribution is dropped in. The Masonic Home 
fund is thus remembered at each meeting and an annual 
contribution is made. This Chapter has had, from the 
beginning, all requisite paraphernalia so that the degrees 
are given in a beautiful and impressive manner. The 
kindliest feehng exists between the Chapter and the Ma- 
sonic bodies. The brethren of the Scottish Rite open 
their cathedral to the use of the Chapter as occasion 
demands. 

A charter was granted to Bushnell Chapter No. 15, 
at Bushnell, March 10, 1904, with twenty-seven petition- 
ers. Mrs. Katie Hooker, Worthy Matron; James De 
Witt, Worthy Patron ; Miss Gertrude Pierce, Associate 
Matron. 

A charter was granted to Evergreen Chapter No. 16, 
at Tampa, June 2, 1904, with twenty-two charter mem- 
bers. Miss Azeele Carruthers, Worthy Matron; Her- 



248 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

man Glogowski, Worthy Patron; Mrs. Maria G. Post, 
Associate Matron. This is the home Chapter of Past 
Grand Matrons Orpha D. Bruce and Miss Azeele Car- 
ruthers. 

On June 4, 1904, a charter was issued for Keystone 
Chapter No. 17, at St. Augustine, with forty-one charter 
members. Worthy Matron, Mrs. Katherine J. Sineath ; 
Worthy Patron, George A. Miller; Associate Matron, 
Mrs. Mary A. Corbett. This Chapter was organized by 
Brother John J. Sineath as Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron and who also was Grand Patron of Florida 
in 1 907- 1 908. 

The Grand Chapter of Florida was organized in San- 
ford on June 7, 1904, by Mrs. Laura B. Hart, Most 
Worthy Grand Matron, acting as Deputy for L. Cabell 
Williamson, Most Worthy Grand Patron. The first offi- 
cers were: Grand Matron, Mrs. Ahce E. Robbins; 
Grand Patron, James Carnell ; Associate Grand Matron, 
Miss Azeele Carruthers ; Grand Secretary, Mrs. Cora H. 
Dittmar. 

If we aspire for something to ennoble, not mere self, 
but our fellow men, forget self, that is the keynote of our 
Order. Be kind one to another, and ever generous, giv- 
ing forth the fragrance of the jessamine. 
Living close to our high ideals, 

We cannot hold them too high; 
The longer the struggle, the harder the fight, 

The grander the bye and bye, 
There never was a high ideal 

But will be the real some day, 
If we follow with practice the paths of love, 
As the true and only way. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 249 

Grand Chapter oi^ Georgia^* 

In accordance with a call of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron of the General Grand Chapter, Order of the 
Eastern Star, a preliminary convention assembled, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1 90 1, for the purpose of organizing the Grand 
Chapter of Georgia. 

In Brunswick, the beautiful city beside the sea, gath- 
ered the representatives of five chapters and there laid 
the foundation for the upbuilding of the Order. It was 
with feelings of despair, the officers took up their work. 
The first annual session was held in the hall of Lorraine 
Chapter at Tennille, May 6, 1902. Peace and harmony 
prevailed and each Chapter had taken on new life. They 
realized that the Grand Chapter had been organized for 
their mutual development and a better knowledge and a 
better impression of O. E. S. prevailed. Five new Chap- 
ters were organized the first year ; the membership was 
339. Numbers at that memorable meeting were not 
great, but all were anxious to do their duty. 

The second annual session was held at Fitzgerald, 
May 5, 1903. In the fitness of things the time had come 
when the Order should issue forth from chaos and con- 
fusion incident to every new organization. The reports 
show a healthy, prosperous, growing condition, a few 
dormant Chapters, but brighter prospects ahead beck- 
oned them on, to place Georgia O. E. S. on a plane as 
broad, as high, and as grand as the grandest. Little did 
this faithful band know how well they wrought; char- 
tered Chapters at this session numbered ten; U. D. Chap- 
ters, eleven ; the membership was 509. 

The third annual session convened in Atlanta, the first 

1* Organized February 21, 1901. By Mrs. Jennie L. Newman, of Dal- 
ton, Georgia, Grand Secretary, 1909 to present. 



250 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Tuesday in May, 1904, a city possessing the broadening 
spirit of the fraternal world and all of the fraternal bod- 
ies. The membership now numbered 1,218; chartered 
Chapters, seventeen, with five under dispensation. Thus 
far the Order had advanced beyond the highest hopes of 
its most ardent promoters. Many changes had taken 
place that were consistent with growth and permanency. 
The great Brotherhood could see that the Order was con- 
nected to them by five relations ; distinct and separate in 
organization but the same in the work for uplifting hu- 
manity, so long inculcated by the ancient Brotherhood. 
The question of the Masonic Home was brought before 
the members at this session ; the building was then being 
erected. New impulses and new interest permeated the 
members. They needed proper stimulus, direction, and 
enthusiasm to build an enduring monument that would 
testify to the earnestness and zeal of the O. E. S. for 
benevolence. 

The fourth annual session convened in Macon, the 
third Tuesday in May, 1905. The members had come to 
see the beauties of the higher O. E. S. life and had a 
clearer conception of its mission and a truer realization 
of the greater possibilities for the Order in Georgia and 
its advancement for women. There were twenty-three 
chartered Chapters and three new ones. This was a 
most prosperous session, the members grasping the aims 
and objects. For the Masonic Home work it was de- 
cided to furnish the dining-room and to take full charge 
of the keeping of this beautiful hall ; the Chapters volun- 
tarily sending their contributions for the Masonic Home 
fund. On the wall of the Masonic Home will be found 
a marble tablet bearing this inscription : "This room is 
furnished by the O. E. S." 

The fifth annual session was held at Rome, May 15, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 251 

1906. The order up to this time had been planted deep 
in Hfe's experiences. Visions of the many beautiful 
dreams of Georgia O. E. S. could be seen not far distant. 
Chapters thirty; and six new chapters had been insti- 
tuted. Each year added strength in greater numbers, 
power, and influence. The deliberations were character- 
ized by the broad spirit of fraternal love. 

The sixth annual session convened at Warrenton, the 
third Tuesday in May, 1907. Recognizing the essential 
elements of strength and progress the Order continued to 
sustain its advanced position and permitted no inroads 
to be made upon its work. Chartered chapters, twenty- 
six; new chapters, thirteen; membership, 1,607. ^^ ^^^ 
at this time the Order received official recognition on the 
Masonic Home board and elected on the board of trus- 
tees, October 31, 1906, Sister Senie M. Hubbard. The 
work of furnishing the dining-room was now completed 
and to have a permanent Home fund was the next prop- 
osition presented to the minds of the members. Thirty- 
five Chapters composing Grand Chapter were enthusias- 
tic, earnest members and they set about to accomplish 
many beneficial things. 

The seventh annual session convened in Atlanta the 
third Tuesday in May, 1908. Having measured from 
year to year, the progress of a rapidly moving Order, it 
is only when a milestone is reached that the distance ad- 
vanced can be measured accurately. New conditions 
rise continuously and this Grand Body kept its eyes firm- 
ly on truth, justice, and wisdom, and did not forget to 
love one another ; the Home work was kept up with care 
and devotion. One handicap the Order had to contend 
with was clandestine work, but this was an obstacle that 
could be overcome. Unconsciously minds reached out 
for better things. At this meeting, fifty-three Chapters, 



252 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

thirteen new Chapters, and a membership of 2,065. 
Again they with renewed courage assumed the work of 
duties to perform and triumphs to achieve. 

The eighth annual session was held in Americus, May 
18, 1909. The business of this session was taken up with 
an earnest purpose. The members had learned to care 
less for non-essentials and more for the essentials. The 
advancement of the Order must be conducted by rational 
educational methods. They knew each other better, were 
nearer together, the bond of unity stronger. Seventy- 
six Chapters were reported and eighteen new ones in- 
stituted, with a membership of 2,489. The Order, in the 
morning of possibilities, was full of promise, silent forces 
were carrying it forward on its glorious mission. 

The ninth annual session met at Cordele the third 
Tuesday in May, 1910. The Order had grown so rap- 
idly that the system of District Deputy Grand Matrons 
was adopted to assist the Grand Matron in doing 
the work of the Grand Chapter. The reports show a 
marked improvement in all lines of work, general interest 
increasing over the State. The Masonic brethren of the 
Grand Lodge of Masons of Georgia regarded favorably 
the recommendation of the board of trustees of the Ma- 
sonic Home, making all O. E. S. members in good stand- 
ing eligible to admission to the Masonic Home. Also it 
was this year that Electa Chapter, of Atlanta, conceived 
the idea of an educational fund for orphan children and 
they raised a sum of $200 to be a nucleus for a larger 
and permanent fund for educational purposes. No rec- 
ord of human effort could be more laudable and cannot 
be too highly estimated as a factor in preparing helpless 
orphans for positions of greater usefulness ; united by a 
common interest, demonstrating the character of the O. 
E. S. in the work for the cause of humanity. It was a 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 253 

time for cautious and careful deliberations, with hearts 
full of gratitude for the united efforts and larger growth. 
Seventy-six Chapters reported, with a membership of 
4,023, and eleven new chapters. 

The tenth annual session convened in Augusta the 
third Tuesday in May, 1911. Chapters reported at this 
time, eighty-six; membership, 4,160; new chapters fif- 
teen. The slow but sure and steady growth is marked, 
and the O. E. S. of Georgia feels much pride in its work 
along all lines. It was at this session that a form for 
instituting and constituting Chapters was adopted. The 
Georgia Grand Chapter introduced into the fraternal 
world an idea no other organization has ever conceived 
— the O. E. S. educational fund. This idea was born 
and conceived in the mind and heart of Sister Eva E. 
Cummings, Past Matron of Electa Chapter No. 6, of 
Atlanta. The Order in Georgia attained a high plane 
by this movement and has gradually grown in the esti- 
mation of the great Brotherhood. Our standard of help- 
fulness has been raised higher and many orphan children 
will rise up and call Eva E. Cummings blessed for mak- 
ing it possible for them to attain a higher education and 
be self-supporting. This recommendation of Sister Cum- 
mings was made at the eleventh annual session which 
convened in Dublin the third Tuesday in April, 191 2. 
The wisdom of this session cannot be questioned. The 
noble women of the Order have never tired or shirked 
duty when opportunity presented itself and the Grand 
Chapter with great enthusiasm voted to raise $5,000 to 
be held in trust for the children of the Masonic Home 
and other needy Masons' children whom the Grand Chap- 
ter might deem worthy. Electa Chapter, of Atlanta, 
pledged itself to raise $1,000 of this sum and the State 
the remaining sum of $4,000. 



254 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The twelfth annual session convened in Macon the 
30th of April, 1 91 3, with not only an increase in members 
and Chapters, but fraternal conditions improving. 

The thirteenth annual session was held in Atlanta for 
the third time, and during the years the Order kept pace 
with the Atlanta spirit. This was the largest and best 
of all sessions, with 112 chapters. 

The Masonic Home was built in 1903-1904, and 
opened in June, 1904. It is located about three miles 
from the city of Macon on the crest of a beautiful hill, 
which slopes gradually in all directions a distance of 
several hundred yards. From the broad veranda of the 
Home to the west, there is a beautiful view of the Home 
gardens in the valley, where most of the vegetables used 
at the Home are raised. Beyond the garden, half a mile 
away, one catches a glimpse of the Ocmulgee River, 
which flows grandly on to the sea. From this river the 
Home receives its water supply, which is furnished by 
contract with the city. 

The Home is maintained by the Masonic Grand Lodge 
of Georgia making annual appropriations, assisted by the 
Grand Chapter, O. E. S., which has for its individual 
work the furnishing and maintenance of the dining-room. 
The Chapters also contribute delicacies, consisting of 
boxes of preserves and jellies, canned fruits and vegeta- 
bles. Chapters also provide technical training for girls 
and boys becoming of age to leave the Home who wish 
to take advantage of this opportunity. 

The board of trustees is composed of twenty Masons 
(of which the Grand Master is chairman), including all 
Past Grand Masters and a few other members of the 
Grand Lodge, and two ladies from the Grand Chapter, 
O. E. S., who were selected by request of the Grand 
Lodge of Georgia, A. F. and A. M., and are both Past 




Masonic Home, Macon, Georgia 




A Group oe the Children and Mrs. Collier 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 255 

Grand Matrons. The trustees realize their great re- 
sponsibiHty and plan cautiously and earnestly for the wel- 
fare of the Home. 

MASONIC home:, MACON, GA.^** 

There is no school at the Home. The children attend 
the public schools in the city. Special attention is given 
children who have musical talent by Chapters of the 
O.E.S. and Masonic Lodges. The O.E.S. also have a 
Christmas Cheer Club, formed by the various Chapters, 
who send each inmate of the Home a present at Christ- 
mas time. 

The children attend Sunday school and church in the 
city, and some of the old people also attend when they 
are physically able. The Home is now full; the family 
consist of thirty-seven girls, ages four to nineteen, twen- 
ty-three boys, ages four to seventeen, nine old ladies, 
ages fifty to eighty-eight, and one Mason, aged sixty- 
five. 

Many souls, husbands and wives, widows and orphans, 
have found a haven of rest in this Home, united by the 
strongest ties of brotherly love, where abideth Faith, 
Hope, and Charity, but the greatest of these is Charity. 

The Eastern Star has taken an active interest in the 
Home since the corner-stone was laid, and never loses 
an opportunity to do its part towards its maintenance. 
It is the duty of the O.E.S. trustees to solicit funds for 
the maintenance of the dining-room and keep it intact, 
and solicit funds for special educational purposes, such 
as musical and technical training, and attend all meetings 
of the board of trustees, and they are vested with the 
same power exercised by the Masonic trustees. 

"a By Senie M. Hubbard, P.G.M. ; Worthy Grand Adah of the G.G.C., 
1913-1916. 



256 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Those eligible to the Home are Master Masons in good 
standing in the Masonic Lodge, and their wives, wid- 
ows, and orphans, and members of the Order of the 
Eastern Star in good standing. 

The two O.E.S. trustees on the Masonic Home board, 
Mrs. Senie M. Hubbard, P. G. M., and Mrs. Rose M. 
Ashby, P. G. M., have, through their individual efforts, 
placed in the Home this year a handsome upright grand 
Kranich and Bach piano. 

Our O.E.S. trustees are elected every two years, one 
for two years, and one for four years, the one for four 
years being chairman. 

The Home is fortunate in being situated near what is 
rated as the second healthiest city in the United States. 

The: Grand Chaptcr o^ Idaho" 

In the early history of the world, in Chaldea dwelt 
astrologers, who cast horoscopes by reading the stars. 
By claiming to be able to foretell future events, they had 
been called the "Wise Men." 

According to tradition, as the three "Wise Men'' were 
studying the heavens, they were greatly startled by the 
sudden blazing out of a star or comet. It was the night 
when a holy messenger had appeared, and with a rush of 
glory, spoke to some frightened shepherds in the inspir- 
ing words, "Fear not, for behold I bring you good tidings 
of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you 
is born this day, in the city of David, a Saviour, which is 
Christ the Lord." The awe which filled the minds of the 
shepherds prompted them to leave their flocks, and with 
all haste they sought and found the Christ-child in a 
manger as the angel from heaven had revealed unto 
them. Accordingly, as the "Wise Men" recalled the 

15 Organized April 18, 1892. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 257 

prophecy, they too started toward Jerusalem, bearing 
costly gifts, intended as the first offerings of the Gentile 
world to the infant Jesus. The beautiful Star of the 
East went before them until they had followed it to the 
Holy City. Here they asked the people, saying, "Where 
is He that is born King of the Jews, for we have seen his 
Star in the East and are come to worship Him." 

The State of Idaho first saw His Star in the East at 
Mount Idaho, May 21, 1880, with Mrs. Belle J. Randall, 
Worthy Matron ; Earring B. King, Worthy Patron ; the 
Chapter being organized by F. B. King, acting as special 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. After a few 
years of active work, this Chapter became dormant and 
the oldest Chapter surviving at the time the Grand Chap- 
ter was organized was Hugh Duncan No. 2, organized 
March 18, 1886, at Salmon City, with Mrs. Mary Kirt- 
ley. Worthy Matron ; Robert McNicoll, Worthy Patron, 
and Rev. Hugh Duncan acting as special Deputy for the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

As the principles of charity, truth, and loving kindness, 
taught by the members of the earlier organized Chapters, 
became more and more prominently recognized, others 
wished to enjoy the benefits of this, the greatest organ- 
ization of Christian womanhood depending upon secret 
work for its fulfilment. Accordingly, there followed 
Ruth Chapter No. 3, Pocatello, chartered August 16, 
1888; Naomi Chapter No. 4, Albion, charter granted 
April 25, 1890; Mizpah Chapter No. 6, Idaho City, char- 
tered December 29, 1891 ; Mountain Gem Chapter No. 7, 
Lewis ton, chartered June 6, 1892; Adah Chapter No. 8, 
Boise City, chartered March 23, 1893 ; Ruby Chapter No. 
9, Moscow, chartered February 2.2, 1895; Shoshone 
Chapter No. 10, Wallace, chartered February 22, 1895; 
Mountain Queen Chapter No. 11, Grangeville, chartered 



258 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

December 30, 1895; Laurel Chapter No. 13, Lewiston, 
chartered April 9, 1897; Esther Chapter No. 14, Black- 
foot, chartered March 28, 1898; Golden Star Chapter 
No. 15, Bellevue, chartered January 30, 1899; Miriam 
Chapter No. 16, Mountain Home, chartered April 13, 
1899; Queen Isabelle Chapter No. 17, Montpelier, char- 
tered June 29, 1899; Syringa Chapter No. 18, Harrison, 
chartered March 19, 1900; Loyante Chapter No. 19, 
Weiser, chartered February 28, 1901 ; Lorraine Chapter 
No. 20, Payette, charter granted to thirty-four members 
February 26, 1901 ; and Henrietta Chapter No. 21, or- 
ganized at Idaho Falls April 16, 1902, with thirty-three 
charter members. 

Only sixteen of the twenty-one Chapters organized by 
the General Grand Chapter survived at the time the 
Grand Chapter was organized at Weiser, April 18, 1892, 
with Mrs. Laura B. Hart, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 
acting as Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
and was recognized by the proclamation issued May i, 
1902, by L. Cabell Williams, Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron. The first officers elected were Mrs. Louisa M. 
Rhea, Grand Matron, Weiser; Edward L. Liggett, 
Grand Patron, Wallace ; Miss Helen Coston, Grand Sec- 
retary, Boise. 

The Grand Matron was given exclusive executive au- 
thority, including the organizing of Chapters, a duty 
which usually is given to the Grand Patron, which was 
changed in 1908, and the Grand Patron was given power 
to organize Chapters in addition to his position as an ad- 
visory officer. 

The fee for dispensation for a new Chapter, together 
with supplies, was fixed at $30 ; per capita tax, fifty cents. 
Any member not wearing the badge of membership shall 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 259 

not be allowed to speak on any question without the con- 
sent of the Grand Chapter, the badge of membership to 
consist of a blue ribbon with the letters O.E.S. printed 
thereon. The minimum annual dues in the subordinate 
Chapter was placed at $2 and any officer of a subordinate 
Chapter failing to attend four consecutive meetings with- 
out satisfactory excuse could be deprived of office and of 
any honors which would be included with the office. Any 
member in arrears for dues for one year or more shall 
not be allowed to vote at the annual election, nor be 
eligible to any office. 

The first annual communication of the Grand Chapter 
convened in the Masonic Temple, Pocatello, June 9, 1903. 
With a band of enthusiastic workers, the work was car- 
ried bravely forward to a successful close, nowithstand- 
ing the fact that nine Grand Officers were unable to be 
present, including the Grand Matron and the Grand 
Patron, whose places were ably filled by the respective 
Associates. At this meeting, all the old charters issued 
by the General Grand Chapter were ordered called in and 
charters of the Grand Chapter of Idaho were given in- 
stead. The fraternal building fund was created, with 
$36.80 as a basis, to which they would add with loving 
thoughts and willing hands, until in time their ambitions 
would become a reality. 

The second annual session was held at Wallace, the 
metropolis of the Coeur d'Alene. It is stated that more 
than half of the lead consumed in the world is supplied 
from the mines in this section and the Grand Chapter 
was given a recess to allow the delegates to accept an in- 
vitation to visit the mining camps on Canyon Creek, 
where the wonderful sight of a mining shaft running 
down about 2,300 feet was visited at Frisco. The Mam- 



260 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

moth mine boasts of a tunnel driven straight into the 
mountains to a distance of 3,800 feet. The ponderous 
machinery of the Coeur d'Alene district is propelled by 
electric power brought over the mountains from Spokane, 
Washington, its towns and mines being lighted from the 
same source. 

At the third annual session, held at Hailey, June, 1905, 
it was decided to contribute $47.25 for the O.E.S. head- 
quarters at the Portland fair. At this meeting, only 
seven Grand Officers were present. 

The fourth annual session convened in Masonic Hall, 
Boise, at which time report was made of $255 having 
been contributed to the California sufferers in response 
to a circular letter; $100 was appropriated to purchase 
jewels for the Past Grand Matrons and Past Grand 
Patrons. 

The fifth annual session met at Lewiston in 1907, and 

there accomplished a grand and effective work under the 

motto 

Do something for somebody always 

Whatever may be your Creed. 

There's nothing on earth can help you 

So much as a kindly deed. 

The sixth session was held at Coeur d'Alene, June 9, 

1908. 

So the world would be purer and better far, 

Because of the work of the Eastern Star. 

An invitation from the Grand Lodge of Idaho, to partici- 
pate in the ceremonies of the laying of the corner-stone 
of the City Hall of Coeur d'Alene, was accepted. Also 
an invitation from the Masons to attend a reception 
given by them to the members of the Grand Chapter at 
Fraternal Hall. The State was divided into three dis- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 261 

tricts, and Deputies appointed for two of them, the Grand 
Matron reserving one of the three for herself to visit, but 
the year 1909 witnessed the end of the Deputy system. 

At the eighth annual session held at Twin Falls in 
1 910, upon the recommendation of the Worthy Grand 
Matron the Grand Chapter adopted the memorial ser- 
vice known as the ''Chapter of Sorrow" prepared by 
Sister Addie C. S. Engle for use in the subordinate Chap- 
ters. 

A special session of the Grand Chapter was called 
August 4, 1 910, at Pocatello, for the purpose of attend- 
ing the funeral of Past Grand Matron Anna Dolbeer. 
At the 1910 session the annual per capita tax was raised 
to seventy-five cents. 

The proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Idaho have 
been actuated by the spirit of fidelity to right and duty, 
obedience to the demands of honor and justice, loyalty to 
God, a trustful faith, and with charity to all. 

Grand Chapter of Illinois '^ 

The information here given has been taken from the 
Grand Chapter Proceedings since its organization Octo- 
ber 6, 1875, previous to which time the facts as related 
were obtained from Sister Lorraine J. Pitkin from her 
own personal experience, for the most of which she pos- 
sesses documentary evidence. Sister Pitkin is a pioneer 
worker for the Order in Illinois, having labored early 
and late, without money and without price, giving her 
very best endeavors toward the advancement of an Order 
dedicated to the advancement of "Charity, Truth and 

16 By May Bromley Milroy, P. W. G. M. Membership, last Proceed- 
ings, October, 1915, 82,512; number of active Chapters, 651 (of this num- 
ber 107 are in Chicago) ; gain in membership at rate of 5,000 per annum. 



262 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Loving Kindness" — and one so closely allied to that 
great Fraternity acknowledged as the strongest and most 
influential in all the world — the Masonic Fraternity. 
As a matter of fact, a history of the Order of the Eastern 
Star in Illinois would be impossible without frequent 
mention of the name of her to whom all members of the 
Order, and especially those of lUinois, owe so much. 

Rob Morris originated the Order of the Eastern Star. 
He was born in Boston in 1818, made a Mason at Oxford, 
Mississippi, on March 5, 1846, and died in LaGrange, 
Kentucky, July 31, 1888. He was the second "Poet 
Laureate" of Masonry. In 1847, with his wife, he re- 
ceived the degree of the ''Heroine of Jericho." He was 
greatly interested, but felt that a more simple and heart- 
felt ritual would attain greater success. In February, 
1850, he devised the Order of the Eastern Star. He 
writes of his having ''hesitated for a theme on which to 
build such an order" and of "having dallied over a name 
and pondered long over the selection of the five-pointed 
star and pentagon as its chief emblems." His calling it 
the Order of the Eastern Star was merely a happy coinci- 
dence. Morris wanted this society to become a branch of 
Masonry insofar as to permit women, through their 
membership therein, to establish a recognition among the 
Fraternity anywhere, that would insure them protection 
by means of their Masonic relationship. His idea ex- 
cited great opposition and failed. 

Morris called these new adoptive lodges, "Constella- 
tions." In 1853 he instituted the first Constellation, Pur- 
ity No. I, at Lodge, Kentucky. Lexington was the head- 
quarters of the order, and Robert Morris was called the 
"Grand Luminary." About two hundred Constellations 
were formed throughout the United States. The cere- 
mony did not find favor with Masons, however, and 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 263 

Morris revised it in 1859, renaming it "Families of the 
O.E.S." At this time he began issuing charters to the 
latter, using the elaborately lithographed charters which 
were in his hands, showing that the two systems, ''Con- 
stellations" and 'TamiHes," were the same, the latter 
having superseded the former. 

Reports show that many Master Masons in Illinois 
were clothed with authority from the fountain-head in 
this country, Rob Morris, to confer the degrees of the 
Eastern Star as early as i860, since which time the signs 
and lectures have not in the main materially changed. 

Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, her sister, Mrs. Lucy M. Sher- 
wood, with their brother, David H. Dickinson, and his 
wife, were invited to be present at a meeting at Mrs. 
Cynthia Leonard's, on West Lake Street near Leavitt 
Street, Chicago, on October 6, 1866. Dr. W. Thompson, 
Grand Lecturer of the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M. 
(one of those who in i860 had been authorized by Rob 
Morris to confer degrees), took charge of the meeting 
and conferred the degrees upon about thirty persons 
there assembled, for the purpose of organization. The 
result was the formation of the first Eastern Star Society 
in Illinois, known as Miriam Family No. iii.^^ The 
officers selected at this time were : Patron, D. W. Thomp- 
son (elective) ; Patroness, Mrs. Myra Bradwell; Conduc- 
tor, J. H. Varnell (elective) ; Conductress, Mrs. Lorraine 
J. Pitkin; Treasurer, Walter A. Stevens (elective); 
Hebe, Mrs. J. H. Varnell; Secretary, Simon Quinlan 
(elective); Thetis, Mrs. Cynthia Leonard; Warder, 
James B. Bradwell (elective) ; Areme, Mrs. Chas. T. 
Wilt ; Tyler, John Porter Ferns. 

^7 How long before this the Order had been introduced as organized 
bodies, it has been impossible to definitely learn, but as 110 lodges must 
have been formed at various places previous to the above, it must cer- 
tainly have been some time. 



264 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The five high officers being elective, were filled by 
brothers, who chose their correspondents, the latter being 
sisters. The Patroness occupied a seat on the left of the 
Patron in the East and wore a sash, the color appropriate 
to Adah. The Conductor and Conductress were in the 
West, the latter wearing a sash appropriate to Ruth. 
The Patron, Conductor, and Conductress took part only 
in the initiatory work. The Treasurer, Secretary, and 
Warder occupied the same positions as now, and their 
correspondents sat on their left, wearing a sash, the color 
being appropriate to Esther, Martha, and Electa respec- 
tively, their mystical names being Hebe, Thetis, and 
Areme. The meetings were held the first and third Tues- 
days of each month in Blair Hall, located on the present 
site of McVicker's Theatre and destroyed during the 
great fire of 187 1. 

Of more than one hundred "Families'' organized be- 
tween i860 and 1867 ^o complete record has been pre- 
served, if one was ever made, and only the following are 
known and are a matter of record in the office of the 
Right Worthy Grand Secretary : Rose of Sharon No. 4, 
AnnapoHs, Ind., organized January 15, 1861 ; Plymouth 
No. 41, Plymouth, Maryland, organized June 25, 1864; 
Friendship No. 103, Brooklyn, New York, organized 
January 25, 1866; Sunbeam No. 83, Mt. Vernon, Indi- 
ana, organized April 19, 1866; Miriam No. in, Chicago, 
Illinois, organized October 6, 1866; Orion No. 112, Rens- 
selaer, Indiana, organized February 27, 1867. 

Mrs. Myra Bradwell, the first Patroness, was the first 
woman to preside over an Eastern Star organization in 
Illinois. She was the wife of Judge James B. Bradwell, 
of the Probate Court, and was herself a lawyer of great 
ability and editress of the Chicago Legal News. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 265 

The Patron and Patroness of the original Family were 
sole judges of membership in the Order, although they 
were compelled to recognize an objection from a member. 

Each female member at the time of her initiation was 
required to select an emblem from the following flowers : 
violet, sunflower, white lily, pine sprig, or red rose, and 
the Recorder was required to keep a book in which these 
selections were entered. 

The order of business provided for a banquet with 
elaborate decorations and ceremony, which was under 
the supervision of the Treasurer and Warder with a set 
form for the officers at the table. Letters were cut from 
pasteboard an inch in height, each one representing one 
of the initials of the cabalistic motto, which were laid on 
the right of the plates of the Patron, Patroness, Conduc- 
tor, Conductress, and Recorder. Bouquets were laid at 
the left of each plate, together with a very hard and dry 
biscuit cut in the form of a Star — then followed a long 
and elaborate ritualistic ceremony. 

Their Signet was very similar to the one now in use. 

At the first regular election of officers in January, 
1867, Walter A. Stevens, Worshipful Master of Blair 
Lodge, was elected Patron, and Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin 
was made Conductress. "^^ It was under this administra- 
tion, in 1867, that Mrs. Elizabeth Butler and Dr. S. A. 
McWilliams were initiated. Their names appear on the 
original dispensation asking change of organization, 
now in possession of Miriam Chapter No. i, of Chicago. 

During the latter part of 1867 a Miss Knapp came to 
Chicago from Adrian, Michigan, and introduced the 
"Tatem" or "Michigan Ritual," which was adopted, and 
Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin of Illinois was elected Worthy 

18 Just forty-five years later (in 1912) the daughter of Walter A. 
Stevens was elected to the degrees and initiated in Miriam Chapter No. 1. 



266 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

President September 24, 1867. The manuscript, secret 
work, with the rituals, etc., are now in the possession of 
Sister Pitkin. Tatem's Monitor contained the ritual of 
Adoptive Masonry used in the Eastern Star degree, con- 
sisting of the initiation or degree work, ceremony for 
opening and closing, installation services, etc., together 
with forms and rules for government compiled and ar- 
ranged by John H. Tatem, of Adrian, Michigan. This 
work seemed to be what the members in Illinois thought 
would be permanent, but after about a year's trial they 
decided they did not like it as well as the ''Family" and 
they again adopted the latter. 

In 1868 Rob Morris, having resolved to give the re- 
mainder of his life to Masonic explorations in the Holy 
Land, turned over to Robert Macoy of New York, his 
powers and prerogatives in the Eastern Star so far as he 
was concerned. There were some who intimated that all 
these powers were self-assumed, but be that as it may, 
the Order of the Eastern Star of today has become a very 
large and powerful organization and all who in the early 
days were instrumental in aiding the Order to reach a 
permanent standing in the world, should be given a full 
measure of praise. 

The February number of the Voice of Masonry for 
1869 prints the result of the last election and installation 
of officers in the original Miriam Family, held on 
Wednesday evening, December 30, 1868, which was only 
about two months previous to its reorganization into a 
Chapter : 

Patron, Dr. S. A. McWilliams; Patroness, Mrs. Jo- 
seph Butler; Conductor, A. B. Haight; Conductress, 
Mrs. E. G. Butler ; Secretary, E. St. John ; Hebe, Miss M. 
Ferns; Treasurer, Jas. B. Wyman; Thetis, Mrs. A. B. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 267 

Haight; Warder, Joseph Gallagher; Areme, Mrs. M. A. 
J. Ogden. About this time, all the Families in existence 
were being merged into the Chapter form of work under 
the authority of Robert Macoy, of New York. 

On March 4, 1869, Miriam Chapter No. i, O.E.S., was 
organized with nine charter members, the charter issued 
to Miriam Family No. iii was surrendered and a new 
one issued to Miriam Chapter No. i, thereby changing 
the name of the organization but not the name of the 
body. The officers elected were : Worthy Matron, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Butler; Worthy Patron, Dr. S. A. McWil- 
liams ; Associate Matron, Mrs. Chas. T. Wilt. 

The dispensation for Miriam Chapter No. i is dated 
March 4, 1869, although the original book of record says 
the Chapter was organized on March first. The petition 
for a 'Warranf as they were called in early days was 
made to "The M. E. Grand Patron of the Supreme Grand 
Chapter of the Adoptive Rite of the Order of the Eastern 
Star.'' A charter was issued in this form signed by 
Robert Macoy. Following are the nine charter mem- 
bers : Mrs. Joseph Butler, Dr. S. A. McWilHams, Mrs. 
Chas. T. Wilt, A. B. Haight, Mrs. Sarah Farrar, Mrs. 
John C. Howell, Mrs. A. B. Haight, Joseph Gallagher, 
Mrs. Mary J. Ogden. 

' After its organization, all those who had been members 
of the Family were notified that if they wished to become 
members of the Chapter they could, by signifying their 
desire to do so and paying their dues to that body. 
Among those who did so was Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, 
who paid her dues to Dr. McWilliams, thereby becom- 
ing a member of the reorganized body, Miriam Chapter. 
The Chapter form of organization and government be- 
came quite popular and up to the time of organizing the 



268 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapter of Illinois, on October 6, 1875, Robert 
Macoy had formed 178 Chapters in Illinois, the first one 
being Miriam Chapter, and the last one Tallula Chapter 
No. 178, organized February 8, 1875. 

The original charter of Miriam Chapter dated March 
4, 1869, was destroyed in the great fire of 1871 and was 
duplicated by Brother Macoy in January, 1872. This lat- 
ter charter is the one which was endorsed by the Grand 
Chapter in Springfield in 1876 and became Miriam's 
legal authority for convening as a Chapter in Illinois. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, Miriam's first Worthy Matron, 
subsequently left to organize Butler Chapter and later 
became the first Worthy Grand Matron of Illinois and 
the first Most Worthy Grand Matron. 

When the call was made for the convention to consider 
the advisability of organizing a Grand Chapter in Illi- 
nois, the representatives of the following twenty-two 
Chapters, working under the authority of Robert Macoy, 
met in Chicago at the Commercial Hotel on Wednesday 
evening, October 6, 1875. ^^b Morris, being present, 
was invited to preside: Miriam No. i. Amnesty No. 9, 
Dorcas No. 22, Minerva No. 23, Lydia No. 28, Wyoming 
No. 52, Schuyler No. 6^, Sta. Maria No. 70, IlliopoHs 
No. 72, Bennett No. 87, Golden Ray No. 88, Continent 
No. 90, Starlight No. 93, Winifred No. 98, Capitat No. 
100, Lady Franklin No. 113, Mary Burns No. 118, Lady 
Washington No. 158, Greenup No. 169, Egyptian No. 
173, Stone Fort No. 176, Tallula No. 178. 

Frank Hudson, Jr., was appointed Secretary. Com- 
mittees (all brothers) were appointed on credentials, 
constitution, and nomination of Grand Officers, and the 
Grand Chapter of Illinois was duly organized and its 
officers elected — without a single sister up to this time 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 269 

having had anything whatever to do with its organiza- 
tion. Further than this, the Grand Patron was made 
the chief executive officer. This is probably not known 
by the average member today who has not studied the 
early history. The following from the constitution is 
interesting : 

Sec. 10. The Grand Matron shall assist the Grand Patron in 
the discharge of his duties, be subject to the orders of the Grand 
Patron or Grand Chapter, and in case of the death, absence from 
jurisdiction or inability to act, of her Superior Officer, she is to 
assume and discharge all his powers, duties and prerogatives. 

Sec. 16, The elective officers are Grand Patron, Grand Ma- 
tron, A. G. Patron, A. G. Matron, G. Secy., G. Treas., G. Con- 
ductress and Grand Warder, who shall be elected by ballot. 

Daniel G. Burr, of Paris, was elected Grand Patron 
and Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, of Chicago, Grand Matron. 
The Grand Matron did not sign the proceedings, the 
only signatures being those of the Grand Patron and 
Grand Secretary. 

The second annual session ^^ met in the hall of Miriam 
Chapter No. i, Chicago, Wednesday, October 4, 1876. 
Fifteen Chapters were represented by twenty-seven dele- 
gates. Only four Grand Officers were present. 

Notwithstanding the Constitution provided for the 
title of Grand Officers, such as Grand Matron, etc., they 
are entered of record as Right Worthy Grand Matron, 
etc. — these two words having been prefixed without any 
apparent authority. 

The address of the first Grand Patron (who was a 
bachelor) contains a high tribute to Woman: 

As our organization has been more properly formed for the 
benefit of woman, then her mission is peculiar and sublime. There 

19 Presiding officers : Daniel G. Burr, Grand Patron ; Elizabeth But- 
ler, Grand Matron; Frank Hodson, Grand Secretary. 



270 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

is a work to be done in the fraternal world. There may be some 
wilderness of nature in the Order to be subdued; its barrenness 
and deformity, if any, are to be converted to fertility and beauty ; 
nature is to be brought more fully in subjection to the purpose of 
man; but, some will say, this work rests not on woman. There 
are new channels of the institution to be opened up, new lines of 
intercommunication to establish ; arts to foster, fields of discovery 
to explore; social systems to reconstruct; and institutions to re- 
generate; but the peculiar mission of woman is not here. 

To all this we reply, her mission is what the soul is to the 
body — what the spirit is to the matter which it animates and 
informs. Woman is emphatically and essentially an educator. 
Woman is also a reformer ; the influence of woman on the order 
of society is controlling; she wields in society a moral influence 
which man never can command. Her power makes itself felt, 
for good or evil, in all the walks of social life. It is welded into 
all the ramifications of life, and occupies all the recesses of the 
heart. 

Woman is the destroyer or the conservator of the best interests 
and highest happiness of social man; one way or the other, her 
influence must be controlling. 

All this we suppose to be generally and clearly admitted truth. 
And in this view, how commanding, how awfully responsible is 
the position of woman in this Order. Look at the present beauty 
of our Society and see the end toward which this amazing moral 
power is to be exerted. 

The committee on addresses reported on the Grand 
Patron's address in part recommending "That this Grand 
Chapter send a delegate to the Convention to assemble 
at Indianapolis in November next (1876), for the pur- 
pose of considering the propriety of organizing a Su- 
preme Grand Chapter." The report was amended, nam- 
ing the following delegates : Henry R. Kent, Grand Pa- 
tron; Mrs. Laura N. Young, Grand Matron; Daniel G. 
Burr, Past Grand Patron; Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, Past 
Grand Matron. The records show the membership in 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 271 

thirty-nine Chapters to be 956 brothers, 1,200 sisters, 
and $67.55 in the Grand Treasury. 

The third annual session was held in Chicago.^^ Six- 
teen Chapters were represented by thirty-two delegates 
and eleven Grand Officers were present. 

The dispensation to organize Queen Esther Chapter 
with Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin as Worthy Matron, was 
granted at this session. A motion also prevailed that 
"New Charters be issued to Chapters under the jurisdic- 
tion of Illinois and that they be numbered according to 
the date of the Charter held at that time which has been 
issued to Mr. Macoy. . ." Miriam therefore was re- 
corded as No. I, and the new charter signed by Laura N. 
Young, Worthy Grand Matron, Henry R. Kent, Worthy 
Grand Patron, and Frank Hudson, Jr., Grand Secretary. 

The Grand Matron said : 

At the beginning of my term of office, when I sought to know 
my duties, I was duly informed that the office was only an hon- 
orary one ; that all executive and supervisory duties devolved on 
the Right Worthy Grand Patron. He might ask my assistance. 
From his absence from the jurisdiction or from his death, I might 
be called upon to perform the executive duties ; otherwise, I need 
not trouble myself with the thought that the Right Worthy Grand 
Matron had anything to do. Is this the sense of the Grand 
Chapter? In the subordinate Chapters, we are instructed that 
upon the judgment and discretion of the Worthy Matron rests 
the government of the Chapter. Shall she reach a higher office 
only to find her hands tied? I would suggest that it would be 
but justice to define her duties, if she has any. On you, as Ma- 
trons, rests not only the government of the Chapter, but the re- 
sponsibility of its welfare and progress. You must exact of every 
officer the duties of the office in which she is installed, and be 
ready at all times to give information which will enable them to 
do perfect work. To do this, you must be a good workman your- 

20 Presiding officers : Henry R. Kent, Grand Patron ; Mrs. Laura N. 
Young, Grand Matron; Frank Hodson, Jr., Grand Secretary. 



272 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

self. Self-poised, with a headful of knowledge and a heartful 
of love, you will do yourselves honor and be a guiding light in the 
Chapter. Thus may you exemplify the teachings of Masonry, 
and contribute in your own lives to the strength and beauty and 
usefulness of our Order. 

Several amendments to the constitution were present- 
ed, but the most important one, which was adopted, made 
the Grand Matron the executive officer during the ses- 
sion. During the vacation of the Grand Chapter, she 
was assigned its executive powers, "conjointly with the 
Grand Patron." 

The following resolution was also unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved, That this Grand Chapter cordially approves of the 
action of the convention of November 15 and \6, 1876, at In- 
dianapolis, organizing the General Grand Chapter of the O.E.S.^^ 

The fourth annual session was held in Chicago,^^ Octo- 
ber I, 1878. Eighteen Chapters were represented by 
thirty-eight delegates and fifteen Grand Officers were 
present. 

The fifth annual session was held in Chicago,^^ October 
7, 1879. Twenty Chapters were represented by forty- 
one delegates and sixteen Grand Officers were present. 
Total active Chapters in Illinois at this time were twenty- 
seven, with a membership of 1,862. 

Sister Pitkin advocated at this time the organization 
of practical charity in Chapters, and asked that a certain 
per cent of the receipts be set aside for a "Charity Fund.'" 

21 Illinois had been honored by Elizabeth Butler's election as Most 
Worthy Grand Matron. 

22 Presiding Officers : Mrs. Laura N. Young, Grand Matron ; Henry 
R. Kent, Grand Patron; Frank Hodson, Jr., Grand Secretary. Note that 
the name of the Grand Matron here precedes that of the Grand Patron 
for the first time as presiding officer. 

23 Presiding officers : Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Grand Matron ; James 
W. Watson, Grand Patron ; Robert Malcolm, Grand Secretary pro tern. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 273 

In speaking of establishing a "Home" for needy mem- 
bers of the Order of the Eastern Star and their children, 
she said : 

If our Chapters had something to labor for, some little bare 
feet to clothe, or poor heart-sick souls to comfort, there would be 
no time for contention and strife; the seeds of discord would 
never be sown, and a spirit of harmony and unity would prevail 
throughout this and other Grand Jurisdictions. 

The sixth annual session was held in Chicago/* Octo- 
ber 5, 1880. Twenty Chapters were represented by thir- 
ty-five delegates and members. At this meeting a con- 
stitution was adopted and printed in the Proceedings and 
the Grand Matron was made the sole executive officer. 

The seventh annual session was held in Chicago/^ Oc- 
tober 4, 1 88 1. No report of committee on credentials is 
shown and no way of knowing how many chapters were 
represented. Finances were considerably "tangled." The 
Grand Treasurer reported $49.90 on hand and $368.50 
in the hands of the Grand Secretary. The committee on 
finance apparently made a desperate struggle to balance 
accounts and finally made a report "recommending a 
more complete style of keeping the financial books of the 
Grand Chapter." 

The eighth annual session was held in Chicago/^ Octo- 
l)er 3, 1882. Thirty Chapters were represented by fifty 
delegates and twelve Grand Officers were present. 

The Grand Patron evidently had experienced some 

24 Presiding officers : Mrs. M. Lemon, Grand Matron ; Mrs. Laura N. 
Young, Grand Secretary. (Henry R. Kent, Grand Patron, absent.) 

25 Presiding Officers : Mrs. Jeannette W. Ashley, Grand Matron ; 
James M. Brice, Grand Patron; Mrs. Laura N. Young, Grand Secretary. 

26 Presiding officers : Mrs. Jeannette W. Ashley, Grand Matron ; 
Alonzo Eaton, Grand Patron; Mrs. Mary A. Beale, Grand Secretary pro 
tern. 



274 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

difficulties with the ballot as the following would indi- 
cate : 

I can take but little credit to myself for the work done the past 
year. To the Worthy Grand Matron, whose untiring industry 
and extraordinary zeal in the performance of her official duties, 
rendering much valuable time and assistance to many of the Sub- 
ordinate Chapters, is entitled the highest commendation for the 
healthy and prosperous condition in which you find the Order 
today. 

I would respectfully call your attention to that feature of our 
general By-laws which require the ballot on petition for member- 
ship to be unanimous. I consider it a dangerous and unjust 
delegation of power to one member. One black-ball should never 
be sufficient to keep a good and worthy person out of a Chapter, 
in defiance of the judgment of all the rest of its members. And 
yet, it often does. It is the unjust exercise of this power on the 
part of a few members that creates more discord and disturbs the 
peace and harmony of our Chapters throughout the State, to a 
greater extent than all other causes combined. I would recom- 
mend that this Grand Chapter forward to the General Chapter, 
at its next meeting, a Resolution asking that the law in this regard 
be changed. 

The recommendation of the Grand Patron was re- 
ferred to the General Grand Chapter, asking favorable 
action. 

The ninth annual session was held in Chicago,^^ Octo- 
ber 2, 1883. Thirty Chapters were represented and 
eleven Grand Officers were present. Up to this time the 
revenue of the Grand Chapter had remained the same as 
when it was organized, i.e., $10 for dispensation for new 
Chapter, $1 for degrees at sight, $1 for dispensations of 
any kind, fifteen cents per capita, and ten cents for each 
initiation. After consideration and reconsideration, post- 
ponement and reference, an amendment to the constitu- 

27 Presiding officers : Mrs. Jane F. Cozine, Grand Matron ; John F. 
Dickinson, Grand Patron; Mrs. Mary A. Beale, Grand Secretary. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 275 

tion was adopted at this session to increase the revenue, 
making the per capita twenty-five cents and each dispen- 
sation for new Chapter, including charter when granted, 
$20. 

Rob Morris was present and installed the Grand Of- 
ficers, with Mrs. Nettie C. Ransford, Grand Matron of 
Indiana, as Grand Marshal. 

The tenth annual session was held in Chicago,^^ Octo- 
ber 7, 1884. 

Albert Ashley brought to the Grand Chapter a Ma- 
sonic influence that was felt throughout the State. He 
sent out a circular letter to each Lodge in the State, set- 
ting forth the beauties of the Eastern Star and inviting 
investigation. He reported that several of the eleven 
dispensations which he had granted had come through 
this channel of introduction, he having visited twenty- 
six Masonic Lodges in the interests of the Eastern Star. 

Just as the financial question seems to have been mas- 
tered, comes an amendment to the constitution to strike 
out the ten cents for initiations, which was adopted. Past 
Grand Matron Lorraine J. Pitkin made a short address 
in favor of the Grand Chapter taking some action and 
"Sanctioning the taking of some step toward establishing 
an Orphans' Home, and resolutions in favor of this 
project were adopted. 

Rob Morris was present and gave an interesting talk, 
which was printed in the Proceedings and from which is 
quoted the following : 

In the Chapters I have visited in Illinois the past year I have 
heard no rumors of the difficulties which a few years since were 
so rife. 

28 Mrs. Jane F. Cozine, Grand Matron; Albert B. Ashley, Grand 
Patron. 



276 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

If there is not the zeal we should like to find, at least there is 
none of the zeal of hatred and revenge which make so many other 
societies centers of discord. The orphan is coming into nearer 
relationship with Masonic charities through the influence of the 
Eastern Star. The widow has learned that her claim upon the 
Brothers of her dead husband is a genuine claim, readily acknowl- 
edged. The Masonic Lodges themselves, in many instances, have 
been purified through female influence, not^erely in the removal 
of dust and cobwebs and the whitening of gloves and aprons, but 
in the cleansing of the membership, the removal of the vicious, 
the drunkard, the profane, who by a shameless falsification of 
truth, had foisted themselves upon the Masonic membership. 
Nothing but female influence can accomplish such a revolution as 
this — that no man shall be admitted to the Lodge circles who is 
not equally fit and welcome in the domestic circle. For myself, 
I have for forty years adopted this rule : i. e. — never to vote for 
a man to be made a Mason whom I cannot introduce freely to 
my wife and daughters. 

Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build 
it — except the Lord build the city, the watchman worketh but in 
vain. 

The eleventh annual session was held in Chicago,^® 
October 6, 1885. In her address the Grand Matron said : 

We have not added as many Chapters this year as last, but we 
have other causes for congratulations. The deep-rooted prejudice 
against our Order, which has existed in some places, has to a 
great extent been overcome, and year by year we are gaining 
more friends among the Masonic fraternity. 

The twelfth annual session was held in Chicago/** Oc- 
tober 5, 1886. Considerable good work was reported at 

29 Mrs. Jennie M. Walker, Grand Matron; Albert B. Ashley, Grand 
Patron. 

30 Mrs. Jennie M. Walker, Grand Matron ; Albert B. Ashley, Grand 
Patron. Sister Jennie Walker, Past Grand Matron, was called to her hea- 
venly home in January, 1916, and Illinois has lost a beloved sister who 
faithfully emulated the teachings of our Order and who endeavored at all 
times to zealously promote its interests. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 277 

this session showing gratifying progress. In closing his 
report the Grand Patron said : 

It is now three years since you first honored me with the high 
office I am now about to restore to your hands. We have now 
over eighty subordinate Chapters, twenty-nine of which have been 
added during this period. The completion of this number makes 
us, I think, the largest Grand Chapter in existence. May we 
not congratulate ourselves that we have reached this satisfactory 
position? Let me, however, with a closing word, remind you 
that with enlarged capabilities come increased responsibilities. 
If we have reached a leading position, should we not be careful 
that all our actions be consistent therewith Grand Chapters 
fewer in numbers and younger in years will look to us as an 
example worthy of imitation. Let us see to it, therefore, that 
this example be always such as shall be a credit to ourselves and 
an assistance to our dearly loved order wherever the light of 
Charity, Truth, and Loving-kindness illumines a benighted world. 

The position established thirty years ago has never 
been relinquished, for Illinois today is still the largest 
Grand Jurisdiction in the world with over eighty thou- 
sand members and about seven hundred Chapters, one 
hundred of which are in the city of Chicago. ' 

' The thirteenth annual session was held in Chicago,^^ 
October 4, 1887. At this session the State was divided 
into districts and deputy Grand Matrons provided for. 
The constitution was amended to read : 'In case of con- 
flict of opinion between the first two ofificers of a Chapter, 
the Worthy Matron's opinion shall take precedence." 

Sopha C. Scott was reelected and presided at the four- 
teenth annual session in Chicago, with W. O. Butler as 
Grand Patron, October 2, 1888, and again at the fifteenth 
annual session in the same city, October i, 1889, with E. 
L. Palmer as Grand Patron. The Grand Matron issued 

32 Sopha C. Scott, Grand Matron ; John E. Pettibone, Grand Patron. 



278 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

a circular letter showing the appointment of seventeen 
Deputies in 1888 and eighteen in 1889 for as many dis- 
tricts, whose reports appear in the Proceedings. 

At the fifteenth annual session the constitution was 
amended to read : "Nor shall any member be eligible to 
the office of Grand Matron more than two years in suc- 
cession/' 

Sue M. Simpson presided at the sixteenth annual ses- 
sion in Chicago, October 7, 1890, with E. L. Palmer as 
Grand Patron, and again at the seventeenth annual ses- 
sion in the same city, October 6, 1891, with Geo. F. How- 
ard as Grand Patron. At the latter session the Grand 
Patron recommended that the Grand Chapter take de- 
cided steps towards making the Masonic Orphans' Home 
its special work, which was referred to a special com- 
mittee, consisting of Lorraine J. Pitkin, Jennie A. Walk- 
er, and Sopha C. Scott, whose report, as follows, was 
adopted : 

Your committee earnestly endorses the recommendation of the 
Grand Patron regarding the Masonic Orphans' Home Association 
and fully appreciates the responsibility the Masons of Illinois have 
assumed to care for the Masonic orphans of this jurisdiction. 
Their by-laws do not protect the children of members of the 
Order of the Eastern Star or members of the Eastern Star unless 
they are the widows or orphans of Master Masons. 

Your committee does not desire to make any recommendation 
to this Grand Chapter that would in any way antagonize the best 
interests of the Master Masons of this State. We do earnestly 
desire to lend our influence as the representatives of seven thou- 
sand members, knowing that such an influence must be effectual. 
We would recommend that the representatives of this Grand 
Chapter, i. e., the Grand Patron and Assistant Grand Patron (who 
are entitled by our two life memberships in said association) at- 
tend the annual meeting of the Masonic Orphans' Home in 
March, 1892, and ask the association in the name of the Eastern 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 279 

Star of Illinois to so amend their by-laws that the orphans of 
members of the Eastern Star may find a home under the same 
roof with the orphans of Master Masons, and when this is done, 
we will pledge the financial aid in every particular that this large 
membership in Illinois may warrant. 

The records show that this proposition was declined 
by the Masonic association. 

Jane M. Ricketts presided at the eighteenth annual 
session, Chicago, October 4, 1892, with A. H. Wright as 
Grand Patron, and again at the nineteenth annual ses- 
sion in Chicago, October 3, 1893, with Wm. H. Bartells 
as Grand Patron. At the latter session the Grand Chap- 
ter was satisfied, after a trial of three years, that the Dis- 
trict Deputy System was not a wise one and the constitu- 
tion was therefore amended abolishing the same and the 
system of schools of instruction was established under 
the supervision of the Grand Matron. An effort was also 
made to discontinue the vote in Grand Chapter of Past 
Matrons and Past Patrons but was not successful. An 
amendment, however, was adopted, striking out of the 
constitution the vote of the Associate Matrons which had 
hitherto been permitted and making the Worthy Matron 
and Worthy Patron the only representatives. 

Due to the unremitting efforts and earnest and zealous 
interest of Lorraine J. Pitkin, space was allotted to the 
O.E.S. in the organization room of the Woman's Build- 
ing during the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893. 
Sister Pitkin assumed a great responsibility when she 
undertook to establish the "Eastern Star Corner" at 
the great exposition, but this wonderful and capable 
woman brought all the details of her preparatory ar- 
rangements to so successful a termination that the aims 
and purposes of the Order were more universally under- 



280 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

stood and respected than years of work could otherwise 
have accompHshed. On "Woman's Day," October 28, 
1893, th^ t^t^l registration in the organization room, of 
all the Societies represented, revealed that during the life 
of the exposition the Eastern Star had registered second 
in numbers, the first being the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union. 

May 16, 1893, was "Eastern Star Day," a courtesy 
extended by the "World's Congress of Women." It was 
the "Day of Days" and was perfect from beginning to 
end. Music, flowers, and speeches characterized the 
event and at night everyone departed tired but happy. 
Mrs. Mary C. Snedden, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 
presided, and General John Corson Smith, Past Grand 
Master and ex-Governor of Illinois, gave a most interest- 
ing address. 

The twentieth annual session was held in Chicago,^^ 
October 2, 1894. A great impetus was given to the prog- 
ress of the Order during Sister Kenner's administration 
due to her wonderful capability and charming personal- 
ity. She could have received the unanimous vote of the 
Grand Chapter for reelection, but firmly declined it with 
thanks, saying that in this fast growing jurisdiction one 
term was all for which any sister should aspire and that 
she wished to nominate her associate in office, and hoped 
that the vote might be unanimous, craving the privilege 
of casting the vote, which was granted her by the vote of 
the Grand Chapter. She established the precedent of one 
term which has since continued. 

Thus did the outgoing administration work in perfect 
harmony with the incoming and the future seemed full 
of hope for those who were to assume official responsi- 

33 Mrs. Nettie C. Kenner, Grand Matron; D. H. Zepp, Grand Patron. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 281 

bility. All praise is justly due to Sister Kenner for her 
generosity and loyalty to the best interests of the Order, 
believing as she did that the Order was served best by 
sharing the honors as well as the responsibilities with 
others, and establishing the precedent that a Grand Ma- 
tron shall not succeed herself. 

The Grand Chapter was at this time composed of 243 
Chapters, with a total membership of 14,190. 

At the twenty-first annual session, held in Chicago,^* 
October i, 1895, a resolution was presented by Geo. 
Howison, Past Patron of Miriam Chapter No. i, and 
adopted, which was the foundation of our present beauti- 
ful and splendid Home at Macon, which has grown from 
a modest beginning (initial cost being $6,500) to its 
present noble proportions, representing now an invest- 
ment of $100,038. 

The twenty-second annual session convened in Pe- 
oria,^^ October 13, 1896. This was the first time in its 
history that the session assembled outside of Chicago. 

The first report of the Home board was given by Mary 
A. Bradley, the Secretary, which was adopted. She gave 
a detailed description of the grounds, receipts and dona- 
tions of the newly located Home at Macon. The formal 
dedication of the Eastern Star and Masonic Home oc- 
curred July 7, 1897, at Macon, to "indigent Masons' 
widows and female members of the Eastern Star and 
such orphans as the Board deemed wise to admit." The 
dedicatory ceremonies were conducted by Jennie W. 
Freeman, Grand Matron. This Home has become an 
eloquent monument to the labors of the Order in this 
State. 

3* Mate L. Chester, Grand Matron ; G. A. Edwards, Grand Patron. 
35 May Brown, Grand Matron ; Chas. L. Hovey, Grand Patron. 



282 



HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 



At the twenty-third annual session ^^ an amendment 
was adopted, raising the per capita tax to thirty-five 
cents, ten cents of same being ordered paid to the Treas- 
urer of the Home board, and at the thirty-ninth annual 
session it was again raised to fifty cents, twenty-five cents 
of which is turned over to the Treasurer of the Home 
funds. 

The work achieved by each of the officers since 1897 
has been noteworthy indeed, and each has done her full 
quota to maintain and still further increase the high 
standard of excellence which has ever characterized both 
the spirit and the letter of the noble work done by the 
Eastern Star in Illinois. 

A system of instruction has been adopted in both ritual 
and floor work called the "Standard Work.'' The law 
provides for a "Board of Grand Examiners," consisting 
of seven members, the Worthy Grand Matron and Wor- 
thy Grand Patron, the Associate Grand Matron and As- 
sociate Grand Patron being ex-oificio members thereof, 
and three members annually appointed by the Worthy 
Grand Matron. There are only seven copies of the 

36 Below is a table showing the names of the presiding officers follow- 
ing the twenty-second annual session : 



1,1 


Held at 


Date 


Worthy Grand Matron 


Worthy Grand Patron 


Grand Secretary 


23 


Chicago 


Oct. 5,1897 


Jennie W. Freeman 


W. B. Carlock 


Sopha C. Scott 


24 


Chicago 


Oct. 4, 1898 


Sarah D. Haggard 


W. B. Carlock 


Sopha C. Scott 


25 


Chicago 


Oct, 3, 1899 


May Chapman 


J. T. Crowder 


Mate L. Chester 


26 


Chicago 


Oct. 1900 


Sadie B. Morrison 


F. M. Hocker 


Mate L- Chester 


27 


Chicago 


Oct. 1901 


Lottie J. Wiley 


D. W. Whittenberg 


Mate L. Chester 


28 


Chicago 


Oct. 7, 1902 


Edna C. Wilcox 


A. G. Hug 


Mate L. Chester 


29 


Chicago 


Oct. 6, 1903 


Mary H. Goddard 


Edmund Jackson 


Mate L. Chester 


30 


Chicago 


Oct. 4, 1904 


Mary R. Inghram 


Harris W. Huehl 


Mate L. Chester 


31 


Chicago 


Oct. 10, 1905 


Kate Aull Heath 


Fred E- Glenn 


Mate L. Chester 


32 


Springfield 


Oct. 23, 1906 


Henrietta B. McGrath 


Walter R. Kimsey 


Mate L. Chester 


33 


Peoria 


Oct. 15, 1907 


Jennie E. Bell 


George J. Kurzenknabe 


Mate L. Chester 


34 


Chicago 


Oct. 20. 1908 


E. Mae McRae 


Wm. H. Brydges 


Nettie C. Kenner 


35 


Chicago 


Oct. 5, 1909 


Effie M. McKindley 


Milton E. Robinson 


Nettie C. Kenner 


36 


Chicago 


Oct. 4, 1910 


Amalia Huehl 


D. John Forbes 


Nettie C. Kenner 


37 


Chicago 


Oct. 3, 1911 


Inez J. Bender 


Madison Brower 


Nettie C. Kenner 


38 


Chicago 


Oct. 1, 1912 


Hester M. Smith 


Herbert T. McLean 


Nettie C. Kenner 


39 


Chicago 


Oct. 7, 1913 


Cassie G. Orr 


Samuel M. Fitch 


Nettie C. Kenner 


40 


Peoria 


Oct. 6, 1914 


May Bromley Milroy 


Wallace C. Watkins 


Nettie C. Kenner 


41 


Chicago 


Oct. 5, 1915 


Selma N. Weege 


Harry L. Gannett 


Nettie C. Kenner 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 283 

"Standard Work'' in existence, one of which is given to 
each of the seven members of the board during their term 
of office. About nine or ten State schools are held early 
in the year (the law requires at least six), under the di- 
rect supervision of the Worthy Grand Matron, assisted 
by the Board of Grand Examiners, and thorough instruc- 
tion is provided from the "Standard Work'' to all repre- 
sentatives in attendance. The schools are located at con- 
venient and accessible points throughout the State, so 
that all Chapters may benefit therefrom and uniform 
work be assured. This system has been operative since 
1909 and has proven extremely successful. The law also 
provides for commissioned Grand Lecturers who, having 
qualified by hard study and a rigid examination under 
the Board of Examiners, are granted a commission by 
the Worthy Grand Matron permitting them to instruct 
subordinate Chapters throughout the State in all the re- 
quirements of the Standard work. All Grand Lecturers 
must be present or past Worthy Matrons of Illinois. 
There had been 127 Grand Lecturers commissioned to 
October, 191 5. The commissions may be revoked at any 
time at the discretion of the Worthy Grand Matron. At 
the annual session of the Grand Chapter the seven copies 
of the "Standard Work" are turned over to the Grand 
Secretary who receipts for them and they are again given 
out to the newly appointed Board of Grand Examiners. 
The voters or delegates at the annual session are 
the present Worthy Matrons and Worthy Patrons and 
Past Worthy Matrons and Past Worthy Patrons. The 
membership July i, 1915, was 82,512, forming 651 Chap- 
ters. As the membership is increasing at the rate of 
about five thousand per year there will be approximately 
88,000 members at the approaching census. The min- 
imum fee for initiation is $3 and ranges from this sum 



284 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

to $15. Annual dues range from $1.50 to $5. Dispen- 
sation fee for new Chapters in cities of over 10,000 pop- 
ulation is $60; for the same in all other cities, $30. No 
more than six candidates may be initiated at any one 
meeting. 

The Home is centrally located at Macon, Illinois. 
There are twenty-three acres of land, and spacious build- 
ings containing seventy-two rooms. There is a well 
equipped hospital with a trained nurse, and adequate help 
is employed to properly maintain such a large establish- 
ment. The aim has always been in both management 
and surroundings to ehminate all idea of an "institution" 
and cultivate the thought of "home." The Home has 
been in existence nineteen years, during which time peace 
and happiness has been brought to many an aching heart. 
The Home is more than maintained by a per capita tax 
of twenty-five cents and is under the direction of a board 
of trustees, seven in number, five of whom are elected for 
terms of one, two, and three years respectively, the Wor- 
thy Grand Matron and Worthy Grand Patron being ex- 
officio members. The funds are kept separate from those 
of the Grand Chapter, and at the present time are in a 
very flourishing condition although it has taken years of 
good management and judicious economy to attain the 
present position. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 285 

Grand Chapte:r of Indiana " 

Fair Star, that o'er the manger shone, 
Guiding the Wise Men to his throne. 
That was so humble and unknown. 
All hail ! All hail, that wondrous Star ! 

— Elvira Adams Atwood. 

The degrees of the Order of the Eastern Star were 
communicated by its founder, Dr. Rob Morris, in Indi- 
ana on a number of occasions, the first having been at 
New Albany in 1852, and very frequently afterwards. 

Lodges of the Adoptive Rite of Masonry were organ- 
ized at Orland, Salem, Fremont, Butler, and Elkhart, 
and all used the Tatem ritual. On January 27, 1869, 
the Grand Lodge of Adoptive Masonry was organized 
at Elkhart, by representatives of the five Lodges men- 
tioned above adopting regulations for their government 
similar to that in use by the Grand Lodge of Adoptive 
Masonry of Michigan. The second and last meeting 
was held in Orland in October, 1869, which closed to 
meet the following October, and the Lodges composing 
the Grand Lodge soon became dormant after the Grand 
Lodge failed to meet. 

Robert Macoy chartered a Chapter at State Line City 
in January, 1870, and later charters were issued to the 
number of twenty-five, but only fifteen were active at the 
time of organization of the Grand Chapter, at Anderson, 
May 6, 1874, by representatives of ten Chapters. The 
organization was effected by the Rev. John Leach, Dep- 
uty Supreme Grand Patron. The constitution adopted 
recognized the Grand Patron as the executive officer, 
which prevailed until 1877, when the Grand Matron was 
accorded the recognition of presiding for the first time in 

37 Organized May 6, 1874. 



286 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

any Grand Chapter and was made the executive officer. 
No provision was made for Grand Officers at the star 
points, but this was provided for in 1877. The right to 
vote in subordinate Chapters was given only to sisters, 
though the brothers were accorded the privilege of the 
ballot in the Grand Chapter. The right of voting in 
subordinate Chapters was given to the brothers in 1877. 

To the untiring efforts and commendable zeal of the 
members of this Grand Chapter are we indebted for the 
activities which resulted in giving to the Fraternity the 
General Grand Chapter. To the Rev. Willis D. Engle, 
more than any other person, belongs the credit, and with- 
out his splendid work this organization would not have 
been possible ; the benefits to all the members of the Fra- 
ternity cannot be estimated. 

Sister Nettie Ransford, Past Grand Matron of the 
Grand Chapter of Indiana and Past Most Worthy Grand 
Matron of the General Grand Chapter, is the only sister 
who has been in attendance at every meeting of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter, and Rev. Willis D. Engle, Past 
Grand Patron of Indiana and Past Most Worthy Grand 
Patron of the General Grand Chapter, is the only 
brother who has attended every meeting of the General 
Grand Chapter since the organization of that body in 
1876. The members of the Order of the Eastern Star 
are indebted to two members of this Grand Chapter, Sis- 
ter Ransford and Brother Engle, for much of the legis- 
lation that has been the keynote of the success that has 
marked the progress of this, the greatest organization 
of women. 

The Grand Chapter arranged for a location in In- 
dianapolis in 1879 ^^^ with but one exception, has held 
all its meetings in that city since that date — the excep- 
tion was in 1899 when it met in Fort Wayne where it 



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o 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 287 

celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary in a manner 
adapted to the occasion. 

In 1892 the Grand Chapter appointed a committee of 
three to act with a Hke committee from Masonic bodies 
to devise ways and means for raising funds for a Ma- 
sonic Widows' and Orphans' Home. This committee 
failed to accomplish the intended results, but in 1902 a 
fund was commenced which accumulated with wonder- 
ful rapidity. In 191 1 a per capita tax of ten cents was 
levied for the benefit of the fund and this, with the assis- 
tance of the Grand Lodge, was productive of a large ad- 
dition to the Home fund. In 1909 an Eastern Star Home 
Association was formed and at the 1910 session, a re- 
quest was made that the Grand Lodge, A.F. and A.M., 
permit a special representative of the Grand Chapter, 
O.E.S., to be heard on the floor of the Grand Lodge, on 
the question of a Masonic and Eastern Star Home. With 
the most cordial welcome, this request was granted. The 
ways and means committee reported that ''We believe 
now is the time, and this is the place for this Grand 
Lodge, representatives of 53,000 Hoosier Masons, to de- 
clare themselves in favor of such an institution," the re- 
port being adopted by the Grand Lodge, and a permanent 
and organized committee was appointed. As a result of 
their strenuous efiforts and the generous assistance and 
combined work of the members of the Masonic bodies 
and the encouragement and donations of the members of 
the Eastern Star, a tract of two hundred and fifteen 
acres of land was purchased, adjoining Franklin, about 
twenty-two miles south of Indianapolis. The first build- 
ing to be erected was the administration building, the 
corner-stone of which was laid during the meeting of the 
Grand Lodge, A.F. and A.M., in May, 191 5. The Ma- 
sons of Indiana greatly appreciate the cooperation of the 



288 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Order of the Eastern Star by assisting in a substantial 
manner in this worthy enterprise. At the time the cor- 
nerstone was laid, the O.E.S. donations amounted to the 
magnificent sum of nearly $32,000. As the work pro- 
gressed, the interest among the members of the subordi- 
nate Chapters increased with many pledges from sub- 
ordinate Chapters for $100 each, which amount was in- 
tended to furnish one room in the building. 

The Proceedings of 1898 contained a splendid tribute 
to those who had been honored by official trust by in- 
cluding the portraits of the Grand Matron and Grand 
Patron, also sixteen Past Grand Matrons and twenty- 
two Past Grand Patrons. 

In 1901 the "Test Oath" was adopted and the Grand 
Secretary was instructed to prepare a form for minutes, 
code of by-laws, and instructions for the use of subordi- 
nate Chapters. The office of Grand Organist was cre- 
ated. 

The organization of a Past Grand Matrons' and Past 
Grand Patrons' Association in 191 1 has been an added 
impetus to the zeal and energy of this Grand Jurisdiction 
in promoting the principles of charity, truth, and loving 
kindness. 

Grand Chapte:r of Iowa ^^ 

The Eastern Star, historically, in Iowa is marked by 
three distinct eras. The first, is its introduction when 
charter was granted by Brother Macoy for a Chapter in 
Clermont in April, 1870, which was followed by fifty- 
eight others. The second, is the reorganization in the 
State by the General Grand Chapter, of Ruth No. 6, 
Iowa City, May 9, 1877, which was also the first sub- 
ordinate Chapter organized by authority of the General 
Grand Chapter. A Supreme Grand Chapter charter 

38 Organized July 30, 1878. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 289 

dated November 21, 1871, was surrendered and thus, 
with John N. Coldren, Patron, and Phila B. Coldren, 
Matron, the first efforts toward the present widespread 
organizations were completed when J. Norwood Clark, 
deputy for the Most Worthy Grand Patron, constituted 
this Chapter May 16, 1877. Then followed Charity 
Chapter, Marble Rock, chartered May 14, 1877; Har- 
mony Chapter, Council Bluffs, whose charter was re- 
ceived March 9, 1878, in exchange for their Supreme 
Grand Chapter charter dated August 26, 1873; Home 
Chapter, Des Moines, chartered April 29, 1878; Fidelity 
Chapter, Rockford, chartered May 8, 1878, exchanging 
their charter of the Supreme Grand Chapter dated De- 
cember 30, 1873; Excelsior Chapter, Charles City, char- 
tered May 8, 1878; Gem Chapter, Shell Rock, chartered 
May 8, 1878; Missouri Valley Chapter, Missouri Valley, 
chartered July 18, 1878. 

Mrs. Jennie E. Mathews, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, issued the call for the convention to or- 
ganize the Grand Chapter, which met in Cedar Rapids, 
July 30, 1878, at which time seven Chapters were repre- 
sented. A constitution was adopted which made the 
Grand Patron the executive officer but in 1881 the Grand 
Matron was given that authority. During the first nine 
years, the annual dues were twenty-five cents per capita, 
but after that time were increased to thirty-five cents. 

In 1879 is was decided that regalia should be worn as 
follows: ''For sisters, a scarf with white ground, six 
inches wide, the five colors to be worked around the edge. 
For brothers, a Master Mason's apron, with stars worked 
in at the two points, and borders of the five colors." 
Later, the officers' scarfs and aprons were ordered made 
of different colors, and those of the members were white, 
bordered with the five colors. 



290 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

In 1893 the State was divided into five districts, with 
a Deputy Grand Matron in each. In 1894 the Treasurer 
of the Charity Fund reported $520 on hand, which had 
been increased until the balance after all charitable work 
had been deducted, amounted to $854.29 in 1902. The 
Masonic Library Building voted the use of a ''Memorial 
Case'' for the O.E.S. In 1902 Sister Lorraine J. Pitkin, 
Right Worthy Grand Secretary, gave $6 — the first — 
toward an Iowa Home ; other pledges were made and the 
sum of $235 was raised. This grand work of love was 
followed with such zeal that on October 18, 1905, the 
beautiful brick structure with all modern improvements 
at Boone was dedicated to the Order as the O.E.S. Ma- 
sonic Home, a monument to the largest, the best, and the 
most practical woman's order in the world, at a cost of 
$13,694.24 for the Home. 

By order of the Grand Chapter, the memorial service 
of Sister Engle is held at each annual meeting and in 
1898 the Grand Matron's address incorporated the fol- 
lowing extract from the address of the Grand Master of 
the Masons of Iowa, which was approved by the Grand 
Lodge : 

My observation is that where Chapters of the Order of the 
Eastern Star have been estabHshed it has added a new zest to Ma- 
sonry, stimulating its social features, and, indeed, proving itself 
an active auxiliary to our Order. If this is true, it would follow 
that it is little for us to do, to so far extend our good wishes and 
fraternal sympathy as shall afford encouragement. That we may 
do so, I suggest the adoption of the following, or some like enact- 
ment as a standing regulation : 

That the organization known and designated as the Order of 
the Eastern Star, when composed of Masons, their wives, widows, 
mothers, sisters and daughters, may occupy Masonic halls for 
festal and ceremonial purposes. 




Mkmorial Book-case, Masonic Library, Ckdar Rapids, Iowa 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 291 

The Grand Secretary's report in 1909 gave the fol- 
lowing : 

I must not forget to mention a very pleasant fact, and one 
which, a few years ago, would have caused some of the good and 
straight-laced Masonic brethren to hold up their hands in holy 
horror. When the twenty-first volume of the Annals of Iowa 
Masonry came out it was dedicated to the Wives, Daughters, 
Mothers, Widows, and Sisters of Master Masons, who though 
they cannot become members of our Fraternity can and do co- 
operate with us in their individual capacity and through the Order 
of the Eastern Star, in directing the charities and toiling in the 
cause of human progress and aid in the upbuilding of the Fra- 
ternity. To the purest, wisest, and noblest of womanhood, we 
dedicate this, the twenty-first volume (1908-1909) of Annals of 
Iowa Masonry. 

Over $900 was contributed to the Galveston flood suf- 
ferers and $634 to the Temple of Fraternity at the St. 
Louis fair. A memorial book-case was placed in the 
Masonic Library in memory of T. S. Parvin and a me- 
morial to Thomas R. Ercanbrack, who served as Grand 
Patron for five years, was placed in the Masonic Home. 
His widow, Mrs. Harriet A. Ercanbrack, was the first 
Worthy Matron of Mt. Moriah Chapter, Anamosa, and 
served as such for fifteen years. In 1886 the Grand Chap- 
ter of Iowa elected her Worthy Grand Matron, and for 
five years she presided over that body, which was then 
practically in its infancy. In 1889 she was elected Right 
Worthy Grand Treasurer, which office she held continu- 
ously until the time of her death, January i, 191 5. 

Some time, some day our eyes shall see 
The faces kept in memory, 
Some day their hands will clasp our hands 
Just over in the border lands. 



292 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapte:r of Kansas ^^ 

The Grand Chapter of Kansas held their twentieth 
annual session in Kansas City as guests of Mendiias 
Chapter No. i, at which time Mendias Chapter proudly 
exhibited their old charter, signed by the illustrious 
founder of the Order of the Eastern Star, Rob Morris, 
LL.D., and bearing date of July 28, 1856, which fully 
established this Chapter as the oldest O.E.S. organiza- 
tion in the State. 

Active and zealous work was done by Harmon G. Rey- 
nolds, through whose energy and influence eighty-two 
Chapters had been organized previous to the date when 
he called the convention to organize the Grand Chapter, 
at Emporia, October 18, 1876, at which time forty-two 
Chapters were represented either by official representa- 
tive members or by their proxies. By the constitution 
adopted, the Grand Patron was made the executive of- 
ficer, but this was changed in 1877, since which date the 
Grand Matron has held this authority. 

Though this Grand Chapter was actively engaged in 
the progressive duties of the Order at the time the con- 
vention was called for the organization of the General 
Grand Chapter, it did not send delegates, but in 1877 del- 
egates were elected, with discretionary powers, and they, 
for this Grand Chapter, formally pledged allegiance to 
the General Grand Chapter at its meeting in Chicago in 
1878. The delegates were Mary A. Hepler, Worthy 
Grand Matron, and Willis Brown, proxy for Worthy 
Grand Patron. 

The constitution provided that meetings should be held 
at the same time and place as the meetings of the Grand 
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and the postponement 

39 Organized October 18, 1876. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 293 

of its meeting from October, 1879, to February, 1880, 
resulted in not having any meeting of the Grand Chapter 
in 1879. The meeting of 1882 decided to hold the annual 
meetings at such time and place as the Grand Chapter 
shall designate. 

The birthday of Dr. Rob Morris is enthusiastically 
celebrated each year, and to further the proper observ- 
ance of the day, an Eastern Star Association was organ- 
ized by members in Kansas and the western part of 
Missouri. 

In 1 89 1 the following resolution was adopted: 
Resolved, That, in token of the high appreciation of her ser- 
vices, the Grand Chapter extends to its first Grand Matron, Mary 
A. Hepler, a heartfelt welcome, and authorizes the Grand Secre- 
tary to draw an order on the Grand Treasurer refunding to her 
the amount of her expenses incurred in attending this meeting, 
and this be done annually so long as she remains in this Grand 
Jurisdiction. 

In 1893 the Grand Chapter presented Sister Hepler 
with a gold watch, inscribed with proper mention of the 
conditions which prompted the gift, and in 1895 the 
Grand Chapter appropriated $10 per month to her during 
the remainder of her life, a beautiful tribute and sub- 
stantial recognition of invaluable services and devotion 
to the Order, and a reward well bestowed upon one most 
worthy. 

This Grand Chapter assumed the care and education 
of a little girl, Emma Avery, whose dying mother left 
her in the care of Electa Chapter, and an appropriation 
of $50 annually was made to Electa Chapter to assist in 
this work so long as the Chapter had her in charge. 

Thanks for the sympathies that ye have shown. 
Thanks for each kindly word, each silent token, 

That teaches me, when seeming most alone, 

Friends are around us, though no word be spoken. 



294 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The O.E.S. assumed the honor and pleasure of fur- 
nishing the Masonic Home dedicated at Wichita, Sep- 
tember lo, 1896, and this assistance was thankfully re- 
ceived and appreciated by the Masonic Fraternity. 

The Grand Chapter met at Wichita in 1893, at which 
time an entertainment was given by the children of the 
Home; a silver shower which followed amounted to 
$53.65 for the children. 

All Chapters have one "Masonic Home Day'' and each 
member is expected to give something which will be pre- 
sented by her Chapter to the support of the Home. In 
1898, the matron of the Home in her remarks at the 
Grand Chapter meeting said : "We have the only Ma- 
sonic Home in the world ; we meet around the same com- 
mon Altar; one table, father, mother, our children, 
grandma's and grandpa's — we are all one family, no in- 
stitutional discipline." 

A donation of $282.45 was made to the Galveston 
flood sufferers; an appropriation of $186.40 to the Tem- 
ple of Fraternity at St. Louis. In 1905 $86.80 was do- 
nated to the Lewis and Clark Exposition fund. 

In 1895 the Grand Chapter, O.E.S. , received com- 
mendable recognition from Mt. Olivet Commandery, 
Knights Templar, when invitations were extended to at- 
tend a reception and ball given by them. Further cour- 
tesy was extended by the Grand Commandery in 1898, 
in the adoption of the following : 

Resolved. That the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar, 
m annual conclave assembled, hereby extend to the Order of the 
Eastern Star our knightly and courteous greeting and our sin- 
cere wish that their session may be pleasant and harmonious and 
their legislation wise and judicious. 

Masonic recognition and fraternal courtesy have 
marked the history of this Order whose basic foundation 




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BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 295 

is the greatest benefit to humanity at large, mankind in 
general, and womanhood in particular, and has greatly 
assisted their noble efforts to excel in the progress of 
their undertakings. In 1910 the matron of the Kansas 
Masonic Home, Mrs. Mary C. Snedden, who is also Past 
Most Worthy Grand Matron of the General Grand Chap- 
ter, in her report of the conditions surrounding the chil- 
dren at the Home, said: "I think our children are re- 
ceiving a better and higher moral and religious training 
than nine-tenths of the children in the so-called Christian 
homes. Twenty-seven of our children have been bap- 
tized, and all over thirteen . . . have united with 
the church, and are trying to lead Christian lives." 

In 1911 the first military Chapter was chartered — 
Maple Leaf Chapter, at Fort Leavenworth. This is the 
only military Chapter in the world, by reason of which 
many questions as to jurisdiction arose, which had to be 
met. It is a well established Masonic law that a member 
or oflicer of the United States army can claim his resi- 
dence anywhere, and is, therefore, eligible to petition a 
lodge for the mysteries of Masonry without regard to 
time. Following the Masonic law, the Grand Patron of 
Kansas held that the residence of the wife or unmarried 
daughter of a member of the United States army was 
the same as that of the husband and father, notwith- 
standing the law of the Order governing the length of 
time necessary to gain a residence. 

In 1906 the Order of the Eastern Star built a chapel 
on the Masonic Home Grounds at a cost of $10,000, 
which structure was a magnificent recognition of the 
benefits such a building can be to those who are living at 
the Home. In the additions to the beautiful Home, in 
the isolation cottage, in the furnishings, in the endow- 
ment fund, in the giving of many little comforts and 



296 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

luxuries for the benefit of those who Hve at the Home, 
the Order of the Eastern Star has had a substantial part. 
Wherever a helping hand has been needed, in the many 
disasters that have come to members of the Order in our 
sister States, the Grand Chapter of Kansas has ever 
stood ready and willing to give assistance whenever it 
was asked or needed. 

Today well lived makes every yesterday a dream of 
happiness and every tomorrow a vision of hope. 

'Grand Chapte:r of Ke:ntucky *° 

Kentucky soil has given sepulcher to one whose in- 
spired genius brought forth the Order, its author and 
founder, the venerable patriarch, Brother Rob Morris, 
LL.D., who for twenty years preceding his death was a 
resident of La Grange, Kentucky. Here the lyre of this 
noted brother was tuned to higher and sweeter strains 
of melodious songs, and from there his writings have 
gone forth to millions of people in other lands, telling in 
accents of joy and gladness, to Masons and their kindred, 
the peace and profound satisfaction of dwelling together 
in unity. 

In the year 1787, in Cannongate Kilwilling Lodge No. 
2, of Edinburgh, Scotland, Worshipful Brother Robert 
Burns was coronated first Poet Laureate of Freemason- 
ry, which honor he highly prized but modestly wore for 
nine years, with distinction to himself and pleasure to the 
Fraternity. 

The honorary position of Poet Laureate of Freema- 
sonry having remained vacant since the death of Robert 
Burns in 1796, a period of nearly eighty-eight years, the 
leading Masonic bodies and prominent brethren of this 
country selected Past Grand Master Rob Morris, of Ken- 

*o Organized June 10, 1903. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 297 

tucky, for that great honor. He was accordingly cor- 
onated second Poet Laureate of Freemasonry in the Ma- 
sonic Temple, New York City, on December 17, 1884, 
before a large assemblage of brethren, which honorable 
position he held until his death almost four years after. 

Following the death of Brother Rob Morris in 1888, a 
period of twenty years, no steps were taken to fill the 
position of Poet Laureate, made vacant by his death, 
until Right Worshipful Brother Fay Hempstead, of Lit- 
tle Rock, Arkansas, was coronated third Poet Laureate 
of Freemasonry on October 5, 1908, in Ravenswood 
Lodge, No. yyy, at Medinah Temple, Chicago, Illinois. 

The first Constellation ever organized was Purity No. 
I, located at Lodge, Fulton County, Kentucky, which 
was, at that time, the place of residence of Dr. Rob 
Morris. 

Brother Morris having conveyed the duties incident to 
the promotion of the Order of the Eastern Star to Broth- 
er Macoy, the first Chapter was chartered by him at Lan- 
caster, in August, 1870; and later Queen Esther Chap- 
ter, located at Louisville, was chartered January 15, 
1879, which charter was exchanged for one from the 
General Grand Chapter, March 25, 1882, and this being 
the first Chapter chartered by the General Grand Chap- 
ter, was numbered i. J. W. Hickman, special Deputy 
for Willis Brown, Most Worthy Grand Patron of the 
General Grand Chapter, constituted the Chapter April 
20, 1882, with Miss Annie F. Kalfus, Matron; Lew 
Varalli, Patron. This Chapter maintained an existence 
for a short time, after which it became dormant, but was 
reorganized by the Rev. H. R. Coleman, Deputy for the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, L. Cabell Williamson, 
April 17, 1902, with thirty-eight charter members. 

In all, thirty-nine Chapters were chartered by the Gen- 



298 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

eral Grand Chapter, but only twenty-two of them sur- 
vived at the time of the Grand Chapter organization by 
Mrs. Laura B. Hart, Most Worthy Grand Matron, act- 
ing as the Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 
The Grand Chapter was organized at Louisville, June 
lo, 1903, at which convention the Most Worthy Grand 
Matron was ably assisted by Sister Lorraine J. Pitkin, 
Right Worthy Grand Secretary; Mrs. Kate L Thom- 
as was elected Grand Matron; R. H. Corothers, Grand 
Patron ; Mrs. Josephine H. Tinder, Grand Secretary. 

The address of welcome in 1904 was given by Rob. 
Morris, son of the founder of the O.E.S., at which time 
he gave an excellent history of the Order, known to him 
personally, as he was born one year after the system was 
wrought out by his honored father, and therefore has 
lived all his life in the atmosphere and with the absolute 
knowledge of its growth.*^ The sum of $956.75 was 
contributed by the several Chapters to the Masonic 
Widows' and Orphans' Home. In 1905 the Grand Chap- 
ter was called off to attend services under the auspices of 
the Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M. and in the same year, 
Sister Engle's Chapter of Sorrow was pathetically ren- 
dered as the memorial service; also at each annual ses- 
sion since that time. 

Mrs. Callie L. Clagett was chosen Grand Matron, with 
Brother Rob. Morris, son of the founder of the O.E.S., 
Grand Patron for 1905 and 1906. In this manner Ken- 
tucky members of the O.E.S. tendered their appreciation 
of the father, also of the son, when they gave their sacred 
charge in the keeping of one who fully realizes that "Wo- 
man's heart beats responsive to the same inspiration that 
prompts man to noble deeds." Many Chapters combined 

41 See Dr. Morris's biography as given by his son, page 52. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 299 

to celebrate the "Festal Day" of the Order and $94.61 
was presented to the old Masonic Home at Shelbyville. 

In 1909 $500 was appropriated for an Eastern Star 
dormitory at the Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home 
and a fund was commenced which should be used for 
erecting an Eastern Star Home. 

It is a matter for general rejoicing that the Grand 
Lodge of Kentucky has accorded such cordial recogni- 
tion to the Order of the Eastern Star. This is the result 
of a visit to the Grand Lodge when in session, by Mrs. 
Clara A. Henrich, Grand Matron, who was escorted into 
the room by the Grand Warden, and seated by the Wor- 
shipful Grand Master in his chair in the East. She ad- 
dressed the Grand Lodge, giving a short history of the 
Order, and benefits to be derived from its teachings and 
closed by saying that all the Eastern Star wished was the 
good will of the Masonic Fraternity in Kentucky. A 
unanimously adopted resolution was conveyed by special 
messenger from the Masonic Grand Lodge to the Grand 
Chapter, O.E.S., in session, in which "heart-felt good- 
will" was extended. 

In 191 3 the Grand Matron was presented with a gavel 
made by a boy in the Masonic Widows' and Orphans' 
Home at Louisville, from a tree that had been planted by 
Henry Clay. 

Sister Clara R. Henrich, Past Grand Matron of Ken- 
tucky, was honored by appointment as Worthy Grand 
Warden of the General Grand Chapter, 191 3- 191 6. 



300 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapte:r o^ Louisiana*^ 

Some time in the late sixties or early seventies, some 
one whose identity is not established, traveled through 
the State of Louisiana, initiating persons into what was 
termed the degrees of the Eastern Star. The extent of 
his travels is not known, but this is known that the trav- 
eler left a picture of Dr. Rob Morris in Alexandria, 
which picture now hangs in the parlor of the Chapter 
rooms in that city. This may indicate that the traveler 
was the person who now is recognized as the founder of 
the Order. There is no evidence that he granted any 
charters in the State. 

On April 17, 1884, a charter was granted and a Chap- 
ter duly constituted by the General Grand Chapter. This 
was Rob Morris Chapter No. i, at New Orleans. Miss 
Anna Prophet was the Worthy Matron; Alfred Shaw, 
Worthy Patron ; Mrs. Lizzie Coulter, Associate Matron. 
There were twenty-six signers to the application for a 
charter. Within the five years following its organiza- 
tion, there were eighty-seven initiated by this Chapter; 
then for some cause, not clearly evident, the Chapter 
ceased to meet and was suspended. 

On the 28th of September, 1900, a new charter was 
granted by the General Grand Chapter to a new Chapter 
under the same name and number, but in whose mem- 
bership was included but one member of the old Chapter. 

The oldest Chapter with continuous existence from the 
date of constitution to the present, is Rebecca Chapter 
No. 2, at Welsh, chartered June 3, 1890, and constituted 
July 26, 1890, with Mrs. Kate Hewitt, Worthy Ma- 
tron ; L. E. Robinson, Worthy Patron ; Mrs. Rosa Kelly, 
Associate Matron. Subsequently the General Grand 

*2 Organized October 4, 1900. Data by Mrs. Maria Elizabeth Duncan, 
Grand Secretary, 1907 to 1915. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 301 

Chapter granted charters to Robertsville Chapter, at 
Robertsville ; Mt. Carmel Chapter, at Florien ; St. Joseph 
Chapter, at St. Joseph; Louise L. M'Guire Chapter, at 
Monroe ; AHce Chapter, at Morgan City ; Lorraine Chap- 
ter, at Opelousa ; Harmony Chapter, at Coushatta ; Evan- 
geline Chapter, at Farmerville ; De Sota Chapter, at Lo- 
gansport; Electa Chapter, at Franklin; Good Intent 
Chapter, at Kentwood; Gody Chapter, at Ruston; Jen- 
nings Chapter, at Jennings, and Electa Chapter, at Alex- 
andria, making a total of sixteen Chapters, only ten of 
them active at the time the Grand Chapter was organized. 
On October 4, 1900, there assembled at Alexandria a 
convention at which were represented Rob Morris Chap- 
ter, Rebecca Chapter, Louise L. M'Guire Chapter, Alice 
Chapter, Harmony Chapter, Gody Chapter, Jennings 
Chapter, and Electa Chapter of Alexandria, at which 
time and place the Grand Chapter was organized by Mrs. 
Kate C. Brechner, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron. Mrs. Maria Elizabeth Duncan was chosen 
Grand Matron, but declined the office.''^ Subsequently 

43 Mrs. Maria Elizabeth Cooke Duncan was initiated by Electa Chapter 
No. 10, June 29, 1900; Worthy Matron of Electa Chapter, 1900-1901, 
elected Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter of Louisiana on June 7, 
1907, serving in that office continuously until her death on February 27, 
1915. 

Her record in office, her devotion to the interests of the Order of the 
Eastern Star, her character and life, endeared her to all who had the 
pleasue of coming within the sphere of her influence. 

It is with a sense of personal loss that we record the passing of one 
of the helpers upon this work. She was one of our associates during the 
General Grand Chapter session in Chicago in 1913 and her interest in the 
Order was never failing. 

There is a stream that we all must cross, 

The River of Human Years; 
Now lying calm in the summer's light. 
Now splashed with the rain of tears; 
Out from the hill of God it flows, 

And on to the shoreless sea. 
Where the noontide sun no shadow throws, 
And time is eternity. 



302 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Mrs. Mary S. Herring was elected Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron; John S. Alfred, Worthy Grand Patron; Mrs. Pat- 
tie O. Johnston, Associate Grand Matron, and C. R. 
Brownell, Associate Grand Patron. Immediate recog- 
nition was accorded by the General Grand Chapter and 
all other Grand Chapters of the Order. The per capita 
dues were fixed at twenty-five cents. 

Subsequent to the organization of the Grand Chapter, 
Mt. Carmel and Evangeline Chapters gave their allegi- 
ance and received charters from it. The other Chapters 
chartered by the General Grand Chapters as above men- 
tioned, had become extinct. The returns from the sev- 
eral Chapters showed that at the date of the organization 
of the Grand Chapter there was a total membership of 
392, apparently all of them energetic in their efforts to 
further the best interests of the Order, each in her or his 
position giving of their best in this great service for 
humanity. 

In 1908 the State was divided into districts. The 
Grand Chapter has met annually and the returns from 
Chapters indicate a steady growth, with new Chapters 
instituted by the Grand Chapter to the number of ninety- 
nine. Forty-three dollars was contributed to the Order's 
headquarters known as the Temple of Fraternity at the 
St. Louis fair. 

According to the Grand Lodge laws of Louisiana only 
Masonic bodies are permitted to meet in Masonic halls, 
and in consequence the Eastern Star cannot meet in these 
halls, but an exception is made in the city of New Or- 
leans. 

The legislation of the Grand Chapter has been con- 
servative, and it is beheved that nothing has been enact- 
ed that is not common to all Grand Chapters of the Or- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 303 

der. The Grand Chapter owns a library of eleven hun- 
dred volumes, including the Proceedings of the several 
Grand Chapters, most of them bound and cased. Funds 
belonging to this Grand Chapter have been invested to 
the amount of $4,878.74, of which $3,378.74 is a Relief 
Fund. In 1908 a resolution was adopted looking to the 
accumulation of a fund to furnish a Masonic Home, 
should one be erected, failing which it should be used for 
the erection of an Eastern Star Home, and liberal con- 
tributions have been made to this fund. 

Grand Chapter of Maink** 

Brother Robert Macoy chartered a Chapter at South 
Berwick, Maine, in May, 1870. The first Chapter char- 
tered by the General Grand Chapter was Adah No. i, 
located at Biddeford, April 3, 1888, which was closely 
followed by Overcome Chapter No. 2, Bowdoinham, 
chartered June 13, 1888. By request of the members of 
this Chapter, who wished the name changed, Jefferson 
S. Conover, Most Worthy Grand Patron, on January 5, 
1889, authorized the name of Overcome Chapter No. 2, 
to be changed to Electa Chapter No. 2, which action was 
approved by the General Grand Chapter on September 
26, 1889. 

Charter was granted December 9, 1889, by the General 
Grand Chapter for Mizpah Chapter No. 3, Saccarappa, 
and organization completed January 7, 1890, by E. M. 
Forbes of Winchester, New Hampshire, Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron. There were forty-three 
petitioners and the first officers were Arthur M. Ricker, 
Worthy Patron; Mrs. Anna D. Phinney, Worthy Ma- 
tron. 

4* Organized August 24, 1892. 



304 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Kineo Chapter No. 3, Old Town, was chartered July 
2, 1890, and organized September 10, 1890, by J. E. 
Haynes, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, hav- 
ing forty-one signers to the petition. 

Beulah Chapter No. 5, at Westbrook, was chartered 
March 30, 1891, and organized by A. H. Burroughs on 
April 29, 1 89 1, having fifty-three signers to the petition. 

Mount Moriah Chapter No. 6, Denmark, was char- 
tered July 10, 1 89 1, and organized by A. H. Burroughs 
on July 24, 1891, with thirty petitioners. 

Pleiades Chapter No. 7, located at Patten, was granted 
a charter July 29, 1891, and organized August 18, 1891, 
by John E. Haynes, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, having forty-nine names upon the petition. 

Charter was granted to 210 petitioners for Golden 
Rod Chapter No. 8, located at Rockland, December 18, 
1 89 1, and organization was completed February 1 1, 1892, 
by C. D. Blanchard, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron. 

Charter was granted to forty-eight petitioners for 
Jonathan Hunt Chapter No. 9, located at Herman, on 
December 22, 1891, and organization was completed on 
February 4, 1892, by C. D. Blanchard, Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Queen Esther Chapter No. 10, located at Hallowell, 
was chartered January 11, 1892, and organized January 
26, 1892, by Hadley O. Hawes, Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, having upon the petition forty- 
four names. 

Pioneer Chapter No. 11, Lisbon Falls, received its 
charter from the General Grand Chapter April 6, 1892, 
in response to the prayer of fifty petitioners and was or- 
ganized by F. Kossuth Jack, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patrcrn, on April 30, 1892. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 305 

The convention to organize the Grand Chapter was 
called by Golden Rod Chapter No. 8, Rockland, and met 
in Rockland August 24, 1892. Seven of the eleven 
Chapters in the State were represented and allegiance 
to the General Grand Chapter was declared; a constitu- 
tion was adopted which made the Grand Matron the 
executive officer, and all Past Matrons and Past Patrons 
permanent members of the Grand Chapter. It was fur- 
th'er provided that, in addition to the three principal offi- 
cers, a Chapter of over fifty members should be entitled 
to one additional representative, also to one additional 
representative for each additional fifty members, but the 
provision for representation other than the three prin- 
cipal officers was abolished in 1894. The' by-laws adopt-^ 
ed provided "That any member who shall report outside 
of the Order, the name of a rejected candidate, shall be 
subject to the penalty of suspension, and in order that no 
member shall plead ignorance of this provision, it shall 
be so stated to the Chapter immediately after each rejec- 
tion." 

In 1895 the Grand Matron was authorized to make one 
official visit to each Chapter at the expense of the Grand 
Chapter, and in 1896 the State was divided into five dis- 
tricts with a Deputy Grand Matron in each, and schools 
of instruction have been held annually since the division 
was effected. The number of districts has been increased 
as the growth of the Order required. 

An appropriation of $136.60 was made for the relief 
of the Galveston flood sufferers, and $733 for the relief 
of sufferers from the San Francisco disaster, and $60.95 
given as a free will offering to assist in maintaining 
O.E.S. headquarters at Portland, Oregon. 

In 1902 the work was exemplified with the aid of col- 
ored lights, stereopticon illustrations, and vocal music, 



306 HISTORY OF .THE EASTERN STAR 

which added much to the impressions made upon those 
witnessing the work. 

By recommendation of the Grand Patron, an amend- 
ment to the constitution was adopted in 1905 Hmiting the 
number of Rituals in each Chapter to not more than ten, 
also that upon the request of the Grand Matron, $5 shall 
be paid to the Grand Secretary if copy of Ritual be lost, 
also the same amount for copy of Secret Work if lost. 

The amount in the charity fund in 1913 was $3,527.87. 

Since the organization of the Grand Chapter of Maine 
in 1892, it has gathered from its hilltops and its valleys, 
yea, from its rock-bound coast of the broad Atlantic, 
strong and able minds, tender and loving hearts of its 
best citizens; closely allied with an institution which 
stands second to none — that great Order of Masonry — 
representing the highest ideals of manhood, truth, honor, 
virtue, and dignity; and since correspondingly dignified 
is the membership of the Order of the Eastern Star, it 
must, of necessity, render help to those in trouble, sym- 
pathy in sorrow, and shed a gleam of brightness over 
those in sickness and distress. 

Grand Chapte:r 01^ Maryi^and *^ 

The Most Worthy Grand Patron of the General Grand 
Chapter issued a charter for Alpha Chapter No. i, lo- 
cated in Baltimore, in exchange for a charter which had 
been issued by the Grand Chapter of New York, dated 
September 15, 1879. This, the first Chapter which 
formed a part of the Grand Chapter, was organized by 
Brother James M. Thomas, of Baltimore, Deputy for the 
State of Maryland. 

*5 Organized December 23, 1898. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 307 

On March 7, 1881, the Most Worthy Grand Patron re- 
ceived a petition signed by ten members of the Order in 
Bahimore, praying for a charter under the name of Ex- 
celsior Chapter No. 2, but Alpha Chapter No. i refusing 
to recommend the petition, the charter was refused June 
25, 1881. 

'Maryland Chapter No. 2, Baltimore, was chartered 
May 20, 1895, with forty- two petitioners and organized 
by John E. Becker, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron for Maryland. 

Queen Esther Chapter No. 3, Hagerstown, was char- 
tered February 19, 1896, and constituted March 3, 1896, 
by Harry B. Pearson, with twenty-eight charter mem- 
bers. 

Baltimore Chapter No. 4, Baltimore, was chartered 
February 25, 1896, and constituted March 3, 1896, by 
John A. Becker, with fifteen charter members. 

Concordia Chapter No. 5, Baltimore, was chartered 
February 24, 1897, and constituted March 2, 1897, by 
Chester B. Hayes, with fifty-six charter members. 

Pentalpha Chapter No. 6, Savage, was chartered Feb- 
ruary 2y, 1897, and constituted March 6, 1897, by C. F. 
Stewart, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with thirty-three charter members. 

Ruth Chapter No. 7, Hyattsville, was chartered April 
9, 1897, and constituted April 21, 1897, by E. C. Register, 
with forty-two charter members. 

Monumental Chapter No. 8, Baltimore, was chartered 
April 9, 1897, and constituted May 25, 1897, by Fred W- 
Lantz, with eighteen charter members. 

Mizpah Chapter No. 9, Fredericksburg, was chartered 
June 26, 1897, and constituted July 9, 1897, by H. W. 
Nicholson, with sixty-one charter members. 



308 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Martha Washington Chapter No. lo, at Lonaconing, 
was chartered December 20, 1898, and organized Decem- 
ber 22, 1898, by J. H. Graham, Deputy, with twenty- 
three charter members. 

The Grand Chapter of Maryland was organized De- 
cember 23, 1898, by Mr. L. Cabell Williamson, Deputy 
pf the Most Worthy Grand Patron, when seven of the 
ten Chapters in the State were represented. When the 
motion to organize the Grand Chapter was put to a vote, 
six Chapters voted for and one against, and upon the 
announcement of the vote, the representatives of the dis- 
senting Chapter withdrew from the convention. The 
constitution adopted made Past Matrons and Past Pa- 
trons permanent members of the Grand Chapter, the 
Qrand Matron the executive officer. The first Grand 
Matron was Mrs. Margaret Meganhardt, first Grand 
Patron William T. Lechlider, and the first and only 
Grand Secretary, R. M. Coombs. The Grand Matron- 
elect and Grand Patron-elect each volunteered to advance 
$100 to pay the necessary expenses, which offer was ac- 
cepted. Following the illustrious example of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, the constitution provided for two 
stated meetings each year — the annual in January and 
the second in June, but the June meeting was discontin- 
ued in 1 90 1. It was further provided that a majority of 
the Chapters of the State should constitute a quorum. 
At the first annual meeting, January 25, 1899, the rec- 
ords show five Chapters represented and five not repre- 
sented. However, the Grand Chapter proceeded with 
the regular business, because a proclamation had been 
issued, declaring Concordia Chapter No. 5, Baltimore, 
clandestine, which action was prompted by the refusal of 
its presiding officer to take cognizance of the Grand 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 309 

Chapter, or recognize any of its Grand Officers as such. 
In January, 1900, the Chapter having reconsidered its 
action and submitted to the authority of the Grand Chap- 
ter, it was reinstated. 

The sum of $25 was set aside annually to create a sink- 
ing fund, to be applied as a majority of the members may 
decide for an O.E.S. Home, this dating from the meeting 
in 1 901 ; the same year $71 was sent for the relief of the 
Galveston sufferers. At the June meeting in 1901 a day 
to be known as "Widows' and Orphans' Home Day" was 
requested to be celebrated by each Chapter, and they 
were requested to provide some feature of entertainment, 
the receipts for same to be given to the Home fund. In 
1904 a resolution was passed that no member of the 
O.E.S. in Maryland shall be allowed to associate with or 
become a member of the White Shrine of Jerusalem. 

In 1908 over 200 well filled baskets were given to the 
poor at Christmas time and from 500 to 600 children 
were given Christmas tree pleasures at Hepsatophe Hall, 
where toys and candy were distributed at an expense of 
nearly $250, borne by the Chapters of the jurisdiction. 

This Grand Chapter appointed in Baltimore, and also 
in Cumberland, a committee on Christmas entertainment 
and charity. The Baltimore committee reported the dis- 
tribution of 225 baskets of edibles, each weighing ap- 
proximately forty-five pounds. These baskets were filled 
with poultry, vegetables, meats, fruits, puddings, and 
other foods. An entertainment for the children was 
given where Christmas cheer was tendered these dear 
little pilgrims for eternity in the form of music, moving 
pictures, and a Christmas tree. The distribution of gifts 
included 450 dolls, 425 games, 450 books, 475 toys, 550 
pounds of candy, and 1,000 oranges. The baskets and 



310 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

gifts aggregated a value of (y\y.yy. The Cumberland 
committee consisted of twenty and was ably assisted by 
the two Masonic Lodges of the city. They also distrib- 
uted baskets with toothsome edibles, fruits, toys, and 
candy for the children. This work is highly commend- 
able and these practices of charity and loving kindness 
cannot be too highly commended. It is a good rule for 
the individual, in his daily routine of life, to look up at 
the high and noble things, and not down to the lest beau- 
tiful conditions which surround us. The greatest joy 
which this world holds is the pleasure resulting from un- 
selfish action. 

Grand Chapter o^ Massachusetts*^ 

Harmony Chapter No. i was organized at Shelbourne 
Falls, March, 1869, by virtue of a charter granted them 
by Brother Robert Macoy — the first Chapter in Massa- 
chusetts. Just three weeks previous to the organization 
of the General Grand Chapter, a meeting was held for the 
purpose of considering the expediency of forming the 
Grand Chapter of Massachusetts, which council met on 
October 23, 1876, at which time six Chapters were repre- 
sented. It was decided to issue a call for a convention 
to organize a Grand Chapter at Worcester, December 11, 
1876 (a little less than one month after the General 
Grand Chapter had been organized), when organization 
was effected by representatives from ^y^ of the eight 
Chapters in the State. 

By the constitution adopted, the Grand Patron was 
made the executive officer, with power to appoint all of 
the appointive officers, including a Deputy Grand Patron, 
who was the second officer, there being no provision for 

46 Organized December 11, 1876. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 311 

an Associate Grand Patron. All present and Past Ma- 
trons, Patrons, and Associate Matrons, and such other 
persons as the Grand Chapter shall elect, were made 
members, but the latter clause was removed in 1882. The 
Grand Patron was given jurisdiction over the approval 
of by-laws, decisions of appeals, and formation of new 
Chapters. At a later meeting a penalty of $25 was fixed 
for any Chapter violating the jurisdiction laws. 

The Grand Chapter declared its sympathy with the 
General Grand Chapter and elected Brother Thomas M. 
Lamb delegate to the second session, at which time he 
served as Most Worthy Grand Patron pro tern, and was 
elected to that exalted office to serve from 1878 to 1880. 

Brother Lamb said at the meeting for organization of 
the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts, with reference to 
the ritual then in use, that "its histories are too lengthy 
and untrue, its symbols double-tongued, and their teach- 
ings inconsistent ; as a specimen of English composition, 
it is unworthy of the Order.'' 

On the motion of Brother Lamb, it was ordered that a 
committee of five be appointed to make a thorough re- 
vision of the ritual. The chairman of this committee. 
Brother Lamb, reported in 1877 that he had made sug- 
gestions to the ritual committee of the General Grand 
Chapter as to the changes desired, and recommended that 
the Grand Chapter await the action of the general body. 
The Grand Chapter, having declared allegiance to the 
General Grand Chapter, elected Brother Lamb as a rep- 
resentative to it. The ritual committee appointed con- 
sisted of Thomas M. Lamb, John M. Mayhew, and the 
Rev. Willis D. Engle. In 1878 the Grand Chapter voted 
unanimously to acknowledge allegiance to the General 
Grand Chapter and a special meeting of the Grand Chap- 



312 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ter was held January 27, 1879, ^^^ the purpose of exem- 
plifying the work according to the new Ritual. 

In 1880 the duties of the Grand Matron were greatly 
enlarged and in 1894 she was made the executive officer. 
In 1892 the State was divided into districts and a Deputy 
Grand Matron appointed in each. The Grand Patron's 
address in 1897 stated: "Our Chapters are as near per- 
fection in the rendition of the ritualistic work as are those 
in any other jurisdiction . . . but I would say that 
while perfection in ritualistic work is very desirable, and 
necessary, true perfection is not gained until with perfect 
work is blended a complete and thorough knowledge of 
the jurisdiction of our Order." 

This Grand Chapter entertained the General Grand 
Chapter at Boston, August 29-30, 1895, and each Chap- 
ter was requested to contribute for this purpose, the sum 
realized amounting to $1,664.13; of this amount a bal- 
ance of $84.90 remained, which was placed in the Grand 
Chapter treasury. 

A sinking fund, looking toward the accumulation of 
$50,000, was established in 1903 and the amount realized 
the first year was $1,329.20, this fund to be used for the 
erection of an O.E.S. Home. Contributions were made 
to the Galveston flood sufferers, $491 ; Temple of Fra- 
ternity at St. Louis, $128.60; to the San Francisco suf- 
ferers from the earthquake and fire, $7,756. 

A Past Matrons' and Past Patrons' Association was 
formed in 1904 for the purpose of promoting friendship, 
etc., and has existed since that time. 

At the 1 90 1 meeting it was stated that all printed 
copies of the Secret Work had been recalled and de- 
stroyed, then replaced by copies of same in cipher. The 
same year a native Japanese received the degrees in a 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 313 

Chapter in South Boston. This Grand Chapter imposed 
a fine upon a Chapter of $25 for conferring the degrees 
upon a candidate when release of jurisdiction had been 
denied by a sister Chapter, a fine of $10 is regularly im- 
posed for loss of Secret Work, and of $5 for loss of Rit- 
ualy the fine to be paid by Chapter. 

In 1909, business was suspended to receive a com- 
mittee from the Grand Lodge, who came for the purpose 
of speaking on the subject of the Masonic Home of Mas- 
sachusetts. Both the Masons and Stars were very en- 
thusiastic over the project of building a Home. The 
Home fund, O.E.S., was then $9,712.67. In 1913 the 
Home was completed and together the two Orders are 
conducting same with great satisfaction to all. The 
spirit of cooperation of the Masonic and Eastern Star 
members in their efforts to promote this trust is every- 
where apparent ; the Grand Lodge established it on a firm 
basis, and with the help of the Order of the Eastern Star, 
it must be a success. 

Grand Chapte:r 01^ Michigan *' 

At Cooper, Michigan, an organization of the ^'Con- 
stellations'' was formed in i860 and a number of active 
Masons had given much attention to the "Eastern Star'' 
as early as 185 1. At Rochester, Michigan, a "Lodge of 
the Adoptive Rite of the Eastern Star" was organized by 
J. V. Lambertson, of Caro, on December 15, 1866, but 
without the authority of a charter. Brother Lambert- 
son was a self-constituted Worthy President; Jonathan 
Hale, Worthy Vice-President; Sister H. H. Gillette, Sec- 
retary; Sister J. V. Lambertson, Treasurer; Sister An- 
drews, First Patron; Sister Roberts, Second Patron; Sis- 

47 Organized October 30, 1867, as "Grand Lodge of Adoptive Masonry." 



314 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ter Robinson, Third Patron ; Sister Carleton, Fourth Pa- 
tron; Sister Halem, Fifth Patron; Brother Andrews, 
Sentinel. The ritual was formulated by J. V. Lambert- 
son and printed at his own expense. 

As early as 1854, John H. Tatem, later a student in the 
department of law of the University of Michigan, knew 
of the O.E.S. degrees and organized a Lodge of the 
Adoptive Rite at Adrian some time previous to 1867. 

Sister Purinton, of Cold water, states that on April 18, 
1867, a meeting was held in Coldwater, consisting of 
Masons and their wives, to talk about organizing a Lodge 
of the Adoptive Rite. Committees were appointed and 
on April 26, 1867, ^^^ organization was completed. 

A convention was held on October 20, 1867, i^ ^^e city 
of Adrian for the purpose of organizing an "Eastern 
Star Grand Lodge of Adoptive Masonry.'' Sixty-nine 
delegates from fifteen subordinate Lodges participated: 
Rochester, Adrian, Bronson, Palmyra, Medina, Osseo, 
Fairfield, Jackson, Manchester, Coldwater, Sturgis, Con- 
stantine. Burr Oak, Jonesville, and Morenci, represent- 
ing a membership of 873. Dififerent rituals were exem- 
plified and, after considering all, that of John H. Tatem 
{Tatem' s Ritual), with some changes, was adopted. 

The Grand Worthy President (equivalent to Grand 
Matron) was given the powers of executive officer, in- 
cluding the granting of dispensations for the organiza- 
tion of new lodges. Mrs. Martha G. Lindsay, of Con- 
stantine, was elected first Grand Worthy President ; Da- 
vid Bovee, of Coldwater, Grand Vice-President. A com- 
mittee was clothed with authority to procure regalia for 
the Grand Officers. In 1868 a revised ritual was adopt- 
ed, with added ceremonials, including opening and clos- 
ing prayers. The State was divided into nine districts 
with a District Lecturer in each. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 315 

In 1869 a revision of the ritual included forms for 
funeral ceremony, but complaint having been made by 
Robert Macoy that the form adopted was his property, in 
1871 a funeral service was prepared by Brother H. E. 
Rehklaw and adopted by the Grand Lodge. In 1876 a 
revised edition of the ritual was published under the 
name of the Michigan Ritual and was in use until 1878 
at which time the General Grand Chapter Ritual was 
adopted. 

In 1878 the Grand Lodge of Adoption adopted a res- 
olution that " We acknowledge the jurisdiction of the 
General Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star, 
and conform our work to its ritual," and a committee was 
appointed to make the necessary revision of the constitu- 
tion and laws. When completed, in 1879, ^^e change 
was made and this the oldest Grand Chapter became a 
constituent part of the General Grand Chapter. In the 
records of the General Grand Chapter of May 9, 1878, it 
is shown that on motion of the Rev. Brother John Leach, 
it was 

Resolved, That in the event of the Grand Lodge of Adoptive 
Masonry of the State of Michigan conforming to the General 
Grand Chapter, the Past Grand Presidents and Past Grand Vice- 
presidents of the Grand Body shall be entitled to membership in 
this Grand Body on the same footing as Past Grand Patrons and 
Past Grand Matrons. 

July 21, 1877, Acacia Chapter, Rockford, surrendered 
its charter issued by the Supreme Grand Chapter and 
dated March 30, 1870, and was given a charter from the 
General Grand Chapter. SeptemlDcr 7, 1877, Unity 
Chapter, Sand Lake, Michigan, surrendered a similar 
charter dated March 30, 1876. 

In 1 88 1 a resolution was adopted as follows: 

Whereas, The time has come in the temperance work when 



316 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

every person and society ought to take right grounds and show 
their true colors everywhere; therefore, 

Resolved, That we believe in and will practice total abstinence 
from all that will intoxicate, and will use our most earnest en- 
deavors to totally abolish all drinking customs and suppress the 
liquor traffic by the use of all moral and legal measures practicable. 

In 1886, a communication from Dr. Rob Morris was 
spread upon the minutes after adoption : 

The Eastern Star : The Star of Bethlehem once guided three 
wise men to the place where the infant Jesus lay. But the East- 
ern Star is this hour guiding fifty thousand zvomen to the high- 
est plane of earthly merit and usefulness. May the rays of light 
we cherish continue to guide us through middle life, through old 
age, and even through the darkness of the tomb to those green 
meadows by the crystal river, where the tree of life grows, and 
where faith is lost in sight, and hope ends in fruition. 

At the request of the Past Grand Matrons, Sister Ad- 
die C. S. Engle wrote "The Vocal Star.'' It was ren- 
dered by them in 1890 for the first time and has been 
given a number of times since. 

In 1894 jewels were purchased by the Grand Chapter 
for the use of its officers that were more than ordinary, 
an elegant set, being made of sterling silver, gold plated, 
bearing the name of the State and of the Order emblems 
combined with beautifully enameled portions. 

The State was divided into districts in 1901 and the 
system of schools of instruction adopted. In 1903 the 
Grand Matron recommended that county associations be 
formed with annual meetings, which has been done in 
more than thirty of the counties. Though Past Matrons 
and Past Patrons were made members of the Grand 
Chapter in 1889, they were denied this privilege in 1892 
and are not now members of the Grand Body. 

Grand Officers, Past Grand Matrons, Past Grand Pa- 
trons, and one member from each subordinate Chapter 




O. E. S. Temple, Detroit, Michigan 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 317 

are each allowed $2 per day for each day in attendance 
and six cents per mile, one way. 

The Masonic Fraternity of Michigan established a 
Masonic Home in 1890 and the Chapters of the O.E.S. 
responded to the request of the Grand Matron, lending 
their assistance and hearty cooperation in promoting a 
State Masonic Fair for its benefit. This netted more 
than $7,000, and since that date the Chapters have con- 
tributed very liberally to its support. 

A beautiful and well equipped Masonic Home, the gift 
of Mr. Ammi W. Wright, is a worthy addition to the 
work of the Order there and has received the donations 
of the O.E.S. in its efforts to relieve distress. 

The only O.E.S. Temple in the world was formally 
dedicated in Detroit, Michigan, on March 18, 191 5, with 
a beautifully arranged program. Sister Emma C. Oco- 
bock. Right Worthy Associate Grand Matron, as repre- 
sentative of Sister Rata A. Mills, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron of the General Grand Chapter, was present and 
gave an address. The evening ceremonies were con- 
ducted by the officers of the Temple Association and by 
the Most Worshipful Master of A. F. and A. M., WilHam 
M. Perrett, assisted by the Grand Officers of the Grand 
Chapter of Michigan, O.E.S. 

The Order of the Eastern Star has taught the institu- 
tion of Masonry that its notion of universality was an 
error. Masonry extends from east to west, and from 
north to south, but it did not embrace within its enfolding 
arms the better half of the race known as womankind, 
and the institution was a great loser thereby. In the last 
twenty years more progress has been made in Masonic 
Temples and Halls than in scores of years previous when 
the Order of the Eastern Star had not given such sup- 



318 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

port as now. What man could not do alone, woman's 
assistance has made possible and through the Order of 
the Eastern Star, she has taught Masonry the beauty of 
charity. God grant that the walls of this magnificent 
monument to O.E.S. devotion and endurance may hear 
only the accents of faith, these halls echo only the prom- 
ises of hope, these precincts see only acts of human char- 
ity such as will delight mankind. 

Grand Chaptkr of Minnesota *^ 

The first Chapter organized in Minnesota was Crystal 
Lake No. i, at Hokak, in October, 1869. The Most 
Worthy Grand Patron appointed Brother Leonard Lewis, 
of Minneapolis, special Deputy for the State of Minne- 
sota in 1878. Through his efforts, the organization of 
the Grand Chapter was effected at Minneapolis, June 27, 
1878, when five of the nine active Chapters in the State 
were represented by seventeen delegates. Allegiance to 
the General Grand Chapter was declared, and the consti- 
tution adopted made Past Matrons and Past Patrons 
members of the Grand Chapter. The Grand Matron was 
given authority as the executive officer and the per capita 
dues were fixed at fifteen cents. 

The first Grand Matron, Mrs. Sarah B. Armstrong, 
less than a year after election, April 14, 1879, was called 
in death. The Grand Chapter did not meet in 1880; in 
1882 the State was divided into three districts with a 
Deputy Grand Matron in each. In 1883, the Grand Pa- 
tron criticised the work as exemplified in Minneapolis 
Chapter No. 9, which was an attempt to dramatize the 
work as is given in the Mosaic Book, but not nearly so 

48 Organized June 27, 1878. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 319 

elaborately/^^ The jurisprudence committee recommend- 
ed, and its report was adopted, 

That so much of the Grand Patron's address as refers to the 
peculiar exemplification of the work in Minneapolis Chapter No. 
9, be not entered on the Grand Chapter records — from our 
knowledge, we deem it not as an ignoring-, nor any infraction of 
the recognized ritual of the Order, but simply as an enlargement, 
or perhaps, an enriching of the work, rendering it more attractive 
and impressive. While we do not recommend its adoption by 
other Chapters, we see nothing inappropriate in this practice, if 
any Chapters desire to adopt it. 

In 1884, the Grand Matron in her address referred to 
the work of Minneapolis Chapter No. 9 as being an in- 
novation on the ritual, which part of her address was re- 
ferred to a special committee. This committee made a 
special report, and pending a motion to receive and adopt 
the report, a motion was made to adjourn the Grand 
Chapter sine die. In spite of the protests of several 
members and in violation of the rules of order which pro- 
vide that same could not prevail except by unanimous 
consent, the motion was entertained and the Grand Chap- 
ter adjourned without electing officers or arranging for 
the next place of meeting. 

On March 30, 1885, the Grand Matron declared Min- 
neapolis Chapter No. 9 suspended until the next regular 
meeting of Grand Chapter. This action was with- 
out authority, as was also the appointment of a Grand 
Secretary to fill the vacancy which the Grand Matron de- 
clared to exist because the Grand Secretary elected, being 
a member of the suspended Chapter, was, by the action 
toward the subordinate Chapter to which she belonged, 
suspended from membership. 

At a regular session of the Grand Chapter held in 

48a See appendix, p. 479, Mosaic Book. 



320 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

October, 1885, the action of the Grand Matron was ap- 
proved and the charter of MinneapoHs Chapter No. 9 
was arrested. The Grand Chapter continued its work, 
holding regular meetings and transacting such business 
as would properly come before this body; five Chapters 
were represented in 1886, six in 1887, eight in 1888, 
eight in 1889, ten in 1890, eight in 1891, seven in 1892, 
seven in 1893, while in 1894 the consolidation of Grand 
Chapter No. i and Grand Chapter No. 2 was effected and 
reorganization of the Grand Chapter of Minnesota com- 
pleted on May 10, 1894. 

Representatives of Chapters working under Grand 
Chapter No. 2 applied for admission in 1889, but upon 
the refusal of the Grand Chapter to admit representatives 
from three of the Chapters, all declined to enter. After 
further consideration it was decided to admit all repre- 
sentatives, with the provision that the Grand Patron 
should fully concur in this decision. Through the many 
long years of struggling with conditions almost unsur- 
mountable, the true loyalty and cordial support of those 
whose hearts were in the work, is a commendable ex- 
ample of fidelity to convictions of right and duty. 

Action of the General Grand Chapter, at the meeting 
in Columbus, Ohio, in 1892, left the burden of adjustment 
with the organizations in Minnesota. Comprehending 
the situation in its broadest sense, and with a sincere de- 
sire to promote the greatest good of the Order, a special 
meeting was held May 9, 1894, with nine Chapters con- 
curring by sending their representatives. After con- 
ferring with representatives of Grand Chapter No. 2, the 
following resolution was adopted : 

Whereas, It is desirable that the two Grand Chapters Order of 
the Eastern Star, existing in the state of Minnesota, be united ; 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 321 

Resolved, That the Grand Chapter now in session in St. Paul 
is invited to meet this Grand Chapter at the Masonic Temple in 
St. Paul at three o'clock this day to perfect such union, to be 
known as the Grand Chapter Order of the Eastern Star of the 
state of Minnesota, which organization shall be upon this basis: 
The preservation of the Eastern Star status of all officers and 
members of all subordinate Chapters. Also that all charters of 
all subordinate Chapters be preserved, subject to revisal wherein 
conflict in names or numbers exist. 

Resolved, That the seal of the Grand Chapter shall contain the 
inscription: ''Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star, 
Minnesota, 1878-1886. United May 10, 1894." Also the signet. 

Thus was union at last formed, which gives every 
member of the former bodies all the rights and privileges 
of the Order. It is a just and honorable ending of a 
most unfortunate affair which caused continued agita- 
tion and was a constant source of disturbance for thir- 
teen years. By action of the General Grand Chapter, 
officers of both organizations are recognized upon an 
equal basis and harmony again restored. Attention 
should not be given to these matters except to profit by 
the lessons to be drawn from it, and thus be more mind- 
ful of the solemn obligation and the words of the Golden 
Rule. 

Grand Chaptkr No. 2, Minnesota 

At the beginning of the difficulty which caused so 
many years of disturbance and retarded the advancement 
of the best interests of the Order in Minnesota, seventeen 
Chapters were actively engaged in the work of the Or- 
der. Of this number, six became discouraged and later 
dormant, six remained loyal to the original organization 
known as Grand Chapter No. i, five joined Grand Chap- 
ter No. 2, one subordinate Chapter divided into two 
Chapters, one remaining with No. i, and the other join- 



322 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ing No. 2, each believing itself right and each desiring to 
act for the best interests of its members. 

The Most Worthy Grand Patron of the General Grand 
Chapter, having withdrawn recognition of the Grand 
Chapter of Minnesota on August ii, 1885, the General 
Grand Chapter, at its meeting in the city of St. Louis in 
September, 1886, approved his actions. 

The convention to organize Grand Chapter No. 2 met 
May 12, 1886, when six Chapters were represented, and 
the State was divided into five districts with a Deputy 
Grand Patron in each. 

After having entered into the work of the Order with 
earnestness and zeal, this Grand Chapter, enthusiastic 
with the ambition of one whose hopes are very bright, 
adopted the Chapter of Sorrow by Sister Addie C. S. 
Engle, in 1889, further set apart July 31st, the day of Dr. 
Rob Morris's death, "as the day for holding such Chap- 
ter of Sorrow throughout this jurisdiction." This rec- 
ognition of their grief at the loss of our illustrious found- 
er has been held by the Grand Chapter frequently. 

The Order increased in strength. Five Chapters were 
added in 1891 by organization and one by the affiliation 
with Grand Chapter No. 2 of one of the Chapters for- 
merly in harmony with No. i. In 1892 two more were 
added from No. i and ten were organized, showing an 
increase of twelve for the year ; in 1893 thirteen Chapters 
were organized; and in 1894 fifteen were organized, 
making a total of sixty-four Chapters working under 
charters from No. 2 at the date of uniting the two Grand 
Chapters of Minnesota. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 323 

Grand Chapter o^ Minne:sota (Reorganized) 

On May lo, 1894, the two Grand Chapters of Minne- 
sota met and formed a united Grand Chapter. Mrs. 
Mary C. Snedden, Most Worthy Grand Matron, Deputy 
for the Most Worthy Grand Patron, presided. The 
Most Worthy Grand Matron invited the Worthy Grand 
Matrons and Worthy Grand Patrons from both Grand 
Chapters, to seats in the East, and the work was support- 
ed by two corps of Grand Officers. Sixty Chapters were 
represented, and the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted : 

Resolved, by the two Grand Chapters, now jointly assembled, 
that the proposed union is hereby declared to be effected, and the 
Grand Chapter resulting from said union is declared to be the 
Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star of the State of Min- 
nesota. 

Through the untiring efforts of many faithful work- 
ers, and especially to Brother Alexander Gearhart, Grand 
Patron, this reconciliation was reached; that judgment 
which knows no one, in the settlement of differences, ex- 
cept God's justice and Masonic charity, finally triumphed 
and peace and harmony prevailed. 

In 1897 the Grand Matron divided the State into fif- 
teen districts, with conventions in each that were pro- 
ductive of such benefits that the Grand Chapter decided 
to continue the work upon this plan. A committee on 
Masonic and O.E.S. Home reported in 1900 and interest 
in this branch of the Order's duties was manifested. 

In 1899 the Grand Matron decided that it would not 
be lawful to repeat the obligation to a Catholic lady who 
wishes to know the obligation she would be obliged to 
take, before joining. A code of etiquette has been adopt- 



324 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ed, including the customs and rules, for the guidance of 
subordinate Chapters. 

This Grand Chapter has contributed large amounts to 
charitable and benevolent purposes ; to the sufferers from 
the Galveston flood, $630.92; to assist in the Temple of 
Fraternity at St. Louis, $388.45 ; to the O. E. S. head- 
quarters at Portland Exposition, $85.81. 

In 1914 the requirements of the Order demanded thir- 
ty-four District Deputy Grand Matrons, and twenty 
schools of instruction were held : 

Dream constantly of the ideal, 
Work ceaselessly to perfect the real. 

Members will never rise above their individual ideals. 
If one know the value of a member, one must know what 
her or his ideals are. Talent is not enough; thousands 
were intended to be aeolian harps, but want of energy 
and ideals found them at the end of life's journey only 
tuneless fiddles. 

We are building for time and eternity, 

Building from without and within. 

Our bodies we build with the salts of the earth 

Cell upon cell from the time of our birth. 

For our souls we build with virtues fair, 

Truth upon truth, a beautiful stair — 

Upon which, when time for us shall cease, 

And the soul thereby finds its release, 

Leaving behind this body and sin, 

We shall mount to the arms of Divinity. 

The charitable work of the Order in this Grand Juris- 
diction has been concentrated upon the one great object 
of providing a Home for its loved ones, who may find it 
to their interest to use it. To this end, a committee was 
appointed to confer with representatives of the Grand 
Lodge, relative to cooperating in the erection of a Ma- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 325 

sonic Home, the Grand Lodge having accumulated more 
than thirty thousand dollars for that purpose. Favor- 
able action resulting, a ten cent per capita tax was de- 
cided upon and a committee appointed to collect and man- 
age the Home fund. The Grand Chapter accumulated 
a sum which, in 1914, amounted to $15,981.82 toward 
building a Home, and a Masonic Home Association was 
incorporated, with Mrs. Mary C. Taylor, Past Grand 
Matron and Grand Secretary, as one bf the directors. 
The plans include the building of a Home as soon as 
$100,000 has been raised, $50,000 of which is to be used 
as endowment. 

Grand Chapter of Mississippi *^ 

In April, 1870, the first Chapter was organized at 
Starkville, by authority of a charter issued by Brother 
Macoy, and though it is claimed and we believe the claim 
is founded upon facts that the idea of a State Grand 
Chapter was originated in this State, yet the date of or- 
ganizing the Grand Chapter gives Mississippi the third 
place.^** This organization took place at Rienzi, Decem- 
ber 15, 1870, by representatives of five of the seven Chap- 
ters that had been organized in the State. 

Brother John L. Powers was commissioned by the Su- 
preme Grand Council on May 26, 1870, as Deputy for 
Mississippi, and served as Grand Patron during the en- 
tire existence of the Grand Chapter, from 1870 to 1881, 
at which time they voluntarily surrendered their organ- 
ization to the authority of the General Grand Chapter, 
giving the territory into that jurisdiction. 

*9 Organized December 15, 1870. 

50 New Jersey Grand Chapter was organized July 18, 1870; New York 
Grand Chapter was organized November 30, 1870. 



326 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The very early history of the Order is given authori- 
tively by quoting from the address of Brother Powers, 
delivered at the Grand Chapter session in 1873 : 

It is well known to us, and it may as well be known to others, 
that the first idea of a State Grand Chapter originated in this 
State. Chapters of the Order have, for many years, existed in 
the Eastern and Western States, deriving their authority and 
charters from a sort of self-constituted Supreme Grand Council 
located in the East, that place of all light, Masonically. It was 
from this Supreme authority your Grand Patron received his 
commission on May 26, 1870. On the 15th of December, fol- 
lowing. Chapters numbered 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 held a convocation 
at Rienzi, and organized the third Grand Chapter on this con- 
tinent. On the 3rd of the previous month, a Grand Chapter was 
formed in New York, but the correspondence of this office for 
1870 attests that the brethren and sisters of the Empire State 
acted upon suggestions, from this Grand Jurisdiction in organiz- 
ing their Grand Chapter. 

In 1873 the Supreme Council was recognized as the 
official head, and was pledged the cooperation of the 
Grand Chapter. This recognition was withdrawn at the 
regular session held in Tupelo, July 15, 1875, ^^^ resolu- 
tions adopted which would recognize efforts that might 
be made to form a lawful General Grand Body. The 
following is taken from the Proceedings of this meeting: 

Whereas, We deem uniformity of Ritual and lectures essential 
to the present and future prosperity of the Order; therefore, we 
respectfully recommend that a committee, consisting of seven 
members of this Grand Chapter, of which committee the Grand 
Patron and Grand Matron shall be members, shall be appointed 
to confer with like committees that may hereafter be appointed 
by other Grand Chapters of the Order in the United States, or 
elsewhere, whose duty it shall be to take under advisement, and 
present, if practicable, some feasible and judicious plan for the 
organization of a Supreme Grand Chapter; which said Supreme 
Body shall, when organized and recognized by two-thirds of the 
Grand Chapters in the United States, have absolute and supreme 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 327 

control over the Ritual and lectures of the Adoptive Rite. We 
also recommend that said committee shall be the accredited dele- 
gate from this Grand Jurisdiction to a convention of the Order 
wheresoever and whensoever convened, and they shall have all 
power and authority to do any and all acts necessary and lawful 
to be done in the premises ; and they shall report their doings to 
this Grand Chapter at each Annual Grand Convocation. 

Thus will it readily be learned that the work of the 
Rev. Willis D. Engle, directed toward the formation of 
the General Grand Chapter, was heartily cooperated in 
by Mississippi. 

Previous to the organization of the General Grand 
Chapter, the Grand Chapter of Mississippi had assumed 
jurisdiction over two Chapters in Florida — one of which 
had been chartered by Brother Macoy and the other by 
the Grand Chapter of Mississippi April 22, 1876, at Ce- 
dar Creek, Florida. Mississippi recognized the legaHty 
of the General Grand Chapter and cheerfully surrendered 
all territory beyond the limits of the State over which the 
Grand Body had assumed control. 

The last meeting of this Grand Chapter was held in 
1877, at which time ten Chapters were represented, sev- 
enteen reported to the Grand Chapter, and up to that date 
forty-one Chapters in all had been organized by the 
Grand Chapter. During the year 1878 the yellow fever, 
spreading sickness, suffering, sorrow, and death through- 
out the State, prevented the annual meeting of the Grand 
Chapter, and the year following, 1879, dread of another 
outbreak prevented a meeting. Failing to meet again in 
1880, early in the year of 188 1 the Grand Patron decided 
that it would be best to surrender the territory to the 
General Grand Chapter, which he did on June 11, 1881. 

For almost four years, the Right Worthy Grand Sec- 
retary, the Rev. Willis D. Engle, earnestly and persist- 



328 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ently tried to effect a meeting of this Grand Chapter, but 
without material results. On April 23, 1895, the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron issued the following edict with- 
drawing recognition from the Grand Chapter of Mis- 
sissippi, for reasons therein stated : 

Whereas, The Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star 
of the State of Mississippi, has held no meeting since the year 
1877 and 

Whereas, The Grand Patron, J. L. Powers (being the ex- 
ecutive head of said Grand Chapter), on June 11, 1881, did, so 
far as he had power to do, transfer the Order in that state to the 
care and control of the General Grand Chapter; and 

Whereas, The various efforts that have since been made to re- 
vive the said Grand Chapter have proved ineffectual; and 

Whereas, It seems to be the desire of those in that state who 
have an interest in the success of the Order, that proper action 
should be taken with a view of securing renewed interest and 
future prosperity in that jurisdiction; 

Therefore, With a hope and desire of producing such results, I, 
R. C. Gaskill, Most Worthy Grand Patron of the General Grand 
Chapter, do hereby declare that the Grand Chapter of the Order 
of the Eastern Star of the State of Mississippi no longer exists, 
and that the General Grand Chapter has, and does assume full 
and complete jurisdiction over all matters and persons relating 
to the Order in that state, and I do hereby invite the cooperation 
of all persons in that state who are members of the Order, or 
those who may desire to become such, in the formation of new 
Chapters, and the revival of old ones, thereby making it possible 
for the speedy establishment of a new Grand Chapter that shall 
place the Order in a position of honor and influence in that state. 

The work of the Order remained very inactive in this 
State for ten years. August 30, 1895, thirty petitioners 
were granted a charter for Winnie Davis Chapter No. i, 
Brookhaven. In all, sixteen Chapters were organized 
previous to the date on which the call was issued by the 
officers of the General Grand Chapter for the convention 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 329 

to reorganize the Grand Chapter, which was held at 
Meridian, May 29, 1906. Mrs. Madeleine B. Conkling, 
Most Worthy Grand Matron, special deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, presided. 

A constitution was adopted, granting to the Grand 
Matron the powers of the executive officer, membership 
was accorded Past Matrons and Past Patrons, fee for 
charter was fixed at $25, and the minimum fee for the 
degrees was made $3, while that for special dispensation 
was $2. Annual per capita dues were made fifty cents, 
ten cents of this to be set aside for a Home fund. No 
Chapter was permitted to work, either under dispensa- 
tion or charter, until it had provided furniture, etc., nec- 
essary and proper to give due effect to the solemn cere- 
monies of the Order. 

On June 24, 1907, the corner-stone for the Masonic 
Widows' and Orphans' Home at Meridian was laid, 
with a most interesting and entertaining program, and 
the Grand Matron urged the members of the O.E.S. to 
use all their available strength to assist the Masons in 
making this an ideal Home. The Order is represented 
by three members of the board of trustees of the Masonic 
Home, and has contributed liberally towards its support. 
At the 1909 meeting, it was decided to work for the erec- 
tion of a hospital in connection with the Masonic Home. 
The children attend the public schools and are not uni- 
formed nor required to wear any distinguishing marks 
to make them appear conspicuous ; they are all happy and 
well provided for. In 191 3 the Grand Lodge, A. F. and 
A. M., presented a resolution expressing their apprecia- 
tion of aid already rendered by the Order of the Eastern 
Star by donations to the Home, and that they had now 
signified their purpose to donate a building to be known 



330 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

as the Eastern Star Chapter House, to be used as an as- 
sembly room. 

In 1909 the Grand Commandery, Knights Templar, 
sent a representation to the Grand Chapter and a joint 
social reception was held. The Grand Chapter room pre- 
sented a scene of magnificence, beautiful women hand- 
somely gowned, surrounded by rich decorations in the 
colors of the Order, rare and beautiful flowers, and the 
gorgeous regalia of the Chapter. By order of the Grand 
Matron the doors were opened, admitting a corps of Sir 
Knights in full dress uniform, who bore the most cordial 
fraternal greetings from the Grand Commandery to the 
Grand Chapter, O.E.S., and further offering the assur- 
ance that cooperation is tendered the O.E.S. in bringing 
about the universal doctrine of the brotherhood of man 
and the Fatherland of God, and disseminating the prin- 
ciples of the O.E.S. — charity, truth, and loving kindness. 

In 1910 all Past Grand Masters who were members of 
the O.E.S., were elected Honorary Past Grand Patrons 
and in 191 1 the various Masonic bodies which were in 
session at the same time, in a distant city, united in send- 
ing fraternal greetings by telegram. 

Our lives are songs, God writes the words, 

And we set them to music at pleasure ; 
And the song grows glad or sweet or sad 

As we choose to fashion the measure. 
We must write the music, whatever the song, 

Whatever the rhyme or meter; , 
And if it is sad we can make it glad, 

Or sweet, we can make it sweeter. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 331 

Grand Chapte:r of Missouri ^^ 

Brother Macoy issued charters for several Chapters 
in Missouri, the first in October, 1869, ^^ Graham, fol- 
lowed by the organization of Queen Esther Chapter, at 
Hannibal, December, 1871. The growth of the Order 
was marked, there having been Chapters organized to 
the number of 144 previous to the date of the call for a 
convention. This call was issued by Thomas C. Ready, 
Provisional Grand Patron, and the convention met in 
Masonic Hall, St. Louis, October 13, 1875. Sixty-five 
representatives were present, from forty-five Chapters. 
The work accomplished was done mainly through the 
devotion of Harmon G. Reynolds and one Provisional 
Grand Patron assisted by two Deputy Grand Patrons. 
A constitution was adopted, which differed greatly from 
any other Grand Chapter in that provision was made for 
triennial meetings instead of annual meetings, also for a 
corps of Grand Officers numbering seventy-seven, seven 
of whom were elective and seventy appointive: Grand 
Patron, Deputy Grand Patron, Grand Matron, Deputy 
Grand Matron, Associate Grand Matron, Deputy Asso- 
ciate Grand Matron, Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, 
Grand Conductress, Deputy Grand Conductress, Asso- 
ciate Grand Conductress, Deputy Associate Grand Con- 
ductress, five Grand Chaplains, Grand Marshal, five As- 
sistant Grand Marshals, Grand Lecturer, Grand Adah, 
three Assistant Grand Adahs, Grand Ruth, three As- 
sistant Grand Ruths, Grand Esther, three Assistant 
Grand Esthers, Grand Martha, three Assistant Grand 
Marthas, Grand Electa, three Assistant Grand Electas, 
Grand Warder, Assistant Grand Warder, Grand Sen- 

51 Organized October 13, 1875. 



332 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

tinel, and thirty District Deputy Grand Patrons. A 
board of commissioners, consisting of seven members, 
was given authority to conduct the affairs of the Grand 
Chapter, except legislative, during the recess of the 
Grand Chapter, and this board was authorized to meet 
annually in the intervening years. Past Matrons and 
Past Patrons, with the usual Chapter representation, 
and the Grand Officers formed this Grand Chapter. 

The Grand Chapter of Missouri, at its session in St. 
Louis, October 9, 1876, resolved to accept the invitation 
of the Grand Chapter of Indiana, and to appoint a com- 
mittee of seven to represent the Grand Chapter in the 
proposed meeting at Indianapolis, November 16, 1876. 

The committee consisted of the Rev. Dr. John D. Vin- 
cil, Mary J. Wash, Mattie A. Yost, Frances F. Holden, 
Thomas C. Ready, P. D. Yost, and John R. Parsons, all 
of whom attended the convention to which they were 
appointed except Brothers Holden and Ready. 

A revision of the constitution in 1876 rendered it more 
nearly in conformity to the laws and regulations as 
adopted by sister Grand Jurisdictions. The State was 
divided into districts and a Deputy Grand Matron ap- 
pointed for each. Allegiance was acknowledged to the 
General Grand Chapter, and such regulations adopted 
as would conform to the requirements of that body, and 
the broad field for work revealed was entered into with 
willing hearts and ready hands. 

The State was divided into districts. In 1900 there 
were fifty-four districts with a Deputy Grand Matron 
in each. The office of Deputy Grand Matron having 
been abolished, in 1902, Deputy Grand Lecturers were 
appointed for each of the fifty-five districts. The Dep- 
uty Grand Matron system was reestablished in 191 3 and 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 333 

fifty-nine were appointed. In 1906, while visiting Chap- 
ters, the Grand Matron found two working under the 
Macoy charters, Corinthian Chapter, Gallatin, where 
charter was dated October 7, 1875, ^^^ Florence Chap- 
ter, Brookfield, where charter was dated August 30, 
1875. Both charters were signed by Robert Macoy, 
Most Eminent Grand Patron, and Robert Morris, Grand 
Secretary. Subsequently approved charters were issued. 

This Grand Chapter contributed $732.39 to the Tem- 
ple of Fraternity at the St. Louis fair, and a voluntary 
collection amounting to $32 was given to purchase tickets 
for the Masonic Home children to attend the World's 
Fair ; the call for aid to the sufferers from the San Fran- 
cisco disaster received a contribution of $500 and $50 
was appropriated for the relief of the Galveston flood 
sufferers ; $83.75 was given toward the support of O.E.S. 
headquarters at Portland, Oregon. 

Funds for the establishment of an O.E.S. Home were 
early accumulated, each year finding something to be 
added, but it was not until 1888, when the efforts of the 
Masonic Fraternity assumed definite action that the con- 
tributions of the Grand Chapter reached large propor- 
tions. After the Masonic Home was established, the 
O.E.S. proposed to build a chapel at the Home, which 
movement was begun in 1894 and the building completed 
in 1897. The twenty- third annual session of the Grand 
Chapter was held in this chapel October 22, 1897. It 
was dedicated by the Grand Master, October 21, 1897, 
in the presence of the members of the Grand Chapter, 
many of its members having prominent parts on the pro- 
gram. The building is a splendid monument to the de- 
votion and fraternal love and energy of the Order in this 
Grand Jurisdiction, by whose enterprise and untiring 



334 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

labors it has been erected at a cost of $3,500. All of 
this was appropriated by the Grand Chapter and the sub- 
ordinate Chapters of the State, except a contribution of 
$339.95 donated by the children of the Home. This 
amount was earned by the children by singing. Suffi- 
cient money was earned in the same manner, with which 
the little pilgrims toward useful manhood and woman- 
hood purchased the Eastern Star window that adorns the 
east end of the chapel. On the right of this window 
is a picture of Christ blessing little children, the gift of 
Ascalon Commandery, Knights Templar ; on the left, one 
of the Repose in Egypt, the gift of Molah Temple, Mys- 
tic Shrine. Other windows have been given which rep- 
resent one of each of the Heroines of the Order, the As- 
cension, the Guardian Angel, etc., showing that this 
effort to provide for those who are in need is the pride 
and glory of every member of the Order in Missouri. 
The grand work that is now being done there, that has 
been done there in the past and will be accomplished in 
the many years to come, to aid the helpless orphan, the 
aged fathers and mothers, is a Christ-like labor of love 
and devotion. The Masonic Fraternity realize, as never 
before, the value of the cooperation of their wives, daugh- 
ters, mothers, and sisters in this great work. In 1903 
the Grand Chapter appropriated $657.74 to be used in 
improvements upon the Chapel and at each session dona- 
tions have been made of from $50 to $100 to be used to 
furnish Christmas -cheer. 

In 1902 the Masonic Home directors adopted a resolu- 
tion, whereby widows who are O.E.S. members, and 
orphans of deceased members, are eligible for admission 
to the Home. With this magnificent monument to the 
sincerity of their devotion to the principles of the Order, 
they truly have built for eternity. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 335 

Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul, 

As the swift seasons roll ! 

Leave thy low-vaulted past ! 

Let each new temple, nobler than the last, 

Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast, 

Till thou, at length, art free. 

Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea ! 

— The Chambered Nautilus 

Grand Chapte:r of Montana'^ 

At evening time it shall be light ! 
When slowly closes in the night, 
While gleaming searchlights paint the sky. 
One shining Star leads all on high; 
Light of the world since life began. 
Guide to the Brothe^rhgod oi^ Man, 
Watch o'er thy earthly children far, 
O Lamp of Love ! O Blazing Star. 

— Mrs. Elvira Adams Atwood 

The first Chapter in Montana, Miriam No. i, at Hel- 
ena, was chartered by the Most Worthy Grand Patron 
of the General Grand Chapter December 20, 1880, and 
organized January 10, 1 881, by Cornelius Hedges, special 
deputy. The first officers were Mrs. Edna L. Hedges, 
Worthy Matron, and John Stedman, Worthy Patron. 

Ruth Chapter No. 2, Butte City, was chartered March 
19, 1 88 1, and organized by John Stedman, special deputy, 
on April 15, 1881, and Esther Chapter No. 3, located at 
Townsend, was chartered May 22, 1888. Lily of the 
Valley Chapter No. 4, located at Bozeman, was char- 
tered March 20, 1890, and organized the following April 
by Charles E. Lancaster, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with thirty-two petitioners. A charter 

52 Organized September 24, 1890. 



336 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

was granted to seventeen petitioners for Yellowstone 
Chapter No. 5, located at Glendive, on June 30, 1890, 
and organization was completed on August 2J, 1890, by 
N. Fretz, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

The Grand Chapter was organized at Livingston by 
representatives of all five Chapters, September 24, 1890, 
at which time a carefully prepared constitution was 
adopted. This constitution, also the by-laws, was mod- 
eled after Michigan, with some changes which were 
desirable, making this a most excellent and exemplary 
Grand Chapter. The Grand Matron was made the ex- 
ecutive officer and was clothed with the privilege of 
granting dispensations for new Chapters. In 1892 this 
authority was given to her exclusively, also to organize 
new Chapters. In 1897 authority was granted for the 
election of proxies to serve if the three principal officers 
could not attend the meetings of the Grand Chapter. In 
1895 the Grand Secretary was instructed to keep at least 
100 copies of Grand Chapter Proceedings to be sold at 
not less than twenty-five cents each, the proceeds to go to 
the traveling expenses of the Grand Matron. 

Recognizing fraternal ties. Grand Chapter was called 
off in 1895 to allow Helena Lodge, A. F. and A. M., to at- 
tend the funeral services of a brother in the Temple, and 
in 1902 the sum of $50 was appropriated toward the pur- 
chase of a monument for a deceased member who had 
formerly served as Grand Secretary. 

In 1904 an interesting and instructive program was 
rendered during a recess which had been declared for the 
purpose, celebrating the crystal anniversary of the Grand 
Chapter. 

Generous contributions were made as follows: For 
maintaining O.E.S. headquarters at the Portland fair, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 337 
$49.35 ; to the sufferers from the San Francisco disaster, 

This Grand Chapter has assisted the Masonic Frater- 
nity in erecting and furnishing the Masonic Home, hav- 
ing contributed annually to a fund that was created in 
1898. The corner-stone of the Home was laid December 
20, 1906, and completed within the following year. The 
furnishing of the Home was the work of the O.E.S. and 
in 1 91 2 the Home was reported so well equipped that no 
calls had been made upon the O.E.S. during the year. 

The work of the Order in this State is directed toward 
the progress, uplifting, and betterment of the human 
race, its members striving in their own daily lives to ex- 
emplify the work of charity, truth, and loving kindnesS; 

Grand Chapter o^ Ne:braska ^^ 

Wise men in far Judea, 

Saw in the sky, 
Lo, there the Star appears, 

Glowing on high. 
Bring now the myrrh and gold, 
For they the sign behold, 

That leadeth them afar ; 

Lo! there the Star! 

— Mrs. Blvira Adams Atwood 

Twelve Chapters were chartered in Nebraska by 
Brother Macoy previous to the organization of the 
Grand Chapter. Queen Esther Chapter No. i, at Ne- 
braska City, Adah Chapter No. 2, at Brownsville, and 
Bellevue Chapter No. 5, at Bellevue, were all organized 
before the close of 1872. 

Bellevue Chapter No. 5 was organized by Edwin Da- 
vis, Deputy of the Supreme Grand Patron, assisted by 

53 Organized June 22, 1875. 



338 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Major G. Stevenson. The first officers were Mrs. Jane 
E. Leach, Worthy Matron; James Campbell, Worthy 
Patron; Stephen D. Bangs, Secretary; David Leach, 
Treasurer. Of this number, all have passed to the joy 
and peace and rest of a higher plane of life except Mrs. 
Jane E. Leach, who is now an honored member of Rose- 
bud Chapter at Bonesteel, South Dakota. Bellevue Chap- 
ter had but a few years of activity when it became dor- 
mant and the charter together with other property was 
relinquished. Of the twelve organized, only two have 
had a continuous existence, Vesta No. 6, Omaha, and 
Electa No. 8, Lincoln. 

The convention to organize the Grand Chapter met in 
the parlors of the Commercial Hotel, Lincoln, June 22, 
1875, ^i^^ Chapters being represented by nineteen dele- 
gates. The constitution adopted made the Past Matrons 
and Past Patrons members without the right to vote, but 
in 1892 the full privileges of representation were ac- 
corded and the right to vote established. The Grand 
Patron was made the executive officer and continued to 
hold that position until 1888 when, by vote of the Grand 
body, this authority was given to the Grand Matron. 

The convention called by the Rev. Willis D. Engle 
and others of the Grand Chapter of Indiana for the or- 
ganization of the General Grand Chapter was sanctioned 
by Nebraska, and in 1876 delegates were elected to that 
convention, but none were in attendance though the rec- 
ognition was made and allegiance declared in 1877 ^^^ 
dues were paid. In 1880, at the General Grand Chapter 
assembly, two Past Grand Matrons, one Past Grand Pa- 
tron, the Grand Patron, and Associate Grand Patron 
were all present and were recognized by appointment to 
various responsible positions, Mrs. H. C. Smith, Past 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 339 

Grand Matron, receiving the appointment as Worthy 
Grand Martha and Marshall Smith, Grand Patron, as 
Worthy Grand Marshal. 

Proceedings of 1879, 1880, 1881, and 1884 were not 
pubHshed and no meetings were held in 1882 and 1883, 
hence authentic records are not readily available, but 
much good was accomplished, though with many trials 
for the true and earnest members who so loyally braved 
disappointments that success might result. In 1894 the 
solemn and beautiful "Chapter of Sorrow,'' by Sister 
Addie C. S. Engle, was exemplified by Harvard Chapter. 

In 1895 the beautiful, instructive, and elegant public 
service as arranged by Sister Helen M. Stires for use at 
Christmas time was adopted. In 1898, the Grand Ma- 
tron, Mrs. Helen M. Stires, was one of the O.E.S. ex- 
ecutive committee for the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. 
At this exposition the Order had a splendid display, Ne- 
braska contributing for that purpose $345. Contribu- 
tions have been made to various sufferers from disaster : 
$84 to the Nebraska cyclone sufferers ; $200 for the San 
Francisco sufferers ; $284 to the Galveston flood suffer- 
ers; for the benefit of the Temple of Fraternity at St. 
Louis $115 was donated, and $56 for maintaining O.E.S. 
headquarters at the Portland Exposition. 

In 1900 the Grand Matron was authorized to appoint 
a committee of three as the Eastern Star and Masonic 
Home board whose duty it shall be to invest such sums as 
may come into the hands of the Grand Chapter for the 
purpose of establishing a Home. In 1903, $1,500 was 
appropriated for Masonic Home purposes, the Masonic 
Home being located at Plattsmouth. In 1904 a splendid 
work was accompHshed: four Chapters united and fur- 
nished the dining-room at a cost of $150, one Chapter 



340 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

furnished the kitchen at a cost of $ioo, another Chapter 
gave $65 toward furnishing a room, and by a vote of the 
Grand Chapter, Dr. Rob Morris's birthday, August 31st, 
was set aside as an Eastern Star Masonic Home Day. 
In 1909 a resolution was adopted authorizing the build- 
ing of a hospital in connection with the Masonic Home 
at Plattsmouth, to be known as the Eastern Star Hos- 
pital. This is a beautiful edifice and monument of per- 
severance in the discharge of duty. In 191 3 the balance 
in the Home fund was $10,834.12. 

In 1908 the floral work and drill was given and at the 
close the Grand Matron was presented with the Ameri- 
can Beauty roses used in the drill, which were presented 
to her by Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Right Worthy Grand 
Secretary, the author and composer of this beautiful 
addenda and the guest of the Grand Chapter. 

A Past Grand Matrons' Club was organized in 1909, 
which meets annually, and in 1910 Achoth Sorority, to 
which only members of the O.E.S. are eligible, was or- 
ganized at the University of Nebraska. 

The Eastern Star in Nebraska has assumed the care of 
the needy children of the members of the Masonic and 
Eastern Star fraternities. The help is extended to the 
children who are in need, though one of the parents may 
be living but unable to properly care for the child, hence 
the term orphans does not wholly apply. 

In 191 5 the Masons of Nebraska purchased a forty- 
acre tract of land near Fremont, upon which they erected 
a beautiful brick and stucco cottage, which is occupied by 
girls. In 1 9 16 they built a similar structure upon the 
same grounds for the use of the boys. 

Each of these cottages is built to care for twelve to 
fourteen children comfortably and was erected at a cost 







Easte:rn Star Girls' Home, Fremont, Nebraska 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 341 

of about $12,000. It is the intention to build more cot- 
tages as needed and as each is opened for use, a matron 
is placed in charge and the children are under her direct 
guidance and training, supervised by one superintendent 
who has charge of all the cottages. 

The annual dues to the Grand Chapter are fifty cents 
from each member, half of which is appropriated for the 
use and maintenance of the Eastern Star Homes in this 
Grand Jurisdiction. 

The girls and boys from the Home attend the public 
schools. The Freemasons appropriate the amount neces- 
sary to clothe the children of the Masons, and those chil- 
dren of Eastern Star parentage only are clothed from an 
Eastern Star source. 

The girls are each assigned a part of the housework 
and are trained in the practical and useful occupations. 
The boys are each furnished a set of tools which are used 
in connection with their manual training and practical 
work incident to duties assigned to them in the conduct- 
ing of the work of the Home. 

Grand Chapter 01^ Nkvada ^* 

The history of the first gleams of the Eastern Star in 
Nevada is lost in a haze of uncertainty. Some Chapters 
under the Macoy Ritual were organized, but lasted only 
a few years. One existed in Virginia City for quite a 
period, and some of the members still have in their pos- 
session the white aprons and gloves which were worn, 
and also beautiful collars of the emblematic colors, 
trimmed with gold fringe. There are also some Rituals 
bearing date of 1866 which have been treasured by these 

54 Organized September 19, 1905. Data furnished by Mrs. Mary E. 
Talbot, Grand Secretary, 1912 to present. 



342 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

early members of the Eastern Star. After a few years 
these Chapters ceased to exist and we have no authentic 
record of any that were Macoy Chapters. 

The first Chapter organized by authority of a charter 
issued by the General Grand Chapter, was Friendship 
Chapter No. i, at Elko. The charter was dated Novem- 
ber 25, 1879, ^^^ ^he Chapter had a total membership of 
twenty-nine. This Chapter became dormant in 1882 
and surrendered its charter June 8, 1883. 

Electa Chapter No. 2, at Austin, next shone in the 
Eastern Star constellation and from the date of its or- 
ganization in 1882 it has been shining bravely; often its 
light has been almost extinguished but the loyal members 
have struggled on through all these years. The greater 
number of them live out of town and must come a dis- 
tance of twenty and some as far as thirty miles, and fre- 
quently one officer must fill two or more stations, but the 
work is carried forward with brave hearts and willing 
hands to do the very best that conditions will permit. 
There is but one meeting each month. These brave sis- 
ters and brothers deserve great credit for their faithful- 
ness, and 'Well done, thou good and faithful ones" ap- 
plies to Electa Chapter No. 2. 

Esther Chapter No. 3, at Carson, was organized in 
1886. The same year Adah Chapter No. 4 was char- 
tered in Reno; this is now the banner Chapter of the 
State, with a membership of over 250. 

In 1894, by request of the three Chapters — Electa, 
Esther, and Adah — they were annexed to the jurisdic- 
tion of California. From 1894 to 1900 inclusive, Ne- 
vada was under the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of 
California and District Deputy Grand Matrons from 
California visited and instructed the Chapters. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 343 

Martha Chapter No. 5, at Sparks, was organized in 
1901 ; Silver State Chapter No. 6, at Wannemucca, and 
Argenta Chapter No. 7, at Virginia City, Iphigenia 
Chapter No. 8, at Eureka, were organized this same 
year. Sabra Chapter No. 9, at Delamar, organized in 
1900, lasted only until 1904 when its charter was sur- 
rendered. 

From 1900 to September, 1905, the Chapters in Ne- 
vada were again under the immediate jurisdiction of the 
General Grand Chapter, and during this period Tur- 
quoise Chapter No. 10, at Tonopah, Ruth No. 11, at Love- 
lock, and Myrtle Chapter No. 12, at Fallon, were added. 

The vicissitudes of the Chapters of Nevada have been 
many, as the records of the General Grand Chapter will 
reveal, but there was hope and zeal in the hearts of the 
sisters and brothers and with a unanimous vote of all the 
Chapters expressing a desire for a Grand Chapter, Wil- 
liam F. Kuhn, Most Worthy Grand Patron, commis- 
sioned Mrs. Madeleine B. Conkling, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, to organize the Grand Chapter of Nevada, 
which was most ably done on September 19, 1905. 

Since then, the following Chapters were organized: 
Nevada Chapter No. 13, at Reno; Ely Chapter No. 14, at 
Ely; Gold Nugget Chapter No. 15, at Goldfield; Naomi 
Chapter No. 16, at Yerrington; Elko Chapter No. 17, at 
Elko, and South Gate Chapter No. 18, at Las Vegas. 

There are sixteen Chapters in Nevada but they are 
scattered over an extensive territory and for the Grand 
Matron to visit them all would require her to travel the 
length and breadth of the State — over 2,500 miles — on 
her visitations. The membership is 1,505, but make up 
in zeal and enthusiasm for their small numbers. There 
is a true understanding of the real objects and teachings 



344 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of the Order and its principles are put into practice. 
The members are earnest, whole hearted, helpful, and 
faithful to their obligation. 

li there is any one object to which the Order is sacred- 
ly pledged, it is to provide for the widow and orphan, 
and Nevada is working along these lines for a Home 
fund, which was started in 191 1 with cash donations 
amounting to about $12. Now there are $1,800 in this 
fund, the result of ''gleaning here a little and there a 
little to provide for the infirmities of age." A "Home 
Fund Day" has been established in November, at which 
time each Chapter contributes what it can and in any 
way it wishes to this cause. The result so far has been 
very gratifying for it has meant self-denial and earnest 
work in many small struggling Chapters. The one great 
object in the jurisdiction is to hasten the day when there 
can be erected the greatest of all monuments, the Eastern 
Star Home in Nevada. 

Grand Chapte:r of New Hampshire:" 

Brother Macoy chartered four Chapters in New 
Hampshire. Olive Branch Chapter No. 3 was consti- 
tuted March 16, 1870, with a Macoy charter, under 
which it worked until June 15, 1888. On this date the 
Macoy charter was exchanged for a charter from the 
General Grand Chapter under whose jurisdiction it re- 
mained for three years. It became Olive Branch Chap- 
ter No. I, on May 12, 1901, when the Grand Chapter of 
the State of New Hampshire was organized and consti- 
tuted at Lancaster. 

Eureka Chapter No. 2, located at Colebrook, was 

55 Organized May 12, 1891. Data by Mrs. Bessie P. Norris, Grand Sec- 
retary. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 345 

granted a charter on January i, 1890, and the Chapter 
was organized March 5, 1890, by Frank Spooner, with 
twenty-three petitioners. This Chapter was chartered 
September 23, 1889, but for some reason the first charter 
issued was never received and a new charter was issued 
upon a new petition without any charges for same. 

Ransford Chapter No. 3, located at Derry Depot, was 
granted a charter October 7, 1890, and organized the 
same date by R. C. Huntress, Deputy of the Most Wor- 
thy Grand Patron, with sixty-three petitioners. 

Excelsior Chapter No. 4, at Whitefield, was granted a 
charter December 5, 1890, and organized by J. C. Trick- 
ey, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, on Feb- 
ruary 5, 1 89 1, with twenty-eight petitioners. 

Mount Hope Chapter No. 5, located at Ashland, was 
granted a charter February 8, 1891, and organized by 
Frank Spooner, March 3, 1891, with fifty-six charter 
members. 

Martha Washington Chapter No. 6, located at Goffs- 
ton, was chartered April 10, 1891, and organized April 
28, 1 89 1, by Frank E. Shaw, Deputy for the Most Wor- 
thy Grand Patron, with nineteen petitioners. 

All of the six Chapters were represented in the con- 
vention at the organization of the Grand Chapter. The 
constitution adopted made Past Matrons and Past Pa- 
trons members of the Grand Chapter and the Grand Ma- 
tron the executive officer. The first officers elected were 
Mrs. Mary D. M. Quimby, Grand Matron; Dr. Frank 
Spooner, Grand Patron ; J. Sullivan Chase, Grand Secre- 
tary. In addition to the three principal officers. Chap- 
ters were allowed one representative each by resolution 
adopted in 1895. A board of finance consisting of three 
members passes on all bills and allowances. The annual 



346 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

per capita dues are twenty-five cents and mileage is al- 
lowed at the rate of five cents per mile one way. 

The Chapters make annual contributions to the Ma- 
sonic Home. This donation has been voluntary but an 
amendment is now awaiting the action of the Grand 
Chapter to the effect that each Chapter shall contribute 
ten cents per member to a Masonic Home fund, one-half 
of which is to be paid each year to the trustees of the 
Masonic Home and one-half to be kept as a Masonic 
Home fund to be used only upon vote of the Grand 
Chapter. 

The response to all emergency calls has been prompt 
and generous, liberal gifts having been made to such as 
may have met with misfortune through floods, fire, or 
other forms of disaster. 

Sister Mary Herbert of The Weirs, New Hampshire, 
was initiated into the Order of the Eastern Star in a 
class of fifteen, by Dr. Rob Morris in 1858, at Newburg, 
Vermont, and so far as is known, she enjoys the distinc- 
tion of the longest membership of any person now living. 

Grand Chapter o^ Ni:w Je:rse:y ^^ 

Seven years before the organization of the General 
Grand Chapter, the Order of the Eastern Star was estab- 
lished in New Jersey, when Brother Robert Macoy char- 
tered the first Chapter at Keyport, March 25, 1869. 'Two 
other Chapters were organized and the Grand Chapter 
was formed at Newark on July 18, 1870, by representa- 
tives from all three Chapters. One of the three — Eu- 
reka, No. 2, located at Elizabethport — is still active. 

On October 20, 1870, a constitution and by-laws were 
adopted for the government of the Grand body, by virtue 

56 Organized July 18, 1870. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 347 

of which the Grand Matron was made the presiding 
officer and all Past Matrons and Past Patrons members 
of the Grand Chapter. The conduct of the affairs of the 
organization having been such that disfavor was aroused 
in the midst of the Fraternity, Brother Macoy declined 
to further participate in the workings of the Order in 
that State, which fact was made known at the meeting 
in June, 1871; however, in 1873, Brother Macoy was 
present in a friendly and fraternal spirit, commending 
highly the attainments of this Grand Chapter, its ap- 
proved progress and material advancement. 

In 1874 the Grand Chapter of New York formally 
recognized the Grand Chapter of New Jersey, but the 
legality of the organization was questioned by Brother 
Macoy at a later period, in his report as chairman of the 
committee on correspondence. The use of the Macoy 
Ritual was begun, but the new Ritual was adopted in 
1876. 

On October 13, 1875, five delegates were selected to 
represent the Grand Chapter at any meeting or conven- 
tion that might be called for the purpose of organizing 
a Supreme Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern 
Star. 

At its session October 11, 1876, the resolutions of the 
Grand Chapter of Indiana were received, the invitation 
accepted, and the following delegates were elected : John 
M. Mayhew, Grand Patron; Mrs. E. D. Tilden, Grand 
Matron; Mrs. Anna M. Mayhew, Past Grand Matron; 
George Haskins, W. V. W. Vreeland, Mrs. F. A. Graul, 
and Mrs. M. C. Dobbs. 

Of the above number, John M. Mayhew and W. V. W. 
Vreeland were in attendance at the organization of the 
General Grand Chapter at Indianapolis, November 15- 



348 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

1 6, 1876, and Brother Mayhew was elected the first 
Right Worthy Grand Treasurer. Sister Anna M. May- 
hew received appointment as Worthy Grand Esther, 
Brother W. V. W. Vreeland was appointed Worthy 
Grand Marshal, and Sister Vreeland Worthy Grand 
Warder. John M. Mayhew, Thomas M. Lamb, and 
Willis D. Engle were the committee appointed by the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron to formulate the first ritual 
issued by the General Grand Chapter, printed in 1878. 

The Grand Chapter of New Jersey was most cordially 
received in the incipiency of the General Grand Chapter 
and the delegates who represented it were given posi- 
tions of honor and trust, and to them the Order is, in a 
measure, indebted for the present Ritual. Strange as it 
may seem, within two years from the date of issuance of 
the first Ritual, this Grand Chapter withdrew allegiance 
to the General Grand Chapter in 1880. At the meeting 
of 1 88 1 this action was rescinded and the Grand Chapter 
retained its allegiance to the General Grand Chapter until 
1887, when it permanently withdrew and appointed a 
committee to prepare a ritual. 

During the month of June, 1883, Mrs. Lorraine J. Pit- 
kin, Most Worthy Grand Matron, visited five of the 
Chapters in New Jersey, officially, and in her address to 
the General Grand Chapter said : 

The Chapters in New Jersey presented me with beautiful floral 
offerings as token of their appreciation of my visits. Who does 
not love flowers, they delight the eye, gratify the sense, and are 
eloquent teachers of purity and love. As I received these tokens, 
a silent prayer went up from the deepest recesses of the heart, 
that the admonitions silently given me by the emblematic flowers, 
should serve to inspire me to greater fidelity, constancy, purity, 
hope, and fervency. We acknowledge this as the oldest Grand 
Chapter included in our constituent number, and their representa- 
tives are here at this meeting. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 349 

At the annual meeting in 1888, the mover of the reso- 
lution, who was then Grand Patron, said the withdrawal 
was an illegal act, committed inadvertently, and asked 
that the Grand Matron declare the same null and void, 
but action was not taken upon this recommendation. In 
1889 a new committee on ritual was appointed, which 
reported in 1890 in favor of adopting the Macoy Ritual. 
This report was not adopted, and it was ordered that the 
General Grand Chapter Ritual be continued in use and a 
committee be appointed to translate it into the German 
language. In 1890 the Grand Patron stated that he had 
visited every Chapter and that the ritualistic work was 
almost perfect ; that not in one instance during the series 
of official visits did a regular officer of a subordinate 
Chapter perform her or his work from the book. 

In this Grand Jurisdiction, a sister, to be eligible to 
the office of Worthy Matron, must have served in the 
office of Associate Matron or Conductress. Emergent 
sessions of the Grand Chapter are held for the purpose 
of instituting, also for constituting Chapters; four to 
twelve sessions almost every year. The charter is the 
special charge of the Worthy Matron and it is under- 
stood that she shall keep it constantly in her charge, not 
framing and hanging in Chapter room. In 1903 the 
Grand Matron decided that the appointive officers may 
be installed by proxy ; also recommended that no one but 
a member of the O.E.S. shall be permitted to hold the 
office of Worthy Patron." 

In 1903 the ritual question was again considered. 
Action was postponed for two years, but at the end of 

57 The New Jersey Grand Chapter, following the New York law, admits 
all Master Masons in good standing, obligating them to secrecy only, and 
the office of Worthy Patron has been filled by one, not a member of the 
Order. 



350 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

one year this action was rescinded and the revised Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter Ritual adopted in 1904. This was in 
use until 1907, at which time the General Grand Chapter 
approved the following upon the recommendation of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron: 

New Jersey was one of the Grand Chapters which joined in the 
formation of the General Grand Chapter, and, after a few years, 
alleged to withdraw therefrom, but still continued to use the ritual 
of the General Grand Chapter. In the opinion of your committee 
and from the record which we would here reaffirm, the Grand 
Chapter of New Jersey is bound morally and legally to loyally 
obey all the acts, rules and regulations of the General Grand Chap- 
ter to which they gave assent during the time of their unchal- 
lenged fealty, one of which was the non-mutilation of the ritual. 
Therefore, the sale of rituals to the Grand Chapter of New Jersey 
is hereby interdicted from this date, September 5, 1907. 

In 1908 the Grand Patron recommended the adoption 
of the New York Ritual, which was not concurred in, 
and in 1910 a committee appointed for that purpose pre- 
sented the New Jersey Ritual, which is materially a re- 
print of the General Grand Chapter Revised, with the 
addition of ceremonies for instituting Chapters under 
dispensation and constituting under charter, and for 
draping the altar. The principal variations are that a 
brother's presence is necessary to open a Chapter; the 
ballot box must be placed upon the altar ; no requirement 
is made as to floor star and point emblems ; the Matron 
is escorted to the East by both Conductresses ; a password 
is collected from the women present, while the Patron 
vouches for the men as Master Masons; the Chaplain, 
Marshal, and Organist have responses in the opening 
ceremony and no provision is made for omitting any por- 
tion of it. 

In 1897, a committee was appointed to visit the Gen- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 351 

eral Grand Chapter at its meeting in Washington in 
1898. This committee reported in 1899, that a proposi- 
tion had been made, comprehensive in its character, 
which would render it both practical and advantageous 
for them to rejoin, but action on the question was laid 
over for one year, and in 1900 it was postponed for an- 
other year. In 1902 a motion to rejoin failed of adop- 
tion. 

In 1882 the office of Associate Grand Patron was cre- 
ated, abolished in 1890, and reestablished in 1902 upon 
the recommendation of the Grand Patron. In 1904 the 
office of Grand Instructor was abolished. 

A fund is maintained whereby they are enabled to offer 
relief to any member of the Order of the Eastern Star 
in New Jersey, in good standing, who may need assis- 
tance. Such person may, by applying through the 
proper channels, be allowed a sum not to exceed fifty 
dollars in any one year. 

The Grand Chapter was incorporated in 1908; the fee 
for charter was raised from $10 to $25 in 1909 and the 
minimum fee for the degrees is $3.50. 

Contributions to the amount of $54 were made to the 
Temple of Fraternity at St. Louis, $251 for the relief of 
sufferers in the San Francisco disaster, and much atten- 
tion is given to charitable work in general. 



352 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chaptcr of Ni:w Mi:xico'^ 

We must love one another as life's burdens we bear 
To the orphan and distressed lend a listening ear ; 
We must aid, we must comfort, and ever protect, 
All grief stricken Sisters — no call reject. 

The first Chapter organized in New Mexico was 
Queen Esther No. i, at Raton, chartered November 5, 
1888, with eighty-two petitioners. Following this there 
were nine more Chapters organized, previous to the or- 
ganization of the Grand Chapter: Ransford No. 2, at 
East Las Vegas, chartered July 29, 1891 ; Silver City 
No. 3, Silver City, chartered February 10, 1893 ; George- 
town No. 4, at Georgetown, chartered March 10, 1893; 
Adah No. 5, Albuquerque, chartered September 22, 
1894; Ruth No. 6, at Deming, chartered December 11, 
1897; Rio Arriba No. 7, at Chama, chartered May 16, 
1901 ; Clayton No. 8, at Clayton, chartered March 26, 
1Q02; Magdalen Chapter No. 9, at Socorro, chartered 
March 19, 1902; Roswell Chapter No. 10, at Roswell, 
chartered April 10, 1902, and organized by Mrs. Laura 
B. Hart, Most Worthy Grand Matron. 

Five of the ten Chapters participated in the organiza- 
tion of the Grand Chapter at Albuquerque April 11, 
1902, Mrs. Laura B. Hart, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 
presiding as Deputy for the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron. While organizing the Grand Chapter, Sister Hart 
was invited to attend an open meeting of the G.A.R. ter- 
ritorial encampment, and escorted to the platform where 
she was saluted with military honors. Thus was exem- 
plified a portion of the softening influence of the Eastern 
Star upon the bitterness of that great struggle represent- 
ed by the military organization. 

58 Organized April 11, 1902. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 353 

By the constitution adopted, Past Matrons and Past 
Patrons were made permanent members of the Grand 
Chapter. The State was divided into districts and a 
Deputy Grand IMatron and Deputy Grand Patron ap- 
pointed for each. The minimum fee for the degrees was 
fixed at $3 and the charter fee at $30. The Grand Ma- 
tron was given all authority, even to the conferring of 
degrees, but her deputies were allowed to call a brother 
to their assistance if they so desired. It was made the 
duty of the deputies to inspect the laws and records and 
correct the same in accordance with the Grand Chapter's 
rulings. 

At the third annual session, the Grand Matron was 
prevented from attending by illness in her family and 
the Associate Grand Matron assumed all her powers and 
prerogatives. 

The revised by-laws adopted in 1905 require that the 
election of the Grand Officers shall be the special order 
of business immediately following the opening of the 
Grand Chapter on the afternoon of the first day. New 
Chapters could be instituted only by the Grand Matron 
or her Deputy, but this was changed in 1909 and this 
duty given to the Grand Patron. 

Liberal contributions were made: $136 to the San 
Francisco fire sufferers; $11 to the Temple of Fraternity 
at St. Louis fair; $149 was sent to the Grand Chapter 
of Ohio for the relief of those who suffered loss from the 
floods; $10.90 for O.E.S. headquarters at Lewis and 
Clark Exposition. 

This State is now reaping benefits to its people because 
of the effect of this organization with its lofty ideals and 
teachings which emulate in thought and deed the life of 
the Perfect One. 



354 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapter oi? N^w York ^^ 

The degrees of the Eastern Star were first conferred 
in lecture form, in New York City, in 1853, and fre- 
quently thereafter were used in the social gatherings of 
the Masonic Fraternity as a special feature of attraction 
and conferred upon large audiences composed of persons 
entitled to receive them. 

The first known periodical published in the interests 
of the Order was a bi-monthly publication styled the or- 
gan of the American Adoptive Rite, in the month of 
August, 1855. The second number did not appear until 
January, 1856, and this was the last number published. 
Dr. Rob Morris was the editor, though his name is not 
used as such in the publication, which was published by 
John W. Leonard & Co., American Masonic Agency, 
No. 383 Broadway, New York City. 

Friendship Family No. 103, Brooklyn, chartered Jan- 
uary 25, 1867, is regarded by many as the oldest Eastern 
Star organization in the State, and is now known as 
Esther Chapter No. 2, Brooklyn. 

In 1863 ^^^ 1864 the project of the Masonic Hall and 
Home was agitated by the Masonic Fraternity, and the 
brethren, realizing the advantage of cooperation of the 
ladies in such work, invited their interest and influence 
in this direction. This was probably the main factor 
which influenced the desire to promote an organization 
through which the ladies could continue the charitable 
work thus well begun. 

The members of the Masonic Fraternity had pur- 
chased the French church, located on the corner of 
Grand and Crosby Streets, which they wished to remodel 
and utilize for their purposes. To raise funds for the 

59 Organized November 30, 1870. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 355 

promotion of this work, a fair was held in this church 
through the entire month of December, 1886, and about 
$60,000 reaHzed. The ladies who were thus brought to- 
gether in assistance to the Fraternity, formed friend- 
ships so cordial and sincere that deep regret was ex- 
pressed that the closing of the fair would terminate their 
meetings and that this work of advancement along wor- 
thy lines could not be continued. A suggestion was 
made, almost immediately after the closing, that the la- 
dies connected with the fair form an organization to con- 
tinue the work so agreeably begun, and if possible to so 
arrange that the result of such efforts be in the interests 
of the Masonic Hall and Home fund. 

In harmony with this idea, Brother Joseph F. Waring, 
of Enterprise Lodge No. 228, at the request of members 
of the Masonic Fraternity, invited the ladies who were 
connected with the Masonic fair to meet in the board of 
relief room. Odd Fellows Hall, corner of Grand and Cen- 
ter Streets, on Monday, January 21, 1876, at 3 o'clock 
p. M., for the purpose of organizing a society of the Sis- 
ters of the Eastern Star. 

The day upon which this meeting was arranged proved 
to be very stormy and a full attendance was not secured, 
but a sufficient number was present to effect an organiza- 
tion. Mr. Waring presided, explained the purpose of 
the meeting, and under his directions the society was or- 
ganized, by-laws were adopted, and the organization was 
named Alpha Sisters of the Eastern Star. The society, 
from its formation, took an active interest in every effort 
intended to promote the hall and asylum fund and a 
reception was given by them at Irving Hall, March 7, 
1867, which netted $973. In order to make the dona- 
tion to the fund $1,000, the society drew from its treas- 
ury $27. 



356 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Alpha Chapter No. i, New York City, was the first 
Chapter organized in the State, as well as having the 
great distinction of being the first Chapter ever organ- 
ized. Mrs. Christiana Buttrick, for twenty-one years 
the Grand Secretary, occupying this exalted office until 
her death, February 5, 1900, just a few weeks before her 
death gave an interesting account of the organization of 
Alpha Chapter No. i. She was a member of sterling 
worth and faithfully served the Order, and this account 
as she has recorded it is given below : 

Mrs. Maria A. Warner was one of the original charter mem- 
bers of Alpha Chapter No. 1, which held informal meetings once 
or twice a month at different members' houses, doing a good 
charitable work, which was the purpose of the organization. 
Finally, one afternoon, it was suggested that it would make the 
meetings more interesting if they were formal; if we had some 
ceremonies for opening and initiation of members. Robert Macoy 
had previously attended the meetings, and on October 21, 1867, 
conferred the degrees in lecture form ; these meetings were usually 
held at 16 Vandam Street, the residence of Mrs. Frances E. 
Johnson. 

The result of the discussion of the aforesaid afternoon was that 
a committee was appointed to call on Mr. Macoy, and to ask him 
if he could prepare an initiation ceremony. Mrs. Warner and 
Mrs. Barnes were two of the committee ; I do not recall the third 
member. They called on Mr. Macoy at his place of business, 
corner of Broome and Crosby Streets. He was absent and the 
committee waited for a brief time, then left ; when walking a short 
distance from the building, met Mr. Macoy, and when they ap- 
proached him Mrs. Warner stated the object of their visit. She 
reported back to the next meeting that Mr. Macoy had something 
of the kind in his mind, which he would put forth in due time. 

After that, until the work was completed, and from time to 
time, he would drop into the meetings at Mrs. Johnson's, and re- 
port how the work was progressing. When ready he selected, at 
her home, the different officers for the several points. The de- 
grees were read to us from a manuscript, but when first conferred 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 357 

(October 9, 1868, at 594 Broadway), all the officers read their 
parts from a printed copy. 

On December 28, 1868, at a meeting held in the afternoon at 594 
Broadway, the first meeting as a chartered Chapter, the degrees 
were conferred for the first time, Mrs. Eliza A. Macoy being the 
first candidate. Aside from the records, I remember the event 
distinctly, as it left a great impression on me. 

On the same day the installation of officers took place, I being 
the secretary, felt the importance and responsibility of the position. 
The following is the record of the officers at the time, viz : Rob- 
ert Macoy, Patron; Mrs. Frances E. Johnson, Worthy Matron; 
Mrs. Maria A. Warner, Associate Matron ; Mrs. C. Asten, Treas- 
urer; Mrs. C. Buttrick, Secretary; Mrs. S. L. Vickers, Conduc- 
tress ; Mrs. E. L. Chipman, Associate Conductress. 

As previously stated, Friendship Family No. 103 is 
recognized as the first organized body of the Eastern 
Star, the charter of which is dated January 25, 1867. 
The first meeting under the "Family" charter was held 
February 6, 1867, in Andrew Young's room, corner 
Court and Joralemon Streets. Later meetings were 
held in the parlors of the members until May 29th. 
Thereafter a room was secured and used by the "Fam- 
ily'' until reorganized as a Chapter in June, 1869, when 
by vote of the members, the name of Esther Chapter No. 
2 was decided upon for the new organization. 

Twenty Chapters were chartered, including Alpha No. 
I and Esther No. 2, previous to the organization of the 
Grand Chapter at New York City, November 30, 1870, 
by representatives of fourteen Chapters, five of them be- 
ing proxies who were not members of the Chapters they 
represented. A constitution was adopted which made 
the Grand Patron the executive officer and all Past Ma- 
trons and Past Patrons members of the Grand Chapter ; 
also requiring that proxies must be members of the Chap- 
ter which they represent, and that sisters and daughters, 



358 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

if unmarried, must have attained the age of eighteen 
years to be eHgible to the degrees. 

Prior to 1885 the Grand Patron was the highest of- 
ficer, but at the meeting in 1884 this authority was given 
to the Grand Matron, who conducted the affairs of the 
Grand Chapter as its executive officer and at the session 
in 1885 presided as such. The Grand Matron has re- 
tained this position since that date. 

In 1873 the Grand Chapter was honored by the pres- 
ence of Dr. Rob Morris, who deHvered an address. In 
1874 the Grand Chapters of New Jersey, Vermont, Cal- 
ifornia, Indiana, and Massachusetts were formally rec- 
ognized, sisters were exempted from dependence upon 
the standing of the Mason through whom they obtained 
membership, and the addition of the burial service, which 
had been previously printed in pamphlet form, was de- 
cided to be included in the ritual. 

Misunderstandings, jealousies, and diversions from 
the principles of the Order, precipitated a difference 
which remains, as yet, unsurmounted between Brother 
Macoy and the members of the Grand Chapter of New 
York and the General Grand Chapter. The conditions 
as they have existed are better forgotten and the present 
work of this Grand Chapter accepted as magnificent con- 
tributions to the tenets of our Order. 

In 1883 Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron of the General Grand Chapter, was cordially in- 
vited as a guest of this Grand Chapter and accorded the 
fraternal courtesies, invited to a seat in the Grand East 
and welcomed as becoming to her most exalted position, 
which was the first time such honors had rested upon the 
Most Worthy Grand Matron. 

Early in the spring of 1888, the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron of the General Grand Chapter received a request 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 359 

for a charter for a Chapter at Lockport, New York, but 
declined to grant same, referring the brother to the 
Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter of New York as 
the proper person to whom appHcation should be made, 
believing that the General Grand Chapter should never, 
in any case, invade the jurisdiction of a Grand Chapter 
not owning allegiance to the Grand body. 

Responding to the invitation of the Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary, representatives from New York were 
present at the meeting of the General Grand Chapter in 
1898, at which time resolutions were agreed upon which 
when accepted by this Grand Chapter, looked to the 
uniting of the Grand Chapter with those composing the 
General Grand Chapter, but were not deemed accept- 
able/^ 



60 The following, taken from the Proceedings of the General Grand 
Chapter, tells the story: 

ConpErKnce 

James B. Merritt, from the Committee on Conference, submitted the 
following report, which, together with the recommendations, were con- 
curred in. 

To the Officers and Members of the General Grand Chapter: 

Your committee appointed to confer with the representatives of the 
Grand Chapters of New York, Connecticut and New Jersey, would re- 
spectfully report the following: 

A meeting of the committees was held with a full representation, as 
follows : Mrs. Eleanor Burton, Mrs. Rachel L. Stiefel, and Mrs. Eliza 
M. Demarest, of New York; Mrs. Frances L. Boone, Wm. C. Brown and 
Mrs. Anna Garabrant of New Jersey; Chas. L. Fowler and Mrs. Ida M. 
Fiske of Connecticut. The Chairman of the Committee from New York, 
Mrs. Eleanor Burton, submitted the following written statement, which is 
hereto attached and made a part of this report. 

New York City, Sept. 27th, 1898. 
To the Most Worthy Grand Matron, Officers and Members of the General 

Grand Chapter, Order of Eastern Star, United States. 

Esteemed Members in Session — Greeting: As the Grand Chapter of 
New York has been fraternally invited to unite with the General Grand 
Chapter, and as we are here as delegates from the Grand Chapter of New 
York, we can frankly say that the purpose or work of this body is not 
understood by a large majority of the members of the Grand Chapter of 
our State; unfortunately they have not taken the opportunity to inform 
themselves, and the grand representatives have not kept themselves nor 
the Grand Chapter posted, and we feel that owing to these conditions, we 



360 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

In addition to the officers that are common to all Grand 
Chapters, New York has three Associate Grand Mar- 
shals, three Grand Chaplains, a president of Hall and 
Home Association, Historian, and Grand Lecturer. 

of New York might be misjudged or made to appear antagonistic to the 
General Grand Chapter, when such is not the case. 

It is true we use the Macoy ritual, because it was the original work 
of the Order, and one under which many of the chapters now throughout 
the United States first found the light of the Eastern Star. As it is the 
desire of the General Grand Chapter for a standard ritual, we think the 
time has come for the entire Order to have a secret, uniform work, and 
as united action can end in success, it may be that a universal ritual, com- 
piled or revised by good ritualists of the Order at large, can work to- 
gether for the advancement and elevation of the combined associations. 

We, the committee, appointed by the Grand Chapter of New York, to 
see what arrangements can be made for affiliating with your body, are 
here for the purpose of ascertaining all possible facts, whereby we may 
make a full report at the next annual session to be held in June, 1899, at 
which time final action will be taken. 

But before uniting with the General Grand Body there are a few im- 
portant questions to be considered. 

First: We have bought at an expense of one thousand dollars the 
copyright of the Macoy ritual; we have had it printed; it is in use in all 
our chapters, and any change of ritual would entail a heavy expense upon 
our Grand Chapter, as well as every chapter of our State. 

Second: It has always been the custom of our State to admit Master 
Masons to our assemblies, and after obligating them to secrecy, permit 
them to witness our work. In the majority of cases these Masons become 
impressed with the Order, and bring in the petition of a daughter, wife, 
sister or mother. Masons in New York have so many orders of their 
own, for example, the lodge, chapter, council, commandery, and the shrine, 
that they do not care to join the Eastern Star, but they are willing that 
the female members of their families should become members, and they 
give us their friendly and financial support, and we feel that we have their 
good will. 

Third: We have in our work a Floral Ceremony, which was first 
brought out in Stella Chapter No. 29, on May 5th, 1875, and since then 
has become part of our ceremonies. It is beautiful and instructive, and 
capable of being made a source of pleasure to candidates and visitors 
alike. Our Grand Chapter has adopted this ceremony as a part of the 
standard work, and the members would not be willing to give it up. 

Fourth: We have several chapters that work in the German language, 
and they have our ritual translated, and this at their own expense; if we 
make a change they must be considered, and provision made to care for 
them. 

In presenting these facts, we, as delegates, would like a friendly and 
fraternal discussion as to what arrangements can be made in reference 
to the first question, the ritual. Surely you as a great body of intelligent 
members would not expect that we should be put to the expense of so 
great a change without some compensation as to the money expended on 
our work. 

And we would in a fraternal manner ask the question: "What would 
this grand body do in re-imbursing us for the expenses of a change?" 
In view of the fact that Master Masons (not members of the Order) are 
admitted to our meetings, but are obligated to secrecy, how can we 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 361 

In 1 901 the true fraternal spirit was indicated when 
funeral services were conducted for a sister from Ari- 
zona who died in a New York hospital. 

In 1903, the scarf worn by Sister Eliza A. Macoy, 
Grand Matron in 1876 and who was the first candidate 

reconcile that with the laws of the General Grand Chapter, or would you 
be willing to grant us time to bring about the change? 

As to the third, our floral degree, we learn that many of the states 
of the West are beginning to use it as an addendum, and we think that 
when its beauties are fully known, that it will be adopted by all the states, 
that it will be a source of pleasure to all our members, and therefore feel 
that this matter may be left in your hands with safety. This leaves but 
the consideration of the German chapters, and now, brothers and sisters, 
having placed these facts of our Grand Chapter before you, we ask your 
kindly consideration of them, and trust that your decision will be such 
that it may bring harmony and good feeling to all grand bodies now 
affiliated with you, and that we can look forward to the day when your 
wise judgments will make us one grand, united body, whose only aim will 
be "who best can work, and best agree." 

LANDMARKS OF STATE OF NEW YORK GRAND CHAPTER 

Those eligible to membership are master masons in good standing in 
their lodges: Wives, sisters, daughters, mothers, and widows. 
Fraternally submitted, 

Mrs. Eleanor Burton. 
Mrs. Rachel h. Stiefel. 
Mrs. Eliza M. Demarest, 

Committee. 

Youjr committee carefully reviewed the reasons given, why these Grand 
Chapters have not deemed it wise to become our constituents. The dis- 
cussion was protracted, free and full. From the above statement, to- 
gether with the information gained from conversation with the repre- 
sentatives of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, the real matters 
in controversy appeared to be reduced to two : namely, the Macoy ritual 
and the admission of Master Masons to the meetings of the Order, with- 
out a regular initiation, 

Connecticut expresses a fear that they would lose their independence 
and be compelled to contribute to the financial support of the General 
Grand Chapter. They also have the so-called "higher degrees," and were 
uncertain whether a union would be affected in any manner by this fact. 

Your committee do not consider these matters of any vital importance. 
It is to be hoped — nay — presumed, that the wisdom of the General 
Chapter will so handle its finances that no assessments will ever be neces- 
sary, and at most that the demand upon the Grand Chapters will be 
nominal. 

As to the "higher degrees" — they are entirely outside the province of 
this General Grand Chapter, and the Most Worthy Grand Matron has in 
her address, at this session, ably stated the position of this General Grand 
Chapter in that matter. 



362 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

to receive the degrees of the Order after the Chapter 
form was arranged by Brother Robert Macoy in 1868, 
was presented to the Grand Chapter and this scarf is 
treasured by the Grand Chapter for its historic associa- 
tion. Sister Macoy was the wife of the man to whom 
all owe a debt of gratitude for the beautiful arrangement 
of the beloved Chapter system. 

Contributions have been made to the various charit- 
able purposes for which call has been made: $100 to the 
Temple of Fraternity at the St. Louis Fair, $2,000 to the 
sufferers from the San Francisco disaster; $510 to the 
relief of Galveston flood sufferers, and in 191 3 $1,024.81 
was sent for the relief of the sufferers from the Ohio 
flood. 

As stated in the original organization of the women 

In regard to the ritual and the admission of Master Masons, your 
committee feel that the General Grand Chapter ought to be generous and 
forebearing. Both these questions are of great importance to New York 
and New Jersey. 

While this General Grand Chapter desires to hold out the welcoming 
hand, believing that a union of all the Grand Chapters would tend to 
strengthen the Order and to promote truth and love, unity and peace, yet 
we cannot entirely sacrifice uniformity of ritual, and of qualifications for 
membership, the establishment and perpetuation of which is one of the 
principal objects of the existence of the General Grand Chapter. 

We have, therefore, formulated a proposition, which, we hope, will 
be acceptable, both to the General Grand Chapter and to the Grand Chap- 
ters of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. 

Resolved: That in the event of a decision on the part of the Grand 
Chapter of New York, to become a constituent of this General Grand 
Chapter. 

This General Grand Chapter will present to the Grand Chapter of New 
York five hundred copies of our ritual, and further; will exchange, copy 
for copy, all rituals sent by the Grand Secretary of New York to our 
Right Worthy Grand Secretary. 

That the Right Worthy Grand Secretary be authorized to have a trans- 
lation of our ritual made into the German language, and to furnish as 
many copies thereof as shall be desired as a part of the five hundred 
rituals to be presented, and to exchange ritual for ritual, such copies of 
the German ritual of New York, as may be sent to our Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary, by the Grand Chapters of New York and New Jersey. 

Provided, That should a revision of the ritual be ordered at this ses- 
sion of the General Grand Chapter, then the exchange shall be made after 
the promulgation of the revised ritual. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 363 

of the Masons' families in New York State, as early as 
1 863- 1 864, their object was for charitable purposes, 
especially as they wished to promote the establishment of 
a Masonic Hall and Home and work for the maintenance 
of same after it was fully established. This spirit has 
remained and has dominated their ideas throughout the 
existence of the Order. In 1890 a committee, composed 
of one member from each Chapter, was appointed, to ar- 
range for an entertainment in New York and Brooklyn 
to raise a fund to form the nucleus around which they all 
could work, with the end in view to provide a Home for 
deserving members of the Order. The services of the 
Order were tendered the Grand Lodge and accepted by 
them, to furnish one room in the Masonic Home at 
Utica, when completed, which might perhaps be set aside 
for the use of deserving members of the Order, and later 
$200 was appropriated for this purpose. In 1892 an 
Eastern Star Home Association was organized. Great 

Furthermore, That the Grand Chapter of New York destroy the plates 
of the Macoy ritual now in their possession, or place the same in the 
hands of our Right Worthy Grand Secretary. 

That a period of three years be allowed, during which time the Grand 
Chapters of New York and New Jersey shall conform their regulations 
in the matter of the admission of Master Masons to those of the General 
Grand Chapter, 

Provided, That nothing herein contained shall confer the privileges of 
visiting Chapters outside of the Grand Chapters of New York and New 
Jersey upon any Master Mason, who shall not have been regularly in- 
itiated into the Order. 

Further, That the Past Grand Officers of the Grand Chapters of New 
York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Vermont, be entitled to the rights and 
privileges of membership in this General Grand Chapter. 
Respectfully submitted, 

James B. Merritt, California. 

L. CabeIvL Wii^liamson, District of Columbia. 

Mrs. Jennie E. Matthews, Iowa. 

Mrs. Nettie Ranseord, Indiana. 

Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Illinois. 

Nathaniei. a. Gearhart, Minnesota. 

The representatives from New York, New Jersey and Connecticut 
were then introduced and made appropriate remarks indicative of their 
pleasure at the happy result of the conference. 



364 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

interest was manifested in its undertakings and assis- 
tance was freely and generously rendered by the Fra- 
ternity. In 1 901 an Eastern Star fair was held, in 
which all the Chapters in the jurisdiction participated. 
This continued for two weeks and netted the Home Fund 
a profit of $12,685.51 and that same year $500 was paid 
into the Home Fund from the Chapters. In 1903 a cir- 
cular letter sent to the Masonic Lodges brought re- 
sponses amounting to $4,000 for the Hall and Home As- 
sociation fund. The fund continued to grow with the 
wonderful rapidity that surely must result from the 
united efforts of so many earnest and untiring workers, 
until in 1907 it amounted to $67,102.25 and a committee 
was appointed to select a site for the Home. On June 
20, 1908, the new Eastern Star Home was dedicated. 

The Grand Chapter purchased a beautiful estate, lo- 
cated at Waterville, to be used for a home for indigent 
sisters of the Order of the Eastern Star. The substantial 
building was well suited for this purpose, with spacious 
grounds surrounding it, and the restful and picturesque 
location and the farm in connection make this an ad- 
mirable place for the O.E.S. Home. The building was 
remodeled and fitted up in a splendid manner, giving a 
haven of refuge to the few who need care and protection. 
The sisters of this jurisdiction are to be congratulated 
upon the fact that there are only a few who have needed 
their kind care, and further that for those who are there 
they are given a home in the truest sense, where may be 
enjoyed every comfort and convenience. Attractive sun 
parlors with delightful outlook furnish comfort and en- 
joyment through the winter months, while the spacious 
grounds and ample verandas prove enticing during the 
warm weather. Plentiful food, wholesome and well 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 365 

cooked, and a well stocked library, satisfy physical and 
mental desires, and an infirmary fund is maintained that 
will insure to the sisters proper medical and surgical at- 
tention when needed. 

In 1909 the Grand Patron in his address, speaking of 
the O.E.S. Home at Waterville, said: 

Up to the present time, it has been necessary that we have a 
President of the Hall and Home Association, whose particular 
duty it has been to secure funds by soliciting from Chapters and 
otherwise, said funds to be used for the benefit of the Home. The 
time is now at hand when the per capita tax will provide such 
funds as are necessary for the care and maintenance of the Home, 
and it is no longer necessary that these solicitations should con- 
tinue. 

In 1910 an appropriation amounting to $715 was 
given to the educational fund for the children at the 
Masonic Home at Utica, to be used in preparing the little 
ones for useful vocations in Hfe. 

A board of relief has been organized, which occupies 
a field entirely distinct and separate from the work of the 
established Masonic Home and O.E.S. Home, its object 
being to assist members in times of special stress and en- 
able them to pass through crises of trouble or misfor- 
tune to better days. This work is done privately in the 
true Masonic manner. 

In 1912, Sister Julia Thayer, Grand Matron, said: 
''Those who do not look upon themselves as a link con- 
necting the past with the future, do not perform their 
duty to the world." 

The easy path in the low grounds hath little of grand or new. 
But the toilsome ascent heads on to a glorious view ; 
Peopled and warm is the valley, lonely and chilly the height, 
But the peak that is nearest the storm cloud is nearer the Stars 
of light. 



366 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapti^r oi^ North Caroi^ina^^ 

In February, 1869, a charter was issued by Brother 
Macoy for a Chapter at Kingston. The State remained 
open territory for the Order of the Eastern Star until the 
General Grand Chapter issued a charter for Hope No. i, 
at Boone, April 15, 1882, which Chapter only remained 
in active work for a short time. Later, a charter was 
granted to Center Grove and this new Chapter received 
a charter issued July 30, 1890, and was given the num- 
ber, I . After a short time Center Grove Chapter ceased 
activity and the oldest Chapter doing active work is Mt. 
Vernon No. 2, Ore Hill, chartered April 30, 1903. 
Twelve Chapters had been given charters but only seven 
were active at the time of the organization of the Grand 
Chapter. 

On Saturday, May 20, 1905, in the Masonic Hall, 
Asheville, a convention of six Chapters, O.E.S., as- 
sembled for the purpose of organizing a Grand Chapter. 
The convention was called to order by J. A. Gorman, 
Worthy Patron of Esther Chapter No. 12, and was com- 
posed of eighteen representatives from Mt. Vernon No. 
2, Lois No. 8, Silver City No. 9, Grace No. 10, Clay No. 
II, and Esther No. 12. 

The Most Worthy Grand Matron of the General 
Grand Chapter, Mrs. Madeleine B. Conkling, was made 
chairman. Following the election of officers, they were 
installed by the Most Worthy Grand Matron, who was 
presented with a loving cup and upon motion she was 
elected an honorary member of the Grand Chapter of 
North Carolina. 

61 Organized May 20, 1905. Data by the Superintendent Masonic and 
Eastern Star Home, Brother t,. M. Clymer, Past Grand Secretary and 
Past Grand Patron. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OE GRAND CHAPTERS 367 

Past Matrons and Past Patrons are members of the 
Grand Chapter. Annual dues are fifty cents per capita, 
fifteen cents of which are to be set aside as an O.E.S. 
charity fund. No Chapter is to begin work under dis- 
pensation or charter, until it shall have provided all fur- 
niture, implements, or other things necessary and proper 
to give due effect to the solemn ceremonies of the degrees 
of the Order. The privileges of visitation, Chapter re- 
lief, or Chapter burial are denied to any one who volun- 
tarily remains a non-affiliate more than twelve months. 

Following the recommendation of the Grand Matron 
in 1906, a committee was appointed to visit the Grand 
Lodge, A. F. and A. M., to secure recognition from that 
body, which recognition was cordially granted. 

The Grand Officers began their work with energy and 
enthusiasm, but owing to many so-called Chapters 
throughout the State which did not accomplish the work 
expected or send dues to the Grand Chapter during the 
first five years it was difficult to forward the work of the 
Order. Those who were active gave their hearty sup- 
port to the Masonic Orphanage at Oxford, which institu- 
tion is now caring for 336 children. Training is there 
offered that will surely result in the molding of these 
little children into men and women who will prove of 
great value to the State. Many have left this home to be 
honored men and women, who lead the most worthy and 
useful lives. 

The month of November has been set apart for bene- 
fits to be donated to the orphans at Oxford. 

The Grand Matron is assisted in her work by Deputy 
Grand Matrons, having appointed twelve in 1912. 

The movement for an O.E.S. Home was instigated in 
1908, and in 1910 the Eastern Star Grand Chapter and 



368 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the Masonic Grand Lodge united their efforts in the 
erection of the Masonic and Eastern Star Home. On a 
beautiful site of about twenty-five acres, donated by J. 
Van Lindley and his son, Paul Lindley, Masons of the 
city, just outside of Greensboro may be seen the Masonic 
and Eastern Star Home, recently built and equipped at 
an approximate cost of about $30,000. Many of the 
Chapters and Lodges in the State of North Carolina 
have furnished rooms. One of the most conspicuous 
pieces of furniture in the dining-room is a china closet, 
donated by the Grand Chapter, O.E.S., of the State of 
New York. The Stars of North Carolina have a very 
tender feeling for the New York State membership, as 
this represents the only gift so far received from outside 
the State. The time of architects and builders was do- 
nated by members of the craft, and today may be seen a 
beautiful finished structure — a happy home for Masons 
and their wives and Eastern Star members who are un- 
able to care for themselves. 

Brother John J. Phoenix, the capable secretary of the 
Home board, is untiring in his efforts to promote the 
welfare of this institution and its residents. The Home 
will accommodate seventy-five residents. There are now 
about a score of happy men and women enjoying the 
comforts of this beautiful Home. 







Masonic and Eastern Star Homk, Greensboro, 
North Carolina 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 369 
Grand Chapti:r of North Dakota ^^ 

Silently one by one in the infinite meadows of heaven, 
Blossomed the lovely Stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels. 

Numberless torrents, with ceaseless sound, descend to the ocean. 
Like the great chords of a harp, in loud and solemn vibrations. 
Spreading between these streams are the wondrous, beautiful 

prairies, 
Billowy bays of grass ever rolling in shadow and sunshine. 
Bright with luxuriant clusters of roses and purple amorphas. 
Over them wandered the buffalo herd and the elk. 

During the territorial days of Dakota — 1861 to 1889 
— Brother Macoy granted a charter for a Chapter at 
Vermillion in July, 1871, but it became dormant and our 
Star was not seen in Dakota Territory again until the 
General Grand Chapter granted a charter for Queen 
Esther Chapter No. i, at Mitchell, February 4, 1882. 

Preceding the Act of the United States Congress, di- 
viding the Territory of Dakota into the States of North 
and South Dakota, eleven charters for Chapters had been 
granted. Only one of these was located within the boun- 
dary limits of North Dakota — Lady Washington Chap- 
ter No. 8, at Jamestown, chartered August 29, 1887, ^^^ 
organized by J. W. Cloes, special Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron. It was later given the number, 
I, it being the oldest organization in the newly formed 
State. 

Logan Chapter No. 2, Oakes, was chartered February 
15, 1890; Wapeton Chapter No. 3, Wapeton, December 
23, 1890; Woodbine Chapter No. 4, Valley City, Febru- 
ary 19, 1891 ; Mecca Chapter No. 5, Fargo, February 2, 
1893; Mizpah Chapter No. 6, Grafton, February 21, 
1893; Prairie Chapter No. 7, Sanburn, May 30, 1893; 

62 Organized June 14, 1894. 



370 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Adah Chapter No. 8, EHendale, December 21, 1893; 
Queen Esther Chapter No. 9, Mandan, March 7, 1894; 
Cbres Chapter No. 10, Tower City, March 23, 1894; 
Bismarck Chapter No. 11, Bismarck, May 7, 1894; 
Acacia Chapter No. 12, Grand Forks, May 3, 1894; Fi- 
deHty Chapter No. 13, Hope, May 7, 1894. 

Pursuant to an invitation issued by Thomas N. Ritchie, 
the convention of all of the thirteen Chapters (repre- 
sented by forty-one delegates) working under charters 
granted by the General Grand Chapter, assembled in the 
Masonic Hall at Valley City, June 4, 1894, for the pur- 
pose of organizing a Grand Chapter, O.E.S. Mrs. Lor- 
raine J. Pitkin, Right Worthy Grand Secretary, Deputy 
of the Most Worthy Grand Matron and Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, presided over the convention. A consti- 
tution was adopted making the Grand Matron the execu- 
tive officer and similar to that of other Grand Chapters 
with reference to representation, per capita dues, etc. 

The Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., then in session at 
Valley City, extended an invitation to the representatives 
of the several Chapters at the convention to attend the 
installation of the Grand Lodge officers. Mrs. Lorraine 
J. Pitkin, Right Worthy Grand Secretary of the General 
Grand Chapter, accepted an invitation to sit in the Grand 
East during the installation, this being the first time that 
a lady had ever received such distinguished honors at the 
hands of any Masonic body. In her report read at the 
eighth triennial session of the General Grand Chapter 
held in Boston, Massachusetts, 1895, the Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary expressed her sincere appreciation : 

June 14, 1894, the representatives of the several Chapters in 
North Dakota, met in convention at Valley City to organize a 
Grand Chapter. Through the courtesy of those present, it was 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 371 

my pleasure to preside during the organization. Thomas N. 
Ritchie, a zealous and earnest worker, who had rendered valuable 
service as Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron in extending 
the Order, was wise in the selection of the time and place for hold- 
ing this meeting. 

The "Grand Masonic Bodies," were in Annual Session during 
the week, and each vied with the other in extending every kind- 
ness to all who had gathered in the interests of the "Eastern Star." 

The very atmosphere was permeated with enthusiasm, and the 
representatives of the "Masonic Bodies," throughout that North- 
ern Jurisdiction, seemed to cover us with an "Arch of Steel," as 
we completed our labors — and surely the "Order of the Eastern 
Star," in that far away State must be founded upon a "Rock," 
when such "Ancient Builders" assist in placing the foundation 
stone." 

A magnificent and elaborate social session followed the 
joint installation of Grand officers, at which time a re- 
ception and banquet was given in honor of the officers 
and delegates of the Grand Lodge of A. F. and A. M., 
Royal Arch Masons, Knights Templar, and Order of the 
Eastern Star, which was attended by over three hundred 
enthusiastic guests. 

The floral work has been twice rendered before the 
Grand Chapter, the first time in 1895, and in 1900 the 
district school of instruction, under the supervision of 
district Deputies, was inaugurated with marked success. 
In 1900 a resolution was adopted making all delegates 
who took part in the organization of the Grand Chapter, 
permanent members. The recognition thus extended in- 
cluded twenty-four who were not otherwise permanent 
members. A ceremony for constituting Chapters was 
adopted. The second Sunday of September was des- 
ignated as "Memorial Day" and each Chapter requested 
to hold a Chapter of Sorrow in memory of deceased 
members of the Order. In 1901, all Past Grand Ma- 



372 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

trons and Past Grand Patrons were constituted a per- 
manent committee on jurisprudence. 

Contributions for charitable purposes have been made 
frequently; $82.60 was given for the Temple of Frater- 
nity at the St. Louis Exposition; $42.26 to be used in 
maintaining O.E.S. headquarters at the Portland fair; 
a circular letter in 1905 resulted in contributions from 
Chapters amounting to $126.50, which formed the nu- 
cleus around which has grown a fund that will soon give 
this Grand Jurisdiction an O.E.S. Home. In 1909 it 
was resolved that the several Chapters set apart a day in 
each year to be known as Masonic and Eastern Star 
Day, and devote the day to the raising of money for the 
Home Fund. In 1912 the fund amounted to $1,236.10. 

At the 1 91 4 session, Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Right 
Worthy Grand Secretary of the General Grand Chapter, 
was present and was elected to honorary membership in 
the Grand Chapter of North Dakota. This was especial- 
ly fitting, as she had organized the Grand Chapter twen- 
ty years previously. 

Grand Chapter of Ohio*'^ 

The development of unfavorable resolutions and an- 
tagonism of a marked character, from the Grand Lodge 
of Masons in Ohio, greatly retarded the initial efforts of 
the O.E.S. in Ohio as will be evident by the following 
passed by the Grand Lodge in 1868: 

Resolved, That the said degrees, otherwise called Adoptive or 
Adrogynous Masonry, are not legitimate Masonic degrees, and do 
not entitle the recipients thereof to any of the rights or benefits of 
Masonry ; that the conferring of said degree on women is calculat- 
ed to deceive and mislead them, and is, therefore, improper. 

Resolved, That the Lodges of this Jurisdiction are forbidden, 

63 Organized July 24, 1889. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 373 

under any pretense whatever, to permit their halls to be used for 
the purpose of conferring said degree. 

Rollin C. Gaskill, Most Worthy Grand Patron, on Oc- 
tober 9, 1883, appointed S. C. Chorlton Deputy for the 
State of Ohio, and through his untiring efforts, Lorraine 
Chapter No. i, located at Columbus, was chartered by 
the General Grand Chapter on November 13, 1883, and 
organized December 6, 1883, by Brother Chorlton. 

Pearl Chapter No. 2, located at Cleveland, was char- 
tered December 4, 1886, and organized by S. C. Chorl- 
ton, who had been reappointed Deputy for Ohio. Bucy- 
rus Chapter No. 3, at Bucyrus, was chartered January 
20, 1887; Ruby Chapter No. 4, Chardon, April 27, 1887; 
Zona Chapter No. 5, Eaton, March 18, 1889. All of the 
five Chapters were organized by Dr. Chorlton. 

The officers of the General Grand Chapter called a 
convention to organize a Grand Chapter, which met in 
the Knights of Pythias Hall, Cleveland, on July 24, 1889, 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, Jefferson S. Conover, 
presiding. All of the five Chapters were represented, 
there being present thirteen delegates. A deep gloom 
was cast over the assembly because of the death of Dr. 
Chorlton, which occurred a few weeks previous to the 
date of organization. The constitution adopted made 
the Grand Matron the executive officer. 

Owing to refusal of Masonic recognition, the Order 
found it difficult to advance as rapidly as in jurisdictions 
where Masonic influences are favorable. In 1891 a 
committee asked permission from the Grand Lodge to 
hold meetings in Masonic Lodge rooms, but it was not 
until 1892 that the Grand Lodge decided that, with the 
consent of the Grand Master and the unanimous consent 
of all Masonic bodies occupying Masonic halls, their use 
might be granted to Chapters for festival and ceremonial 



374 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

purposes. The result was that the number of Chapters 
increased from seventeen in 1894 to thirty-seven in 1895, 
this growth being directly attributed to the advantages 
gained by change in the attitude of the Grand Lodge. 

In 1895 the State was divided into districts, with a 
Deputy Grand Matron in each, and annually a detailed 
report is submitted as to the condition of each Chapter. 
The laws require that each Chapter receive a visit and 
inspection annually, a law that would be greatly to the ad- 
vantage of subordinate Chapters if all Grand Jurisdic- 
tions would adopt a similar one. In 191 5 it required 
twenty-five Deputy Grand Matrons to properly conduct 
the work of inspecting the twenty-five districts. 

In 1895 a communication was received from the Grand 
Master, A. F. and A. M., in which he expressed himself 
as being in sympathy with the O.E.S., and that he was 
willing to do anything in his power to further the cause. 
In 1897 the Grand Lodge ordered that Chapters might 
meet in Masonic halls by obtaining the consent of Ma- 
sonic bodies using the same. This opened the way for 
the rapid extension of the Order which a review of the 
succeeding years reveals. 

In 1901 the Grand Chapter, O.E.S., arranged to co- 
operate with the Grand Lodge in an effort to improve 
the Masonic Home at Springfield and a beautiful and 
commodious hospital building was erected at a cost of 
$15,200.94. In 1904 a special train carried the members 
of the Grand Chapter from Columbus to Springfield to 
participate in the laying of the corner-stone of the hos- 
pital building, and on May 10, 1905, the magnificent 
O.E.S. Memorial Hospital, which stands on a knoll on 
the Masonic Home Farm, was dedicated with appropri- 
ate ceremonies. In 19 10 an addition was completed at a 
cost of $6,548.58. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 375 

Appropriations have been made to charitable work: 
To the Temple of Fraternity at St. Louis, $ioo; to the 
Galveston flood sufferers, $50. The Grand Patron in 
191 3 received and expended about $5,000 for the relief 
of their own sufferers in the disastrous flood that swept 
their domain during that year. 

In 1898 the Sedgwick Monitor, for use in connection 
with stereopticon views, was indorsed, and the following 
year the superintendent of the Masonic Home and his 
wife were elected to receive the degrees, which were con- 
ferred, the Sedgwick Monitor lectures being given by 
the author. Brother Sedgwick. The memorial service 
has been rendered several times as has also the floral 
work and mystic tie. 

In 1907 the Grand Chapter set apart the last Sunday 
in the month of June of each year as a memorial day for 
the O.E.S. in the jurisdiction of the State of Ohio. 

In 1912 the O.E.S. Hospital Circle was organized in 
the twentieth district, and is composed of the Worthy 
Matron and three members from each Chapter, whose 
purpose is to administer to the sick in the various hos- 
pitals and homes, distributing flowers and good cheer to 
ill and ailing members of the Order of the Eastern Star 
or Masons, or to their wives, mothers, daughters, or 
other relatives. It is maintained by voluntary contribu- 
tions from the various Chapters, O.E.S., and from the 
twenty-one Masonic bodies represented, the latter look- 
ing upon this circle with very great favor. 

In 1914 the Grand Chapter appropriated $100 to the 
Red Cross Society to assist in the great work they are 
doing in Europe. 



376 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapter of Oki.ahoma®* 

Through the efforts of Joseph S. Murrow, Grand Mas- 
ter of Masons of the Indian Territory, who also was the 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron of the Order 
of the Eastern Star, the first Chapter was organized at 
A-to-ka, Choctaw Nation, and chartered by the General 
Grand Chapter February 25, 1879, having for its first 
Matron, Mrs. C. Bond, and first Patron, Joseph S. Mur- 
row. It was chritened O-ho-yo-hom-ma ( Red Woman^s) 
No. I. Thus this noble Mason, in his efforts to be prac- 
tical, to do good, to benefit mankind, assist the weak and 
to give them substantial cause to be thankful that there 
is such an institution as Masonry with its lessons of 
light shed through symbols, established an Order which 
has become an institution of permanent benefit through- 
out the Territory. 

Antak-Homa Chapter No. 2, McAlester, Choctaw Na- 
tion, was chartered May 31, 1881, with Lalla R. Zim- 
merman, Worthy Matron, P. H. Doyle, Worthy Patron, 
and constituted June 14, 1881, by A. Frank Ross, Deputy 
of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Puc-caun-la Chapter No. 3, Colbert, Chickasaw Na- 
tion, was chartered by the General Grand Chapter Feb- 
ruary 9, 1882, and organized by Rev. J. S. Murrow, 
March 18, 1882, with Mrs. Morning T. Gooding, Wor- 
thy Matron, Henry F. Murray, Worthy Patron. 

Savanna Chapter No. 4, Savanna, Choctaw Nation, 
was chartered February 22, 1886, and constituted by 
Rev. J. S. Murrow on March 11, 1886, with Agnes Cam- 

6* The history of the present Grand Chapter of Oklahoma necessarily 
includes that of the Grand Chapter of Indian Territory (organized July 
11, 1889) and the Grand Chapter of Oklahoma Territory (organized Feb- 
ruary 14, 1902). The present Grand Chapter of the State of Oklahoma 
was organized April 27, 1915. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 377 

eron, Worthy Matron, and Emmett A. Berry, Worthy 
Patron. 

Naomi Chapter No. 5, Prairie City, was chartered 
September 19, 1887. 

The call for the convention to organize the Grand 
Chapter was issued by O-ho-yo-hom-ma Chapter No. i. 
The convention met at Atoka, July 11, 1889, with repre- 
sentatives from six of the Chapters in the Territory. 
Allegiance to the General Grand Chapter was declared, 
the Grand Matron was made the executive officer, and 
dues were fixed at twenty-five cents. Mrs. Mary E. 
M'Clure was elected the first Grand Matron ; John Len- 
nie. Grand Patron; and Edmond H. Doyle, Grand Sec- 
retary. 

By the Act of the United States Congress, Oklahoma 
Territory was set off from Indian Territory, following 
which the question of jurisdiction arose. This question 
remained in controversy until settled by the General 
Grand Chapter at its meeting at Columbus, Ohio, in 
1892, at which time the following was adopted: 

In the matter of jurisdiction over the territory of Oklahoma, 
we find that on July 11, 1889, a Grand Chapter was organized for 
the Indian Territory, which then embraced the geographical do- 
main since set apart by the U, S. Government as the territory of 
Oklahoma. 

Subsequent to the organization of said Grand Chapter this body 
formally recognized it and thereby surrendered to it all the gov- 
ernment and control of the Order in said territory, and we find 
no law whereby this General Grand Chapter can regain govern- 
ment and control over the Order in that territory, or any portion 
thereof, unless it be voluntarily surrendered, or the Grand Chapter 
of Indian Territory ceases to exist; and, in our opinion, said 
Grand Chapter still has exclusive jurisdiction, and can exercise 
all the rights of sovereignty therein until, by arrangements mutual- 
ly satisfactory to the Chapters in the two territories, it may sur- 
render a portion thereof. 



378 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Any other action, it seems to us, would give rise to many com- 
plications, and bring controversies into the General Grand Chap- 
ter, instead of leaving the settlement of details where they prop- 
erly belong and can be most satisfactorily adjusted with the Order 
in that jurisdiction. 

We have no right, and certainly it is not expedient for us to 
assume it, to attempt to declare what portion of the Order in any 
given jurisdiction, that may be divided by the action of the civil 
government shall retain, and what portion shall surrender the 
rights they have in a grand body of which they are coordinate 
members. We, therefore, submit the following: 

Resolved, That the Grand Chapter of Indian Territory is en- 
titled to retain jurisdiction over the entire original geographical 
territory for which it was organized until, by its own action, it 
may surrender same, either to this General Grand Chapter or to a 
Grand Chapter that may be organized for the territory of Okla- 
homa. 

Contributions to the amount of $56.50 toward an Or- 
phans' Home were reported at the 1894 meeting. In 
1896, the first business was to confer the degrees upon 
five candidates, with the purpose in view of organizing 
Chapters at their respective places of residence, they 
each residing where no Chapters existed ; only two of the 
five succeeded in effecting organizations. One of the 
candidates, Brother Armstrong, was the newly elected 
Grand Master of Masons, also the last Chief of the Wy- 
andotte, an honored and respected Mason; another was 
the Grand Commander of the Knights Templar. 

In 1900 a petition was presented bearing the signa- 
tures of representatives of eleven Chapters in Oklahoma, 
asking that Chapters within that Territory be allowed 
to withdraw and organize a Grand Chapter, but a reso- 
lution granting the petition was laid upon the table. The 
following year a similar petition was granted and sep- 
aration effected in 1901. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 379 

The Grand Lodge of Masons, at their meeting in 1900, 
fully endorsed the Order of the Eastern Star, not as a 
part of Masonry, but as a powerful adjunct to Masonry 
in its great work, it being composed of Master Masons, 
their wives, widows, sisters, and daughters, and recom- 
mended the Order to all Masons. 

A resolution to the same effect was presented to the 
Masonic Grand Lodge of Oklahoma and was most heart- 
ily endorsed by that body. In 1902 the Masonic Grand 
Lodge reported that the Masonic Orphans' Home fund 
had reached the $10,000 mark and solicited the coopera- 
tion of the Grand Chapter, O.E.S., in making a real home 
for helpless children. 

The last session of the Grand Chapter of Indian Ter- 
ritory was opened on February 9, 1909, at South McAl- 
ester, after a successful career of twenty-one years. The 
Grand Matron and Grand Patron read addresses in 
which they each pathetically called attention to the sol- 
emn purpose of this final meeting; when this session 
ended, the Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern 
Star of Indian Territory ceased to be. Its work and its 
progress passed into history. By act of the United 
States Congress, Oklahoma and Indian Territories to- 
gether became a State, and the object of this meeting was 
to merge the Order of the East and the Order of the 
West into one Grand Chapter. After the reports of the 
Grand Secretary and Grand Treasurer were read, the 
Grand Chapter closed and was dissolved the following 
day at Guthrie. The members, together with those of 
the Grand Lodge, were transported in Pullmans during 
the night, the Grand Lodge very generously having ap- 
propriated $700 toward the transportation of the Grand 
Chapter members to Guthrie where the Grand Chapter 
of the Indian Territory and the Grand Chapter of Okla- 



380 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

homa were to be merged. Upon arriving at Guthrie, 
the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., which was in session 
at Guthrie, was at the station in a body to meet the In- 
dian Territory Star members and acted as their escort to 
the Temple where the sessions were to be held. Rev. 
Joseph S. Murrow, who was the special Deputy who con- 
stituted the first Chapter, who was instrumental in effect- 
ing the organization of the Grand Chapter, was present 
and helped dissolve, as well as organize,, the Grand 
Chapter. 

The Grand Chapter of Indian Territory at its annual 
session held at Durant, August 15-16, 1901, released 
from its jurisdiction the constituent Chapters located in 
Oklahoma Territory, as the latter Territory desired to 
be organized into a separate jurisdiction. The Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter then assumed jurisdiction and grant- 
ed four dispensations to Chapters, viz: Watonga, lo- 
cated at Watonga, January 16, 1902; Billings Chapter, 
at Billings, January 16, 1902; Mizpah Chapter, Chey- 
enne; Lawton Chapter at Lawton, February 3, 1902. 
All the above Chapters were organized previous to the 
date of organizing the Grand Chapter, but charters were 
not issued, or numbers given these Chapters until the 
Grand Chapter of Oklahoma was organized February 
14, 1902, the dispensations having been granted by the 
General Grand Chapter to meet the emergency existing. 

This Grand Chapter was peculiarly honored at its 
birth, .there being present many Stars of the first magni- 
tude, the Most Worthy Grand Matron, Mrs. Laura B. 
Hart, acting as the Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, presiding. Sister Hart was assisted in the du- 
ties of organization by Right Worthy Associate Grand 
Matron, M'rs. Madaline B. Conkling; Right Worthy 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 381 

Associate Grand Patron, Dr. William F. Kuhn ; and the 
Worthy Grand Marshal, Mrs. M. Alice Miller. All 
these distinguished officers delighted and instructed the 
membership of the new Grand Chapter by appropriate 
and eloquent addresses. There is nothing so eminently 
helpful to the success of a Grand Chapter as to have 
present at its organization distinguished and experienced 
members of the General Grand Chapter, who by their 
counsel, advice, and encouragement can inspire the mem- 
bers of the new body to greater devotion and to higher 
ideals. 

The convention embraced twenty Chapters holding 
charters from the Grand Chapter of Indian Territory 
and the four organized by the General Grand Chapter 
after the surrender of Oklahoma Territory by the Grand 
Chapter of Indian Territory, making a total of twenty- 
four, with eighty-two votes. 

The constitution adopted made all Past Matrons and 
Past Patrons members. All Grand Officers shall be sis- 
ters, except the Grand Patron, Associate Grand Patron, 
and Grand Chaplain, the Grand Matron being the execu- 
tive officer. The annual dues were fixed at fifty cents, 
twenty-five cents of which are to be turned over to the 
Masonic Home fund. From the laws prepared for the 
government of subordinate Chapters the following is 
worthy of mention: "That any member who violates 
the secrecy of the ballot by stating how he or she voted 
on any question, or by endeavoring to ascertain how any 
member voted, or if he or she be aware and mention to 
any member, shall thereby render themselves liable to 
severe censure, and for a second offense, to expulsion 
from the Order.'' 

In 1904 a donation was made to the Temple of Fra- 
ternity amounting to $64.55 ^^^ i^ 19^5 $100 v/as given 



382 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

to the Masonic Home fund. The memorial service and 
floral work were frequently exemplified and rendered 
with solemnity and impressiveness. 

The seventh annual session convened at Guthrie, Feb- 
ruary II, 1909, with Sister Ella Simmons Washburn, 
Most Worthy Grand Matron; Sister M. Alice Miller, 
Right Worthy Associate Grand Matron ; and Sister Lor- 
raine J. Pitkin, Right Worthy Grand Secretary, as guests 
of honor; also all Past Grand Matrons were present as 
distinguished guests. 

By a unanimous vote it was decided, "That upon ad- 
journment of the Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern 
Star of Oklahoma Territory tonight, that said adjourn- 
ment should be without date, and the members of this 
Grand Chapter shall go immediately into convention with 
the members of the Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern 
Star of Indian Territory for the purpose of forming the 
Grand Chapter Order of the Eastern Star of the State 
of Oklahoma.'^ 

After the Territories of Oklahoma and Indian Terri- 
tory had attained statehood, the Grand Chapters of these 
jurisdictions agreed upon a plan of consolidation and 
called a convention of the representatives of those Grand 
Chapters to meet in Guthrie, Oklahoma, February 12, 
1909, for the purpose of carrying into effect the pro- 
posed consolidation. 

Mrs. Ella Simmons Washburn, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, acting as Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, presided over the deliberations, assisted in the 
work by Mrs. M. Alice Miller, Right Worthy Associate 
Grand Matron. Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary, was appointed Secretary, with Mrs. 
Kitty Lee M'Clain, Past Grand Matron, assistant. The 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 383 

plan for the merging of the two Grand Chapters having 
been outlined and accepted, the two hundred Chapters 
represented proceeded with the necessary steps to com- 
plete organization, adopt measures for government, etc. 
The molding together of the hopes, the aims, the cher- 
ished plans for the future, the treasured history of the 
past, of two such strong and active Grand Chapters, was 
no light or frivolous undertaking, and this new Grand 
Chapter of Oklahoma appears as a great lighthouse built 
upon the rock of Freemasonry with their opportunities, 
aspirations, and future efforts merged into one magnifi- 
cent body. 

The Masonic Fraternity having purchased a tract of 
thirty-two acres of land, containing a number of build- 
ings, at Atoka, with plans that it shall be the location of 
a Masonic College, the O.E.S. appropriated $i,ooo for a 
library in connection. 

This Grand Jurisdiction is justly proud that one of 
their number, Mrs. M. Alice Miller, was elected Most 
Worthy Grand Matron of the General Grand Chapter, 
and this great honor conferred has done much to inspire 
the workers to renewed efforts in the great work of the 
Order. 

At the fifth annual session the Grand Chapter report- 
ed having under construction a chapel for the Masonic 
Home and at this session in 191 3 the O.E.S. representa- 
tive on the Masonic Home board reports the Home in a 
prosperous condition. 

Mrs. M. Alice Miller accepted an invitation to address 
the assembly at the laying of the corner-stone of the 
Eastern Star Chapel, September 16, 191 3, at the Ma- 
sonic Home, Darlington, Oklahoma. This beautiful 
brick chapel, costing $10,000, builded by the Grand Chap- 
ter, Eastern Star of Oklahoma, is another monument to 
the interest manifested in Masonic homes by our Order. 



384 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chaptor of Ontario ^^ 

The seeds of charity, truth, and loving kindness were 
planted in Ontario during the administration of Sister 
Lorraine J. Pitkin as Most Worthy Grand Matron. The 
records of the General Grand Chapter held in San Fran- 
cisco in 1883 show that Alexander Gardner, of Toronto, 
was appointed Deputy by Willis Brown, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, and that he organized Chapters in Toron- 
to, Stratford, London, Eden Grove, and Chatham. 

The Grand Chapter of Ontario was organized May 3, 
1882, with Alexander Gardner, Grand Patron; Mrs. 
Mary A. Robertson, Grand Matron ; and W. J. R. Hay- 
wood, Grand Secretary. In June, 1882, it was reported 
to the Most Worthy Grand Matron of the General Grand 
Chapter that the Eastern Star in Canada had been or- 
ganized under the direct supervision of the Grand Lodge 
of Ontario. The Rev. Willis D. Engle, Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary at that time, replied to the communica- 
tion from the Most Worthy Grand Matron regarding 
the facts connected with the O.E.S. work in Ontario, 
that the Most Worthy Grand Patron and himself would 
settle it as "it was a fight for jurisdiction.'' At the fol- 
lowing session of the General Grand Chapter, Sister 
Lorraine J. Pitkin, Most Worthy Grand Matron, report- 
ed as follows : 

As I understand the matter, the Grand Lodge of Canada is the 
only Grand Lodge recognized as a sovereign body by consistent 
Grand Lodges and consequently fully occupies the Province of 
Ontario, Canada, and if so, is the only authority under whose 
protection the Eastern Star can thrive in harmony and prosperity. 

At a meeting of Stella Chapter No, 29, Brooklyn, New 
York, June 16, 1883, the Grand Matron of New York, 

65 Organized April 27, 1915. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 385 

Mrs. Kate E. Hopper, read a letter from Grand Patron 
Alexander Gardner, attested by the Grand Secretary, 
Miss Martha J. Fennel, requesting the installation of 
Mrs. Lillie Rowland, the newly elected Grand Matron 
of Ontario, as she was absent when the other officers 
were installed. As Sister Pitkin, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, was present at Stella Chapter on that occasion, 
she installed Mrs. Lillie Rowland, with Mrs. Eleanor 
Burton as Grand Marshal. 

At the San Francisco meeting. Miss Mary Engle was 
given a seat in the General Grand Chapter, she having 
been reported by the credentials committee as represent- 
ing the Grand Chapter of Ontario as proxy for the 
Grand Patron. 

The Grand Chapter of Ontario not having been or- 
ganized under the Masonic influence to insure its per- 
manence, became dormant and two sessions is all that is 
recorded.'^ 

There were no more Chapters organized in any of the 
Canadian Provinces until June 8, 1899, when Alpha 
Chapter was chartered in Rossland, British Columbia, by 
Nathaniel A. Gearhart, Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

The growth of the Eastern Star in all the Canadian 
territory during the administration of William H. Nor- 
ris, Most Worthy Grand Patron, 1907-1910, was phe- 
nomenal and resulted in extending the Order into the 
provinces of New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Sask- 
atchewan, and Alberta. 

Victoria Chapter No. i was organized at Windsor, 
Ontario, on June i, 1910; Blackburn Chapter No. 2, 
Sombra, March 25, 1909; Maple Leaf Chapter No. 3, St. 
Thomas, May 2y, 1909; Windsor Chapter No. 4, Wind- 

66 See General Grand Chapter Proceedings, Fourth Session, 1883. 



386 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

sor, June 31, 1910; Florence Nightingale Chapter No. 5, 
Brockville, June 6, 1910; Sarnia Chapter No. 6, Sarnia, 
chartered February 12, 1913; Queen City Chapter No. 7, 
Toronto, chartered May 31, 1913; Bethel Chapter No. 8, 
Walkerville, chartered July 11, 191 3; Connaught Chap- 
ter No. 9, Fort Williams, chartered July 11, 191 3; Ar- 
gyle Chapter No. 10, Port Arthur, organized Septem- 
ber 12, 1913, by the Rev. Willis D. Engle, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, but charter was not granted until the 
next term, January 3, 19 14, to twenty-nine charter mem- 
bers. 

Harmony Chapter No. 11, Toronto, was organized 
January 14, 1914, by Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Right 
Worthy Grand Secretary, with sixty-four charter mem- 
bers. Charter was granted April 18, 1914. 

Corinthian Chapter No. 12, Toronto, was organized 
January 15, 1914, by Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Right 
Worthy Grand Secretary, with seventy-five members. 
Charter granted April 18, 19 14. 

Forest City Chapter No. 13, London, was organized 
January 17, 1914, by Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Right 
Worthy Grand Secretary, with twenty-six charter mem- 
bers. Charter granted April 16, 1914. 

Alexandria Chapter No. 14, Windsor, was organized 
May 29, 1914, by Manly B. Squire, Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, with forty-seven charter mem- 
bers and charter was granted July 6, 1914. 

Areme Chapter No. 15, Vienna, was organized Au- 
gust 19, 1 9 14, by C. L. Cottingham, of St. Thomas, On- 
tario, with twenty-two charter members. Charter was 
granted August 29, 1914. 

The Most Worthy Grand Patron, Dr. George A. Pet- 
tigrew, called the convention to organize the Grand 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 387 

Chapter of Ontario, on April 27, 191 5. The organiza- 
tion of the present Grand Chapter of Ontario is not a 
revival of the old one nor in any way connected with the 
former Eastern Star organizations in Ontario. On 
April 2y, 191 5, representatives from all of the fifteen 
Chapters in Ontario, met in the city of St. Thomas. 
The organization of a new Grand Chapter while always 
interesting and hopeful, in this particular case was an 
unusually noteworthy occasion because of the fact that it 
was the first time in the history of the General Grand 
Chapter that the Most Worthy Grand Matron, the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, and the Right Worthy Grand 
Secretary were all able to participate in its ceremonies. 
Dr. George A. Pettigrew, Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, presided, and was ably 
assisted by Mrs. Rata A. Mills, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, of Bradford, Pennsylvania, and Mrs. Lorraine 
J. Pitkin, Right Worthy Grand Secretary, of Chicago, 
who acted as secretary. 

Every Chapter of the fifteen in Ontario was represent- 
ed, with a total of eighty-three votes and the delegates 
held an enthusiastic meeting which was most gratifying 
to the officers in attendance. 

Grand Chapte:r of Ore:gon ®^ 

An effort was made to introduce the Order in Oregon 
as early as 1870 when Robert Macoy chartered a Chap- 
ter at Oregon City. Later, three others were chartered 
by him, none of the four remaining active, and the pres- 
ent status of the Order in that State is based upon the 
work of the General Grand Chapter. 

Alpha Chapter No. i, located at Ashland, was char- 
es Organized October 3, 1889. 



388 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

tered February 24, 1880, by the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron of the General Grand Chapter and organized by 
WilHam S. Moses, special Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron. 

Eugene City Chapter No. 2, located at Eugene City, 
was chartered April 13, 1880, by the General Grand 
Chapter and organized by F. W. Osburn, special Deputy 
of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Adarel Chapter No. 3, Jacksonville, was chartered 
May 2y, 1880, and organized by W. H. Atkinson, special 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, assisted by 
members of Alpha Chapter No. i, of Ashland. 

Cottage Grove Chapter No. 4, Cottage Grove, was 
chartered June 26, 1880, and organized by F. W. Os- 
burn, special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
assisted by members of Eugene City Chapter No. 2. 

Oriental Chapter No. 5, located at Lakeview, was 
chartered April 19, 1883, by the General Grand Chapter 
and organized June 2, 1883, by J. Frankl, special Deputy 
of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Beulah Chapter No. 6, at Coquelle City, was char- 
tered June 2, 1883, and organized by Charles Olive, 
special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Independence Chapter No. 7, Independence, was char- 
tered July 2y, 1885, and organized by the Rev. Robert 
W. Hill, special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron. 

Roseburg Chapter No. 8, located at Roseburg, was 
chartered December 10, 1885, and organized January 
27, 1886, by T. G. Reamer, special Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron. 

St. Mary's Chapter No. 9, Corvallis, was chartered 
by the General Grand Chapter May 18, 1886, and or- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 389 

ganized by W. P. Conaway, special Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron. 

Forest Grove Chapter No. lo, located at Forest Grove, 
was chartered by the General Grand Chapter January 
24, 1887. Esther Chapter No. 11, located at Baker City, 
was chartered June i, 1888. 

Six of the eleven Chapters organized in the State were 
represented at the convention called by the General 
Grand Chapter at the request of Roseburg Chapter No. 
8, which met at Roseburg, October 3, 1889. With the 
necessary changes, the constitution of the Grand Chap- 
ter of California was adopted, making all Past Matrons 
and Past Patrons members of the Grand Chapter and 
providing further that in the event that any of the three 
principal officers of a Chapter could not attend the Grand 
Chapter meeting, the Chapter could elect representa- 
tives to act in the premises. The Grand Patron was 
made the executive officer, but in 1891 a resolution was 
adopted making the Grand Matron the executive officer, 
and she has retained this position since that date. Pe- 
titions for dispensation are signed by both the Grand 
Patron and Grand Matron. By invitation, the installa- 
tion ceremonies were witnessed by the members of the 
Blue Lodge, A. F. and A. M. in 1891. Charters grant- 
ed by the General Grand Chapter were replaced without 
charge. In 1893 a resolution was adopted, "That offi- 
cers regularly elected and installed be not allowed to 
resign.^' 

The most cordial relations exist between the Masonic 
Fraternity and the Order of the Eastern Star and in 
1892 a letter was adopted and presented to the Grand 
Lodge in which it was stated that 'We come to you as 
your mothers, wives, daughters, widows, sisters, sons, 



390 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

and brothers would come to you, and ask that we be al- 
lowed to assist you in carrying forward the grand work/' 

To this greeting the Grand Lodge replied, ''The Grand 
Lodge will be glad of your cooperation in the fraternal 
and charitable work of the Masonic Order, and when the 
members of this Grand Lodge go back to their several 
homes, they will endeavor to do all in their power toward 
furthering the interests of the Order of the Eastern 
Star among Masons and their families." 

Similar greetings were exchanged in 1896 and the 
same year it was unanimously adopted "That we adopt 
the custom of standing whenever our National Air 'The 
Star Spangled Banner' is sung on public occasions, and 
that the National Flag be displayed in the Grand Chap- 
ter Room at each annual communication/' The prac- 
tice of veiling the candidate was discontinued in 1896 by 
recommendation of the Grand Patron. 

In memory of their Past Grand Matron, Mrs. Julia 
Abraham, a Grand Chapter of Sorrow was held in Port- 
land November 7, 1897, and each Chapter that had been 
called upon to mourn the loss of a member responded 
with flowers and brief remarks as the roll call designated 
their loved ones gone. Annually since that time, the 
Grand Chapter has conducted a similar ceremony, it 
having been adopted as the form to be used by the mem- 
bers of the Order when assembled as a Chapter of Sor- 
row, and the uniform code of by-laws provides for its 
use after the death of any member. 

In 1898 the meeting was held in Commandery Hall, 
Masonic Temple, Portland, at which time the Worthy 
Matrons from the several Chapters of the city, dressed 
in the emblematic colors of the Order, laden with appro- 
priate flowers, approached the East and welcomed the 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 391 

Grand Chapter with touching and eloquent remarks, af- 
terwards presenting the flowers to the Grand Matron. 

Annually since the initial exchange of greetings in 
1892, the exchange of courtesies between the Grand 
Chapter, O.E.S., and the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., 
have been extended, their meetings being held at the 
same time and place, each body appointing a committee 
to convey messages of good will to the other, the com- 
mittee from the Grand Chapter usually having in its 
membership at least one lady. Cooperation of the two 
Grand bodies in accumulating funds for charitable work 
has been maintained through many years of earnest ef- 
fort. The result of their efforts is given in the report 
of the board of trustees of the O.E.S. Home Fund in 
1909: 

It is very satisfactory to report that at the communication of 
the Grand Lodge A. F. and A. M., held this year, the report of its 
special committee on Masonic Home appointed in 1908, was adopt- 
ed, and which report finds that the sentiment of the Masons of 
Oregon is that it would be well to establish a Masonic Home for 
the old and helpless Masons, the widows and orphan children, and 
recommends the appointment of a committee to receive donations 
and subscriptions for the purpose of the institution of a Masonic 
Home, and to request of the Masonic Lodges of the State, inform- 
ation and offers of what they consider as suitable sites for loca- 
tion of such a Home. 

In 1898 the GrandChapter elected fivt trustees to pro- 
mote the work of establishing a Masonic Home and ap- 
propriated $300 to the fund. Their offer of assistance 
was cordially accepted by the Masonic Lodge and in 1899 
the subordinate Chapters contributed $133 and the Grand 
Chapter appropriated $100. The object of their ambi- 
tions is now almost at hand when they may commence 
the actual work of building. 



392 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The charitable work of the Order has been carefully 
and conscientiously developed. Donations have been 
generous and frequent: $351.75 was given to the Gal- 
veston flood sufferers; $820.10 to the San Francisco fire 
sufferers; $211.55 appropriated for the Temple of Fra- 
ternity at St. Louis ; $500 appropriated toward maintain- 
ing O.E.S. headquarters at the Lewis and Clark Exposi- 
tion, Portland; and $3,000 worth of stock was purchased 
by the Grand Chapter, O.E.S., in the Portland Masonic 
Temple. In response to an appeal by the Grand Matron, 
the subordinate Chapters contributed $1,360 for the re- 
lief of members of three Chapters who were sufferers 
from a disastrous fire, many of the sisters and brothers 
having been left homeless and some were destitute. 
They seem to have lived in such a manner that they have 
protected the widow and orphan, sympathized with the 
sorrowing, aided the unfortunate, and their ideals are 
based upon a constant effort to attain the height of their 
privileges in the Order. 

Grand Chapte:r of Pennsylvania®^ 

Brother Rob Morris, though he was by no means the 
first to write a manual giving the wives, daughters, moth- 
ers, sisters, and widows of Master Masons the benefit of 
an association which would guarantee them the protec- 
tion and support of all good Masons, was, nevertheless, 
the true founder of the Order of the Eastern Star, and 
the glory of the grand achievement, through ages to come, 
will be his alone. It will be seen that all the chapters in 
the State of Pennsylvania were organized under the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter, using the General Grand Chapter 
Ritual. 

68 By Mrs. Rata A. Mills, M.W.G.M. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 393 

It was at the beginning of the year 1888 that the Or- 
der was introduced into this State. On February 3d, of 
that year, Wyoming Chapter No. i, located at Pittston, 
was granted a charter by Jefferson S. Conover, Most 
Worthy Grand Patron. The petition bore the names of 
fifty-nine petitioners. Mrs. Annette Gorman, Worthy 
Matron, Samuel A. Fear, Worthy Patron, were the first 
officers. The Reverend Daniel W. Coxe, a Past Grand 
Patron of another jurisdiction, acted as Deputy and con- 
stituted the Chapter. 

Keystone Chapter No. 2, located at Duke Center, was 
granted a charter containing thirty-five names, by Jeffer- 
son S. Conover, Most Worthy Grand Patron of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter, John V. Brown, Duke Center, being 
deputized to conduct the constituting ceremony. Mrs. 
Rebecca Brown, Worthy Matron, Phineas L. Golden, 
Worthy Patron, were its first officers. 

Martha Washington Chapter No. 3, located in Scran- 
ton, with a petition bearing eighty-three names was 
granted a charter by Benjamin Lynds, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron of the General Grand Chapter, on March 
10, 1892, Samuel Fear of Pittston being deputized to 
constitute the Chapter, with Mrs. Genevieve Fellows, 
Worthy Matron, and Frank J. Powell, Worthy Patron. 

Under date of October 26, 1892, St. John's Chapter 
No. 4, located at Philadelphia, was granted a charter 
containing seventy-nine names, by James R. Donnell, 
Most Worthy Grand Patron of the General Grand Chap- 
ter, deputizing John C. Becker of Baltimore, Maryland, 
to constitute the Chapter, with Mrs. Kate M. Dierkes, 
Worthy Matron, George W. Crouch, Worthy Patron. 

Canawacta Chapter No. 5, located at Susquehanna, 
with thirty-nine charter members, was granted a charter 



394 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

by James R. Donnell, Most Worthy Grand Patron, Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter, who deputized Orin T. Smith to 
constitute the Chapter. Mrs. Adell Outwater, Worthy 
Matron, George W. Gleason, Worthy Patron. 

The five chapters located in the State of Pennsylvania 
and subordinate to the General Grand Chapter, being 
desirous of forming a Grand Chapter for the State of 
Pennsylvania, petitioned the General Grand Chapter for 
that purpose, and under date of November i, 1894, the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, Brother James R. Donnell, 
issued a call for a meeting to be held in the city of Scran- 
ton, on Wednesday, November 21, 1894, for the purpose 
of organizing the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania, Order 
of the Eastern Star. At this time there were 441 mem- 
bers in the State. 

In the absence of representatives from the necessary 
number of Chapters (there being but three Chapters 
represented) requisite to form a Grand Chapter, the 
meeting adjourned until Thursday, November 22, 1894, 
at which time, in a Masonic Hall, at Scranton, the Most 
Worthy Grand Matron, Sister Mary C. Snedden, being 
present and presiding, the five regularly constituted 
chapters being represented by their proper officers or 
duly constituted proxies and in accordance w*ith the 
wishes and instructions of the members of the several 
Chapters, proceeded to organize the Grand Chapter of 
Pennsylvania and to adopt a constitution and general 
regulations. The committee appointed on framing a 
constitution was as follows: Brother B. Holmes, No. 
3 ; Sister Rata A. Mills, No. 2 ; Brother George W. Glea- 
son, No. 5 ; Sister Sarah J. Wintersteen, No. i ; Philip C. 
Shaffer, No. 4. 

The election of the first board of Grand Officers re- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 395 

suited in the following choice : Sister Annette Gorman, 
No. I, Worthy Grand Matron; Brother PhiHp C. Shaf- 
fer, No. 4, Worthy Grand Patron; Sister Rata A. Mills, 
No. 2, Worthy Associate Grand Matron; Brother An- 
drew B. Holmes, No. 3, Worthy Associate Grand Pa- 
tron ; Brother George W. Gleason, Grand Secretary ; Sis- 
ter Elvira A. Fear, Grand Treasurer. 

The Order had no easy task in its efforts to exist and 
prosper in the Keystone State. Philadelphia, it is 
claimed, was the first resting place on this continent of 
the great Brotherhood of Freemasonry, and what more 
appropriate place could have been chosen to celebrate 
the first anniversary of the Grand Chapter. A pre- 
requisite for membership requires that the Order be in- 
dissolubly connected with the magnificent and ancient 
Fraternity of Freemasonry, the while the Fraternity in 
this jurisdiction was not only hostile, but threatened its 
very existence. It required all the fortitude and pa- 
tience portrayed in the life of Electa to survive the 
frowns and aspersions that were cast upon the Order. 
The pioneers in the work had obstacles to overcome that 
are not comprehended by those who enter the cultivated 
fields. To secure successful results to a purpose so im- 
portant and laudable it was necessary that the members 
of the Order should apply its rules in a rigid sense ; care- 
fully maintain its landmarks; affiliate into its sacred 
bonds only those who were well calculated by tempera- 
ment and principle to understand and appreciate its ex- 
alted teachings ; to preserve the beauty and dignity of the 
Ritual and to work out patiently and untiringly its com- 
mendable designs. They were determined to do their 
full share in attaining desirable results. 

Two years slipped away after the organization of the 



396 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapter before another subordinate chapter was 
constituted. In the city of Pittsburgh, on October 23, 
1896, Guyasuta Chapter No. 6 was constituted by Broth- 
er Andrew B. Holmes, Worthy Grand Patron, and Sis- 
ter Rata A. Mills, Worthy Grand Matron, this being the 
first Chapter organized under the jurisdiction of the 
Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania. In this same year the 
original charters were cancelled and the five Chapters 
were granted charters by the Grand Chapter of Penn- 
sylvania. From this time on the Order continued to 
grow and prosper until in 1914 there were 175 Chapters 
with a membership of 20,000. 

Looking toward the fulfillment of the tenets of our 
Order — charity and loving kindness — a noble efifort is 
being put forth to raise funds for the purpose of erecting 
a Home. The Grand Chapter has a Home Fund and the 
O.E.S. Home Association has accumulated $5,000, being 
a nucleus with which to begin the establishment of an 
Eastern Star Home. 

In looking back over the records which have to do with 
the work of the Order since 1888 one is brought face to 
face with the fact that the Order in Pennsylvania has 
marched through the wilderness of privation and sacri- 
fice, yet it has been so skillfully managed and so nobly 
supported that success and progress has marked its his- 
tory. It is well for an Order to have a struggle. The 
Order that knows no struggle knows no strength. There 
is more honor in leading a struggling enterprise on to 
success than there is in winning a victory with mighty 
forces. The story of the work of twenty years has been 
merely hinted at, but to the man of vision the light lies 
on the farther hills and by the favor of God this Eastern 
Star has her face set toward the sunrising. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 397 

A tribute to the retiring president of the O.E.S. Home Asso- 
ciation of Pennsylvania, Mrs. Emma C. Robinson, by Mrs. Mar- 
garet K. Griffith : 

Today we dream of an earthly "Home" 

For those who are dear to us all, 
An Eastern Star Home, a house built with hands, 

Where those in misfortune may call. 
We long for the day when our hopes we attain 

And our service of love be complete. 
With songs of rejoicing and loving acclaim. 

We lay our gift at the Saviour's feet. 

Today we dream of a Heavenly Land, 

Where the weary of earth may find rest. 
Of a mansion so fair, not built with hands, 

A "Home" with the redeemed and blest ; 
Where we shall walk with Him in white, 

And the King in His beauty shall see. 
No more pain ; no more tears ; but where all is bright. 

And the Lamb is the light thereof. 

So, today, may we like the Shepherds of old 

And the Wise Men who traveled afar. 
When we all reach the Home, we the face will behold. 

Of our beautiful "Eastern Star." 
When with loved ones we will meet 

And in the Chapter above shall greet, 
"For we have seen His Star in the East 

And have come to worship Him." 



398 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chapti:r of Porto Rico^^ 

The first Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star in 
Porto Rico was Juanita Chapter No. i, located at San 
Juan, organized December 30, 191 3, by Dr. W. Fontaine 
Lippitt, Grand Master of the A. F. and A. M. Grand 
Lodge of Porto Rico and Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, Dr. George A. Pettigrew. There were 
thirty-four charter members to whom charter was issued 
on January 20, 19 14. 

Dr. George A. Pettigrew, Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron, made a personal visit to this beautiful island in the 
interests of the Order and during his stay there organ- 
ized four subordinate Chapters previous to the organiza- 
tion of the Grand Chapter, as follows : Aurora del Por- 
venir Chapter No. 2, Mayaguez, organized February 10, 
1914; with thirty-two petitioners; Esperanza Chapter 
No. 3, located at San German, organized February 11, 
1914, with twenty-two petitioners; Electa Chapter No. 4, 
located at Yauco, organized February 12, 19 14, with 
fifteen petitioners ; Caridad Chapter No. 5, located at San 
Juan, organized February 17, 19 14, with nineteen peti- 
tioners. The charters for these Chapters were issued 
just previous to the organization of the Grand Chapter 
of Porto Rico. 

The convention to organize the Grand Chapter was 
called by Dr. Geo. A. Pettigrew, Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, met at San Juan February 17, 1914, and was 
presided over by Dr. Pettigrew. It was attended by a 
large number of the important personalities of the is- 
land, and the Grand Chapter was organized with great 
faith and enthusiasm. The meetings were attended by 
very distinguished ladies and great interest was taken 

6^ Organized February 17, 1914. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 399 

in the study and practice of the duties of the Order in 
their efforts to spread the benefits of the beautiful organ- 
ization/* The officers of the Grand Chapter elected 
were: Mrs. Ana M. Degetau, Grand Matron; Dr. W. 
Fontaine Lippitt, Grand Patron; Mrs. Maria Skerret de 
Gutierrez, Grand Secretary. 

The selection of Sister Ana M. de Degetau as Worthy 
Grand Matron placed the Order under the direction of 
one who discharged the duties with devotion to the prin- 
ciples of the Order she had agreed to support. Her high 
ideals of purity, nobility of purpose, love for mankind, 
and devotion to right and duty, spread a halo of rever- 
ence wherever the light of the Star shone in this infant 
Grand Jurisdiction. 

'^^ The proclamation was issued as follows : 

Office of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
Sioux Falls, South Dakota, March 10, 1914. 
To all Members of the Order of the Eastern Star, GRBBTING: 

Whereas, Representatives of the five Chapters of the Eastern Star in 
Porto Rico being convened upon the call of the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron, and presided over by him, in the City of San Juan, on the 17th day 
of February, A. D. 1914, did adopt a constitution for the government of 
the Order in said Porto Rico, and thereunder selected a full corps of 
officers who were duly installed; and the proceedings of said representa- 
tives appearing to be in accord with the Constitution of the General Grand 
Chapter ; 

Now, therefore, we do make Proci^amation : 

That the Grand Chapter of Porto Rico, thus organized, is recognized 
as a constituent part of the General Grand Chapter, having exclusive 
jurisdiction over the Order of the Eastern Star in Porto Rico, subject 
only and always to the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter of the 
Order of the Eastern Star. 

In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and caused these 
presents to be attested by the Seal of the General Grand Chapter of the 
Order of the Eastern Star the day and year first above written. 

George A. Pettigrew, 

Most Worthy Grand Patron. 
Rata A. Mii<i,s, 

Most Worthy Grand Matron. 
Attest: Lorraine J. Pitkin, 

Right Worthy Grand Secretary. 



400 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

The Most Worthy Grand Patron caused a transla- 
tion of the Ritual of the General Grand Chapter to be 
published in the Spanish language for the use of the 
Spanish speaking Chapters in Porto Rico and in other 
territory where same may be preferred. 

God lays a little on us every day ; 

And never, I believe, on all the way 

Will burdens bear so deep, 

Or pathways lie so threatening and so steep, 

But we can go, if by God's power, 

We only bear the burden of the hour. 

Grand Chapter of Rhode: Island "^"^ 

Responding to the call of eighty;-three petitioners, 
Providence Chapter No. i, located at Providence, was 
chartered by the General Grand Chapter December 3, 
1890, and organized by Frank E. Shaw of Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with S. Penrose Williams, Worthy Patron; Mrs. Emo- 
gene Williams, Worthy Matron; and Mrs. Hattie E. 
Davis, Associate Matron. 

Brother S. Penrose Williams, Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron for Rhode Island, organized 
Chapters that were chartered as follows : Queen Esther 
Chapter No. 2, at Central Falls, chartered February 2, 
1893, with 105 charter members; Woonsocket Chapter 
No. 3, at Woonsocket, with 102 charter members, char- 
tered December 28, 1894; Hope Chapter No. 4, located 
at Hope Valley, chartered February 14, 1895, with sixty- 
three members and Ruth Chapter No. 5, Riverpoint, 
chartered April 6, 1895, with seventy-nine members. 

The Most Worthy Grand Patron of the General Grand 
Chapter issued the call for the convention to organize the 

71 Organized August 22, 1895. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 401 

Grand Chapter, which met in Providence August 22, 
1895, all five Chapters in the State being represented. 
Mrs. Mary C. Snedden, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 
presided, and there were present a number of distin- 
guished guests who were en route to Boston to attend 
the meeting of the General Grand Chapter. The usual 
constitution was adopted, making Past Matrons and Past 
Patrons members of the Grand Chapter. The Grand 
Matron was made the executive officer, representatives 
of a majority of the Chapters, or a majority of the mem- 
bers of the Grand Chapter was declared to constitute a 
quorum, and per capita dues were fixed at twenty-five 
cents. In 1897 the ''Test Oath" was adopted and in 1898 
a form for opening and closing the Grand Chapter, for 
official visitations and for constituting new Chapters; an 
amendment also adopted permitting a collective ballot, 
with provisions for separate ballot if negative votes ap- 
pear. This was rescinded in 1905. Duplicate charters 
are permitted, that the original may be kept in a place 
secure against its loss by fire; the charter of a Chapter 
cannot be surrendered as long as three members desire 
to retain it. In 1910 the number of Rituals were limited 
to five in any one Chapter, and they must remain the 
property of the Chapter. 

The Grand Chapter appropriated $25 for the relief of 
the Galveston flood sufferers and the subordinate Chap- 
ters added to this amount a sufficient sum to make the 
total $103; $11 was donated to assist in maintaining 
O.E.S. headquarters at the Portland Exposition. 

This Grand Chapter was organized with only five 
Chapters in the State and the number has increased until 
in 191 3 twelve Chapters had been organized. Owing to 
the short distances necessary to travel, it has become an 
established custom for the Grand Matron, assisted by the 



402 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Patron and Grand Marshal, to preside at each 
election in the subordinate Chapters and to install their 
officers. This jurisdiction has had a committee on ap- 
peals and grievances, but the committee has never found 
any work to be done, as fraternal harmony has existed 
continuously during its activities. 

How little it costs if we give it a thought, 
To make some heart happy each day; 

Just a kind word or a tender smile, 
As we go on our daily way. 

Grand Chapte:r oi^ Saskatche:wan 

Mizpah Chapter No. i was organized at Moosejaw, 
Province of Saskatchewan, on August 4, 1909, and char- 
ter was granted by the General Grand Chapter on Au- 
gust 12, 1909, with forty-one members at time of organ- 
ization. 

North Battleford Chapter No. 2 was organized at 
North Battleford by the Rev. Willis D. Engle, Most 
'Worthy Grand Patron, on July 16, 191 2, and charter 
granted by the General Grand Chapter on October 9, 
191 2, with fourteen charter members at date of organi- 
zation and twenty-three at the time the charter was 
granted. 

Saskatoon Chapter No. 4, located at Saskatoon, was 
organized March 4, 19 14, by John L. Gessell, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with thirty-seven char- 
ter members. The Charter was granted by the General 
Grand Chapter March 27, 1914. 

Humboldt Chapter No.' 5, located at Humboldt, was 
organized April 27, 1914, by Brother John L. Gessell, 
of Saskatoon, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with thirty charter members. Charter was granted by 
the General Grand Chapter May 12, 1914. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 403 

Maple Leaf Chapter No. 6, located at Semans, was 
organized February i8, 191 5, by Brother John L. Gessell 
of Hanley, with fourteen charter members, and char- 
tered by the General Grand Chapter March 29, 191 5. 

Eight Chapters had been organized previous to the call 
issued by Dr. George A. Pettigrew, Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, to organize the Grand Chapter. Delegates were 
present from Mizpah Chapter No. i. Acacia Chapter No. 
3, Saskatoon Chapter No. 4, Maple Leaf Chapter No. 6, 
Regina Chapter No. 7, and Assiniboia Chapter No. 8. 
North Battleford Chapter No. 2 and Humboldt Chapter 
No. 5 were unable to send representatives, but were in- 
cluded in the organization. 

The convention to organize met at Saskatoon, May 16, 
1916, with Dr. George A. Pettigrew, Most Worthy 
Grand Patron presiding, assisted by Mrs. Emma C. Oco- 
bock, acting Most Worthy Grand Matron. Mrs. Flora 
Trick was elected Worthy Grand Matron and Norman J.. 
Bellamy, Worthy Grand Patron. 

Grand Chapter 01^ Scotland ^^ 

Previous to the organization of the General Grand 
Chapter, the Order of the Eastern Star was introduced 
in Scotland by Brother Robert Macoy when he issued a 
charter for Victoria Chapter No. i, located at Glasgow, 
on September 30, 1874, and later chartered three others, 
only Victoria Chapter No. i maintaining a continued 
existence. 

The organization in Scotland of Chapters of the Order 
of the Eastern Star, represents the facing of the conserv- 
atism which characterizes all Masonic action in the coun- 
tries under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 

72 Organized August 20, 1904. 



404 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

land. They view with alarm any attempt at innovation 
to a remarkable degree. That the O.E.S. could so com- 
mend itself to Scottish Masons that they are willing to 
welcome it in connection with their Masonic work is 
driving a wedge that must eventually appeal to their best 
judgment 

"Masonry of Adoption," the general name in the old 
country for that branch of Masonry to which women 
were admitted, was a different institution, with different 
aims and objects from those of the Order of the Eastern 
Star, and accounts of their workings would indicate that, 
at times, their privileges were not well improved and the 
craft did not receive a great amount of credit by reason 
of the "Lodges of Adoption." The O.E.S. is of a differ- 
ent character, and its objects must appeal to all who are 
imbued with the true principles of Craft Masonry; the 
charitable and kindly tendencies of English, Irish, and 
Scotch Masonry would readily recognize the laudable 
objects of our Order. 

John Crombie was at one time an active Mason and 
held the office of Grand Warder of the Grand Lodge. 
He published a Blue Lodge Ritual, which he was directed 
to recall, but refused to do so. This refusal was deemed 
a just cause for the action taken by the Grand Lodge 
when orders were issued for his suspension from the 
Fraternity. Following this, Mr. Crombie published rit- 
uals for other rites, including the Eastern Star, and as- 
suming the right to do so, under the authority and title 
of the Supreme Council of Rites, issued charters for 
Chapters, first in Aberdeen and later at other points, but 
only one at Aberdeen is known to have remained active. 

The officers of the General Grand Chapter issued a 
charter for Dundee Chapter No. i, located at Dundee, on 
May 28, 1 901, with twenty-four charter members. Or- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 405 

ganization was completed by Alonzo J. Burton, of New 
York City, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Immediately upon learning that the General Grand 
Chapter had exercised its right to organize Chapters, 
officers of Victoria Chapter, which used the Macoy Rit- 
ual, made an effort to revive the other three Chapters, 
then dormant, that had been chartered by Macoy and had 
used the Macoy Ritual. In this they were successful 
with two, and on January 24, 1903, representatives of 
the three Chapters met in a convention and organized a 
governing body which they named the ''Supreme Grand 
Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star of Scotland,'' 
requesting recognition from the Grand Chapters in this 
country. 

Although this body was not recognized by the officers 
of the General Grand Chapter, and not being conversant 
with the fact that only three Chapters were included in 
the organization and also that the General Grand Chap- 
ter claimed jurisdiction in Scotland and deemed the or- 
ganization irregular, some of the Grand Chapters, acting 
through their Grand Matrons, recognized it by appoint- 
ing Grand Representatvies near the same ; and the Grand 
Chapter of California, by resolution, recognized the 
Grand Chapter of Scotland, but many of them withdrew 
the recognition when advised of the facts in the case. 

On December i, 1902, the General Grand Chapter is- 
sued a dispensation for a Chapter at Glasgow, Scotland, 
and Fidelity Chapter No. 2 was given its charter on Feb- 
ruary 7, 1903, with fourteen charter members ; organized 
by John Healy Fash, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron. 

Alexandra Chapter No. 3, located at Glasgow, re- 
ceived a dispensation from the officers of the General 
Grand Chapter on December 18, 1903; was organized 



406 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

January 15, 1904, by Matthew Richmond, Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, with sixteen members, and 
chartered March 10, 1904. 

PoUok Chapter No. 4, located at Pollokshaw, was 
granted a dispensation on March 22, 1904, and organ- 
ized by Matthew Richmond, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with twenty-four charter members, the 
charter having been granted on August 15, 1904. 

Laura Chapter No. 5, located at Glasgow, was organ- 
ized August 20, 1904, by the Most Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron, Mrs. Laura B. Hart, acting as the Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

With five regularly chartered and active Chapters, 
working by authority of charters granted by the General 
Grand Chapter and using the Ritual issued by that body, 
the time had arrived when it was deemed expedient to 
organize the Grand governing body. The situation was 
complicated by the conditions existing in that country, 
with three divisions of the Order. In order to take such 
steps as might be for the best interests of the Order and 
harmonize the forces the General Grand Chapter, by its 
principal officers, placed the matter in the hands of the 
Most Worthy Grand Matron, Sister Laura B. Hart, who, 
exercising all the authority vested in her by the consti- 
tution of the General Grand Chapter and as the Deputy 
of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, clothed with his au- 
thority also, assembled representatives of all the Chap- 
ters and organized the Grand Chapter of Scotland on 
August 20, 1904. A concordat was entered into with the 
representatives of all three factions whereby they are to 
use the Ritual as established by the General Grand Chap- 
ter, and they are to have jurisdiction over the British 
Empire, excepting such portions as are on the continent 
of America, with the privilege of organizing a Supreme 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 407 

Grand Chapter as soon as a sufficient number of Grand 
Chapters are organized in the territory to make it ex- 
pedient to do so/^ 

Though the constitution adopted differs some from 
that usually adopted in the States, the same spirit and 
earnestness of effort for the advancement of the Order 
prevails. Following the opening of the Grand Chapter, 
the Grand Matron invites the Grand Patron to preside, 
which has been done regularly. The grand committee, 
consisting of all grand office bearers, hold meetings prev- 
ious to the annual meeting of the Grand Chapter, at 
which time questions to be brought before the Supreme 
Grand Chapter are discussed, grand office bearers for the 
ensuing year are selected, and upon the recommendation 
to the Supreme Grand Officer, were appointed, following 
the laws of the Grand Lodge of England. 

In 1 910 it was decided that the Grand Chapter of 
Scotland should meet twice each year, and special dis- 
pensations were granted to two prominent Freemasons 
in the Transvaal and New Zealand respectively, to con- 
fer the degrees and establish the Order in those coun- 
tries ; petition blanks were ordered to have the following 
appended : *'The Order of the Eastern Star is purely a 
Christian Order, and this matter should be pointed out to 
applicants for admission.'' 

In 191 2 a lengthy discussion as to whether the star 
should have one point upward or two points upward re- 
sulted in the new Constitution establishing that the star 
shall have two points upward. Three negative votes are 
necessary to reject a petitioner. In 1908 an organiza- 
tion termed "Lady Freemasons'' was declared a clan- 
destine body and recognition denied members of the so- 
called 'Women Freemasons." 

73 See Concordat with Scotland elsewhere in this volume, pp. 155-156. 



408 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

At the annual meeting of the Grand Chapter of Scot- 
land, held in Glasgow, March 21, 19 14, the following 
motion by Brother A. F. Mennie, Worthy Patron, was 
carried unanimously : 

That Grand Secretary be instructed to communicate with (a) 
each chapter of the order in the British Dominions, (b) the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter which exercises jurisdiction over America and 
elsewhere, and (c) each grand chapter in the United States of 
America, and inform them that a number of persons styling them- 
selves "Thistle Chapter" or "Aberdeen Chapter, No. 1, Eastern 
Star," and who meet as a chapter in Aberdeen, Scotland, are not 
recognized by the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland, and point 
out to the member of chapters under the Supreme Grand Chapter 
of Scotland that, in countenancing in any way the said chapter 
in Aberdeen, they are liable, not only to expulsion from the order, 
but to have their names erased from the books of their chapter 
and from the roll of the Supreme Grand Chapter ; inform all the 
above chapters that the only regular chapter of the O.E.S. in Aber- 
deen is "Alexandria" Chapter, No. 5, under the Supreme Grand 
Chapter of Scotland; and respectfully request each of the afore- 
said chapters (General Grand, Grand, and subordinate) to en- 
gross this communication in their minutes. 

It has been ascertained that among members of this illicit body, 
known as "Thistle Chapter," are a number of renegade members 
of the Order of the Eastern Star. This illicit body have a ritual 
of their own in use, but, in addition, they are making a wrongous 
use of the ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. They are in 
possession of all the necessary information for testing members 
to the Eastern Star, and admit members to their body who are not 
in any way related to Master Masons. 

It has been stated that the members of this illicit body intend 
to visit the subordinate chapters of the Supreme Grand Chapter 
of Scotland, especially those situated in Glasgow, and I have been 
instructed to request that the chapters exercise the greatest care 
in admitting visitors to the chapter room, especially before open- 
ing, and to require from visitors from Aberdeen production of 
documentary evidence of a satisfactory character. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 409 

I have further to request that the subordinate chapters report 
to me without delay any applications for admission by "Thistle 
Chapter" members, and that this circular be read in open chapter, 
engrossed in the minutes, and retained for reference, all with the 
view of giving the matter the greatest publicity. 

The Grand Chapter is maintained by a graded per 
per capita tax, according to the rank of its members ; the 
dues of the Grand Matron and Grand Patron are £i is; 
each Associate Grand Matron and Associate Grand Pa- 
tron I OS ; and for members of the Grand Chapter 2s each. 

Then let us pray that come it may, 

As come it will for a' that, 
That man to man, the world o'er. 

Shall brithers be, an' a' that. 

Grand Chapter of South Carolina ^* 

The Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star 
in South CaroHna was organized June i, 1907, at Green- 
wood. Previous to this, Brother Macoy had granted a 
charter to a Chapter at Charleston some time during the 
month of April, 1873, ^^^ i^ soon became dormant and no 
further activity is recorded until the General Grand 
Chapter issued a charter for Gate City Chapter No. i, 
at Florence, March 31, 1893. After five years this char- 
ter was surrendered February 25, 1898. Vances Chap- 
ter No. 2, at Vances, was chartered October 8, 1895, and 
was instituted December 5, 1895, with twenty-seven 
charter members; Lily of the Valley Chapter No. 3, 
Orangeburg, was chartered July 6, 1896, and instituted 
July, 1896, with forty-two charter members; Greenwood 
Chapter No. 4, Greenwood, was chartered April 26, 1897, 
and instituted May i, 1897, with eighteen charter mem- 

7* Organized June 1, 1907. Data by Mrs. Ila Leonard Willson, Grand 
Secretary. 



410 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

bers; Charity Chapter No. 5, located at Elloree, was 
chartered October 22, 1897, and instituted November 3, 
1897, with thirty charter members; Electa Chapter No. 
6, Greenville, was chartered August 7, 1899, constituted 
January 16, 1900, with thirty-nine charter members and 
surrendered its charter September 29, 1906; Esther 
Chapter No. 7, Columbia, chartered August 16, 1900, 
and organized October 17, 1900, with forty-four char- 
ter members ; Electric City Chapter No. 8, at Anderson, 
was chartered September 11, 1900, and organized Sep- 
tember 21, 1900, with ninety-six charter members; Ruth 
Chapter No. 9, Newberry, chartered November 19, 1902, 
with thirty-eight charter members; Palmetto Chapter 
No. 10, at Mullins, was organized April 19, 1905, with 
twenty-four charter members and charter granted May 
I, 1905; Esscon Chapter No. 11, at Marion, chartered 
July 27, 1905; Fort Mill Chapter No. 12, at Fort Mill, 
chartered July 6, 1906; Seneca Chapter No. 13, at Sen- 
eca, chartered December 19, 1906; and Adah Chapter 
No. 14, at Laurens, chartered November 14, 1906. 

Of the fourteen Chapters chartered, only six were ac- 
tive at the time of organization of the Grand Chapter, 
and all united in the request sent to the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, W. F. Kuhn of Farmington, Missouri, 
who appointed the Most Worthy Grand Matron, Mrs. 
Madeleine B. Conkling, as his Deputy to meet with the 
representatives of the several Chapters at Greenwood, 
June I, 1907, at which time and place the Grand Chap- 
ter was organized. 

From this center has radiated beneficent influences 
that can never die; this is the home of the Urst Grand 
Matron of South Carolina, Sister Mary Pickney Ouzts, 
whose sweet face is enshrined in the hearts of all who 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 411 

knew her. She is the pioneer of the Order in this State ; 
her husband, Brother D. A. G. Ouzts, gave her aid, sym- 
pathy, and encouragement, and they, together, "Scatter- 
ed the literature of the Order, its history and meaning, 
the beauties enfolded in its teachings by pen and tongue'' 
and planted the seeds which have responded to the touch 
of the Master's hand and brought forth good fruits. To 
the faithfulness and loyalty of these two enthusiastic 
members, the Grand Chapter owes its existence. Sister 
Ouzts served as Grand Matron from 1907 until 1909, 
retiring to the rank of Past Grand Matron at her own re- 
quest, carrying with her the love and esteem of the en- 
tire membership. She was honored in the General 
Grand Chapter at Milwaukee in 1907, being appointed 
Worthy Grand Martha, 1907-1910, for the General 
Grand Chapter, which convened for the first time in a 
southern city in 1910 at Jacksonville, Florida. On Feb- 
ruary 16, 1910, the spirit of this beloved sister was waft- 
ed "to mansions in the skies" and she heard the Master's 
plaudit, "Well done." She sleeps sweetly in her native 
soil in the cemetery at Marshall, Texas. 

Brother Henry P. Boggs was the first Worthy Grand 
Patron of South Carolina, and ably assisted the Worthy 
Grand Matron in establishing the work on a firm founda- 
tion. He is a teacher of recognized merit and has a 
splendid home school for boys at Glenn Springs, South 
Carolina. The second Worthy Grand Patron, W. ly. R. 
Cahall, served one term, 1908- 1909; the following year 
his fraternal relations were dissolved. 

At the Grand Chapter session in Spartansburg, June 
16, 1909, Sister Annie Lee Anderson, of Blacksburg, 
became the second Worthy Grand Matron. Brother D. 
A. G. Ouzts, of Greenwood, was elected the third Worthy 



412 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Patron, serving for three years, 1909-1912. 
During these years. Brother Ouzts did much effective 
work. He wrote an article, "What the Eastern Star is 
doing for Masonry,'' emphasizing the assistance that the 
Order has given to help mankind to a higher sphere of 
happiness and usefulness and giving aid and comfort to 
dependent loved ones. This has received favorable com- 
ment and his compilation of statistics on what each State 
has done for Masonic and Eastern Star Homes, Orphan- 
ages, and Hospitals, has added greatly to the value of 
our Order as a means of furthering charity, truth, and 
loving kindness among the members. Requests for this 
pamphlet are received quite often. 

The third Worthy Grand Matron, Sister Tallulah L. 
Cudd, of Spartanburg, was elected at Sumter, June 22, 
1910; she served faithfully and efficiently for two years, 
1910-1912, joining the ranks of Past Grands with the as- 
surance of the love and confidence of her sisters and 
brothers in this great work — the advancement of fra- 
ternal love and brotherly kindness — leaving all the 
Chapters in the State harmoniously working together. 
Inheriting a love for the principles of Freemasonry from 
her beloved forefathers, this sentiment was emphasized 
by the intimate relationship with the sainted Sister Ouzts 
and she was imbued with an enthusiasm like unto her 
own ; this dear sister feelingly referred to Sister Cudd in 
the last address she made to the Grand Chapter at Spar- 
tanburg in 1909 in these words: "I love all my sisters 
and brothers and all our Chapters, but there is one that is 
dearer than all, for it so happened, when the darkest day 
came and I felt 'What is the use, nobody seems to care !' 
a letter full of cheer and good report came from that 
Worthy Matron about her Chapter and the good work it 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 413 

was doing." Sister Cudd treasures a personal letter 
which contains this sentiment expressed to her. When 
the honor came to her of filling the station of Worthy 
Grand Matron, it seemed as if the "mantle had been cast 
on her shoulders" by this dear friend, asking her to take 
up this noble work which she had begun, and, like EHsha 
of old, she carried the work forward earnestly. 

On July 21, 1910, Sister Cudd^^ received the appoint- 
ment of Worthy Grand Martha from the Most Worthy 
Grand Matron, Sister Ella S. Washburn, of the General 
Grand Chapter, to fill the chair made vacant by the death 
of Sister Mary Pickney Ouzts. 

Sister Cudd and Brother Ouzts felt that their succes- 
sors should be elected at Florence in 1912 and the fourth 
Worthy Grand Matron, Sister Nancy L. Bennett of Key- 
stone Chapter No. 24, Greer, was elected ; she served two 
years and declined the nomination for a third term. 

Brother W. C. Davis, an eminent lawyer of Manning, 
was elected fourth Worthy Grand Patron. He and Sis- 
ter Bennett had two successful terms, 1912-1914; the 
growth and prosperity of the Order during that time re- 
vealed unmistakably that the hands at the helm steered 
the "Craft" successfully. 

The fifth Worthy Grand Matron was elected at Clio, 
June, 1914, and Sister Leilah F. Attaway of Saluda 
Chapter No. 8, Saluda, fill this position. 

Brother Kenneth Baker, of Mary Pickney Ouzts Chap- 
ter No. I, Greenwood, is the fifth Worthy Grand Patron. 

When the history of the year 1914-1915 is written in 

75 Sister Tallulah Leonard Cudd, Past Grand Matron of South Caro- 
lina, died at Spartanburg, South Carolina, August 3, 1915. God said, 
"Come with Me, my child," She could not say nay; so, taking His hand, 
she turned from the loved ones around her and trustfully followed her 
Savior to the New Jerusalem, that city not made with hands. 



414 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the annals of the Order of the Eastern Star, there will 
be the record of much good accomplished. May those 
who follow continue to scatter the seed with one hand 
while the other gathers in the hearts, making each life 
better, each home dearer, and each heart purer, giving 
to all a deeper love and more tender care over those who 
need loving and uplifting, that by the works we do, others 
may know us to be members of the beautiful Order of the 
Eastern Star. 

In 1909, the Grand Chapter voted to unite with the 
Grand Lodge, cooperating in their efforts to establish a 
Home, and donations amounting to more than $500 have 
been made by the Grand Chapter for the use of the Ma- 
sonic Grand Lodge for charitable purposes. The O.E.S. 
has a charity fund; also the Mary Pickney Ouzts me- 
morial fund, the latter to be used for a Masonic Hospi- 
tal when same may be erected. 

The following beautiful poem is from the pen of Past 
Grand Matron, Sister Mary Pickney Ouzts, written June 
15, 1909: 

TH^ KASTi:rn star 

May it shine on the mountain, 

Cast its spell on the vale, 
And its mystical radiance 

On all hearts prevail; 

For sweet is the truth, on the Ritual's page, 

Seen by the rays of that magical Star, 
Open to those of all clime and age, 

Who living and loving its clasp will debar. 

Glorious Star! Whose beautiful light, 
Scatters the darkness and illumines the night, 
May the glow of its rays in all hearts be cast, 
'Til its truth and beauty are understood at last. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 415 

Grand Chapter oi^ South Dakota ^® 

In the spring of 1871, there was instituted in the vil- 
lage of Elkpoint, Dakota Territory, an Eastern Star 
Chapter, chartered as Violet Chapter No. 2. The char- 
ter was granted June 22, 1871, and was signed by Robert 
Macoy and Edward O. Jenkins. No record has been ob- 
tainable of the first Chapter chartered in the Territory, 
but legend has it that Robert Macoy organized the first 
Chapter at VermilHon in 1871. 

Pioneer life was not conducive to fostering the Chap- 
ter, when both mental and physical efforts were utilized 
to cope with drought, grasshoppers, floods, and disease, 
so the little Chapter died. 

About 1878 the Macoy charters were recalled and ex- 
changed, but in some way the charter and signet of Vio- 
let Chapter No. 2, Dakota Territory, were overlooked and 
have remained intact for forty-five years in the home of 
the first Associate Matron, Mrs. Margaretta Blair. 

During the life of the Chapter Mrs. Henry Schumaker 
died and was buried with Eastern Star rites, the first 
funeral of its kind on Dakota soil. 

At the present writing (191 6) there are six survivors 
of this early Chapter: Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Beggs, of 
Chicago, and Mesdames Mary Northrup, Clara Wixson, 
Martha Wallace, and Margaretta Blair, all of Elkpoint, 
South Dakota. By special dispensation, granted by the 
Grand Chapter, O.E.S., of South Dakota, June 8, 1916, 
Wynoka Chapter No. 107, O.E.S., of Elkpoint, was grant- 
ed permission to recognize Violet Chapter No. 2, Dakota 
Territory, and affiliate the members within her jurisdic- 
tion. On June 28, 1916, with the floral affiliation work, 

76 Organized July, 1889. Data by Mrs. Angle L. Williamson, Grand 
Secretary O. E. S. and P. W. G. M. 



416 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

these four elderly ladies, with ages ranging from seven- 
ty-two to seventy-six years, were received into Wynoka 
Chapter. The old charter and the signet, both in their 
old frames, have been presented to Wynoka Chapter and 
are hung in the Chapter room. 

Early history tells us that Robert Macoy organized 
the first Eastern Star Chapter in South Dakota, at Ver- 
million in June, 1871. This chapter only survived a 
short time. 

In February, 1882, Queen Esther No. i was organized 
at Mitchell as the first to receive a charter under the 
General Grand Chapter. Black Hills No. 2 was organ- 
ized at Rapid City, January 22, 1883. Evergreen No. 3 
at Madison, April 16, 1883. Vesta No. 4 at Watertown, 
March 15, 1884. Beulah No. 5 at Flandreau, Septem- 
ber 24, 1884. Howard No. 6 at Howard, March 16, 
1885. Lois No. 7 at Webster, May 12, 1887. Crescent 
No. 9 at St. Lawrence, February 11, 1888. Minerva No. 
10, at Aberdeen, March 16, 1888. Madison No. 11, 
Madison, February 18, 1889. 

Queen Esther, Black Hills, Evergreen, and Howard 
gave up their charters and Evergreen was reorganized 
as Madison, No. 11, February 18, 1889. There were then 
six live Chapters. Delegates from these met at Water- 
town in July, 1889, and there organized the Grand Chap- 
ter of South Dakota. 

At this meeting a constitution and by-laws were adopt- 
ed, the Chapters renumbered, and Brother J. H. Baldwin 
elected Grand Patron, Sister May Monks Grand Matron, 
and Mrs. A. M. McCallister Grand Secretary, which 
position she held until her death. At the second meeting 
at St. Lawrence 401 members were reported. Sister 
Monks was not able to preside at this meeting but sent 
her address to be read. She had been honored by the 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 417 

appointment of Worthy Grand Warder of the General 
Grand Chapter. 

The third session opened at Webster with three new 
Chapters added. The first report of foreign correspon- 
dence was printed in this year's Proceedings, eighteen 
States being reviewed. Brother Geo. A. Pettigrew pre- 
sided as Grand Patron for the first time. 

The fourth session convened at Madison and Madison 
Chapter exempHfied the work for the Grand Chapter. 
At the next session in Flandreau, Beulah Chapter exem- 
plified the work. The Grand Secretary was instructed 
to keep on hand the necessary supplies for the Chapters. 
Fifty dollars was appropriated for the use of the Grand 
Matron and the same amount for the Grand Lecturer^ 
The Grand Secretary's salary was raised. This Grand 
Chapter was called upon to mourn the loss of its Associ- 
ate Grand Conductress, Sister Estella Baldwin, who had 
been killed in an accident a short time before the session 
convened. 

The sixth annual meeting was held at Aberdeen with 
Sister Mary Brown in the East. She recommended that 
the Grand Chapter meet at the same time and place as the 
Masonic Lodge, so it might be possible to get reduced 
railroad rates. A resolution was presented at this ses- 
sion asking that a "Pass'' be granted for the use of the 
subordinate Chapters, which resolution was lost. 

DeSmet was the next place of meeting. This year 
was the first time a delegate had been sent to the General 
Grand Chapter. Sister Sarah J. Clark was elected. Sis- 
ter Clark gave a very fine report of her visit at the next 
session of the Grand Chapter which met at Brookings. 
Brookings Chapter exemplified the work and also the 
floral work at this meeting. 

The next session met at Sioux Falls. A reduction of 



418 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

railroad fares for the first time. Six U. D. Chapters re- 
ported. The tenth annual met at Redfield. The Home 
fund was started at this session, Sister Sarah J. Clark 
giving $5 and the Grand Chapter appropriated $ioo. 
Regular memorial services were held for the first time. 
Sister Clark received the appointment of Very Worthy- 
Grand Chaplain of the General Grand Chapter. For the 
first time the Grand Matron's address was read before 
the Grand Patron's. Sister Mary E. Partridge, Most 
Worthy Grand Matron, was an honored guest at this 
session. 

At the close of this decade there were forty-five Chap- 
ters with a total membership of 2,035 J ^^e jurisdiction 
had received two appointments from the General Grand 
Chapter, revised the constitution and by-laws twice, and 
elected ten Grand Matrons and eight Grand Patrons to 
preside in the East. 

Many things happened in the next decade, which would 
make a good sized history if everything of moment could 
be recorded. Both the Stars and Masons met together 
at Yankton, the first year of this decade. At the next 
session at Aberdeen, greetings were exchanged with the 
Masonic brothers for the first time and this courtesy has 
passed down to the present day. The next year memo- 
rial services were held for Sister Jennie Shirk who passed 
away November 7, 1900. This was the first time death 
invaded the ranks of the Past Grand Matrons. Sister 
Pettigrew was elected delegate to the General Grand 
Chapter and Brother Robert Kerr received the appoint- 
ment of Worthy Grand Sentinel. They brought back a 
very fine report of that meeting. The next year the card 
index was installed. 

Brother Marshall Brown, during his term of ofiice as 



.BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 419 

Grand Patron purchased some very beautiful jewels for 
the Grand Officers, a very desirable acquirement to the 
Grand Chapter belongings. At the seventeenth annual 
session steps were taken to incorporate the Grand Chap- 
ter. Brother Albert Coe, Past Grand Patron, passed 
away during this year after a long illness. 

At the eighteenth session three of the Senior Grand 
Matrons were presented with Past Grand Matron's jew- 
els. Sisters Lurancy Norton, Mary Brown, and Sarah 
J. Clark were the recipients. This custom has been kept 
up until all Past Grand Matrons have jewels, and now 
one is given each year to the outgoing Grand Matron. 

The next year was the saddest in the history of the 
Order in South Dakota, for the ever faithful, competent 
Grand Secretary, Sister McCallister, "passed beyond" 
February 9, 1907, after a long and serious illness. The 
whole State was in mourning as she was endeared to 
everyone who knew her. She had served eighteen years, 
ever since the Grand Chapter was organized. Her hus- 
band was appointed to finish out the year's work and 
Sister Angie L. Williamson was elected Grand Secretary 
at the next session, which was held in the city of Lead, 
and the Grand Chapter had Sister Madeleine Conkling, 
Most Worthy Grand Matron, as its honored guest. This 
was the second time the State had been honored by a 
visit from the Most Worthy Grand Matron. She gave 
many delightful talks and all were benefited by her pres- 
ence. Sister Angie WilHamson was appointed Worthy 
Grand Adah by Sister Conkling. A Past Grand Ma- 
trons' and Patrons' Association was organized here. 

Sister Linnie Ketcham brought a fine report from the 
General Grand Chapter at Milwaukee, where a large del- 
egation of voting members were present from South Da- 



420 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

kota. Now comes the end of this decade and at the city 
of Watertown the twenty-first birthday was celebrated. 
The Grand Chapter was welcomed by the same gentle- 
man, D. C. Thomas, who accorded the welcome at the 
first session twenty years previously. Sister Mary 
Brown gave a history of the Grand Chapter up to this 
time. This session will long be remembered as one of 
our most interesting meetings together. At the end of 
this second decade there were ninety-four Chapters and 
a membership of 6,609. Total in Home fund, $3,818.49. 

The next session met at Pierre, the home city of the 
Grand Matron, Sister Lumley. The next session met at 
Chamberlain where the Order was again honored by a 
visit from the Most Worthy Grand Matron, Sister AHce 
Miller, and Geo. A. Pettigrew, who held the position of 
Right Worthy Associate Grand Patron. Sister Morse 
was delegate to the General Grand Chapter. 

The next session met in the city of Deadwood, where 
there are many interesting attractions for visitors. The 
constitution and by-laws were revised. The next year 
brought the twenty-fifth anniversary, which was cele- 
brated at Yankton at the same time the Masonic brethren 
were celebrating their fiftieth anniversary. It was a 
great pleasure for the two Grand bodies to be together 
at this time. Four Past Grand Patrons, Brothers Petti- 
grew, Alfred Poznansky, Frank A. Brown, and Joseph 
A. Poznansky, were presented with buttons in honor of 
their service as Past Grand Patrons of the Order. This 
custom was adopted and is to be carried out until all have 
received a button. The second time the Grim Reaper in- 
vaded the ranks of the Past Grand Matrons and Sister 
Anna Lumley answered the summons to come up higher. 
Her death caused universal sorrow throughout the State. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 421 

Sister Doherty was elected delegate to General Grand 
Chapter at Chicago and she had a full quota of voting 
members with her. Doctor Geo. A. Pettigrew was elect- 
ed Most Worthy Grand Patron to the satisfaction of all. 
Sister Jessie G. Harris received the appointment of Wor- 
thy Grand Martha. 

The next session met at Sioux Falls and at this time 
the Grand Chapter was called upon to mourn the death 
of Sister Sarah J. Clark, who died in Quincy, Massachu- 
setts, March lo, 191 5. 

In 191 5 the deputy system was adopted. The State 
divided into three districts and a Deputy Grand Matron 
appointed for each. Sister Susan B. Warring, Grand 
Matron, instituted a system of schools of instruction that 
proved very successful and her plans for conducting the 
same were officially adopted at the 1916 session. The 
same year recommendations of Grand Patron Richard 
Norman Axford were adopted requiring the obligation 
to be repeated by the Chapter immediately preceding 
balloting. 

Three of our Past Grand Matrons have "passed on,'' 
eighteen reside in the State, and six in other States. 
Twenty Past Grand Patrons still live in South Dakota, 
one has "passed on,'' and three reside in other States. 
Those present form a true and faithful band of workers 
who stand shoulder to shoulder for the advancement of 
the Order of the Eastern Star in South Dakota. There 
are 117 Chapters with a membership of 9,962; the Home 
fund amounts to $11,454.09. 



422 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Chaptkr o^ Tknne:sske: '^ 

The very earliest history of Tennessee, as connected 
with O.E.S. work, begins with the chartering of three 
Chapters by Brother Macoy, one at Nashville in 1874, 
but none has endured to the end, and we may properly 
date the active work from the granting of charters by 
the General Grand Chapter. 

East Fork Chapter No. 2 was chartered April 30, 1880, 
by the General Grand Chapter and was organized by 
J. C. Bruice, special Deputy, while Esther Chapter No. i 
was not chartered until July 16, 1880. Fayetteville 
Chapter No. 3, located at Fayetteville, was chartered De- 
cember 29, 1 88 1, and was organized by Brother Ewan 
Burney, Deputy for Tennessee. Again, all Chapters be- 
came dormant. In consequence, the charter granted 
March 6, 1893, to thirty-six petitioners, to form a Chap- 
ter at East Nashville, was given the number, i, and was 
organized by John B. Garrett, Deputy. 

Chattanooga Chapter No. 2 was chartered December 
5, 1893, and organized by Loren Mitchell, Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, with 106 charter members. 

McKinnon Chapter No. 3 was chartered June 18, 1894, 
in response to the petition of thirty-four charter members 
at Erin, and was organized at that place by D. L. Willatt, 
special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Wayland Springs Chapter No. 4, located at Wayland 
Springs, was chartered on December 8, 1894, with twen- 
ty-four members and organized by Rev. S. A. McMackin, 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron for that pur- 
pose. 

Esther Chapter, located at Bagdad, was reorganized 
December 21, 1895, ^^^ wishing to retain their former 

78 Organized October 18, 1900. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 423 

charter, which had been granted as Esther Chapter No. 
I, on July 1 6, 1880, the Most Worthy Grand Matron en- 
dorsed the same, but gave them No. 5 on said charter in- 
stead of No. I. 

Olive Leaf Chapter No. 6 was chartered October 12, 
1896, and was constituted at Dickson, October 30, 1896, 
by J. T. Spaulding, with twenty charter members. 

Rock City Chapter No. 7, located at Nashville, was 
chartered February 15, 1897, and constituted February 
19, 1897, by A. S. Williams, with twenty-six charter 
members. 

Hurricane Chapter No. 8, Hurricane, was chartered 
June 22, 1897, and constituted June 26, 1897, by J. J. 
Sanders, Worshipful Master of Geo. Hillman Lodge No. 
431, with fifty-two charter members. 

Elmwood Chapter No. 9, Elmwood, was chartered 
June 28, 1897, and Amanda Chapter No. 10, Cross ville, 
was chartered in February, 1898. 

Bethpage Chapter No. 11, Bethpage, was chartered 
May 2J, 1899, ^^<^ constituted August 27, 1899, by W. C. 
Nimmo, Deputy, with thirty-eight charter members. 

Kingston Chapter No. 12, Kingston, was chartered 
August 26, 1889, and was organized September 11, 1889, 
by J. B. Goodwin, Deputy, with thirty members. 

Of the twelve Chapters organized only six were active 
and participated in the organization of the Grand Chap- 
ter at Nashville on October 18, 1900. The convention 
to organize was presided over by Mrs. Kate C. Brechner, 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. The consti- 
tution adopted made Past Matrons and Past Patrons 
members, and together with Associate Matrons they 
were made eligible to any office in the Grand Chapter: 
"That the office should seek the person and not the per- 
son the office. It is unwise and undignified to solicit 



424 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

votes for an office and the practice has a tendency to cre- 
ate ill-feeling and dissension among the membership of 
the Grand Chapter. It is, therefore, an offense against 
the Order, and members guilty thereof shall be subject 
to discipline/' 

In 1 90 1 an amendment was adopted empowering the 
Grand Chapter to receive petition, ballot, and confer the 
degrees upon applicants not located convenient to char- 
tered Chapters, for the purpose of extending the Order, 
conveying upon the person membership in good standing 
but not the privilege of a vote until affiliated with a char- 
tered Chapter. Twelve persons were thus received at 
the meeting in 1901. 

In 1903 $11.60 was donated by one Chapter to form a 
nucleus for an endowment fund for the Masonic Home. 
This fund has increased each year and the O.E.S. has 
contributed in various ways, to the amount of about 
$5,000, to the Masonic Home, located five miles from 
Nashville, and has a representation upon the Home 
board. In 1909 the O.E.S. furnished the Old Women's 
Building; in 191 o installed electric lights; in 191 1 in- 
stalled a heating plant; in 1913 and 1914 built an infirm- 
ary in connection with the Home which stands as a mon- 
ument to their untiring devotion to the charitable work 
of the Order, and are looking to the erection of an O.E.S. 
Home in the near future. 

In 1905 Brother Rob. Morris, Past Grand Patron of 
Kentucky, was present as an honored guest and made an 
address, and in 191 2 he was made an honorary member 
of the Grand Chapter as a tribute to the son of the 
founder of the Order. 

A resolution adopted in 191 5 unanimously elected the 
Grand Secretary, Sister Mary R. Reeves, an Honorary 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 425 

Past Grand Matron, as a recognition of the many long 
years of faithful service which the recipient had rendered 
to the Order. 

Grand Chapter of Tkxas^^ 

The lessons of fidelity to convictions of right, faithful- 
ness to the demands of honor and justice, loyalty to kin- 
dred and friends, trustful faith and hope of immortal Hf e, 
and heroic endurance were first introduced into Texas by 
Brother Robert Macoy when he sold five charters for 
Chapters therein in 1870. 

Brother Thomas M. Lamb, Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron of the General Grand Chapter, appointed Brother 
Lor on Mitchel, of Dallas, special Deputy for the General 
Grand Chapter, under whose influence Friendship Chap- 
ter No. I, Dallas, was chartered June 22, 1877, and or- 
ganized July 24, 1877, with Henry Boll, Worthy Patron, 
Jane Austin, Worthy Matron, Anna Pearson, Associate 
Matron. 

Chico Chapter No. 2, Chico, was chartered December 
9, 1879, with Mrs. Emma J. Blanton, Worthy Matron, 
Theodore Merriman, Worthy Patron, and Mrs. Feno 
Dickenson, Associate Matron, and organized by Theo- 
dore Merriman, Deputy for the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron. 

Cecelia Chapter No. 3, Clarksville, was chartered June 
26, 1882, and organized July 11, 1882, by W. L. Burdett, 
special Deputy, with Mrs. M. L. Hazzard, Worthy Ma- 
tron, James H. Cheatham, Worthy Patron, Mrs. Sue B. 
Cheatham, Associate Matron. 

Samuel Long Chapter No. 4, Paris, surrendered its 

78 Organized May 5, 1884. Data furnished by Mrs. Cassie C. Leonard, 
Grand Secretary. 



426 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

charter, granted by the Supreme Grand Chapter and 
dated May 28, 1879, ^^^ received a charter from the 
General Grand Chapter dated October 30, 1882. 

Esther Chapter No. 5, San Antonio, was chartered 
December 12, 1882, and organized March 11, 1883, by 
Nathan H. Gould, special Deputy. Mrs. Mary Shar- 
dein. Worthy Matron, A. H. Boyd, Worthy Patron, Mrs. 
Lily Ryan, Associate Matron. 

Queen City Chapter No. 6, Queen City, was chartered 
April 20, 1883, and organized by George H. Salmon, 
Deputy. 

Hadassah Chapter No. 7, Georgetown, was chartered 
June 18, 1883. 

Fort Worth Chapter No. 8, Fort Worth, was char- 
tered January 28, 1884 and organized February 23, 1884, 
by Wm. L. Holt, Deputy. 

Mt. Moriah Chapter No. 9, Kildare, was chartered 
January 28, 1884, and organized March 6, 1884, by the 
Rev. Perry Hawkins, Deputy. 

Jonesboro Chapter No. 10, Jonesboro, was chartered 
March 4, 1884, and organized March 22, 1884. Cedar 
Bayou Chapter No. 11, Cedar Bayou, was chartered 
April 29, 1884. Liberty Hill Chapter No. 12, Liberty 
Hill, was chartered May 19, 1884, fourteen days after 
the Grand Chapter had been organized, but before same 
had been recognized by the General Grand Chapter. 
May 22, 1884, a charter was issued by the General Grand 
Chapter to New Hope Chapter No. 13, Gib town, seven- 
teen days after the organization of the Grand Chapter. 

The call for the convention to organize the Grand 
Chapter was issued by members of Fort Worth Chapter 
No. 8 and the meeting was held at Fort Worth May 5, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 427 

1884. Sister Elmira Foley, Past Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, who at that time was a member of Fort Worth 
Chapter No. 8, as Deputy for the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron organized this Grand Chapter, but the action 
having only representation from four Chapters, it was 
not recognized by the General Grand Chapter until July 
20, 1884, when the action of the convention had been en- 
dorsed by an additional Chapter. 

The Grand Chapter membership was made to include 
not only Past Matrons and Past Patrons but also Past 
Associate Matrons. 

Starting out under circumstances having features of 
discouragement because of so few Chapters entering the 
work of the Grand Chapter, the meetings were not well 
attended. Irregularities in records, with imperfect sta- 
tistics regarding number of members and the finances 
also, resulted in a chaotic condition prevailing for several 
years. In 1888 only a sufficient number were present to 
constitute a legal quorum and in 1889 only two of the 
Grand officers were present, even the Grand Secretary 
being among the absent ones and having only submitted 
a skeleton report, lacking the necessary statistics and the 
names and addresses of the Secretaries of active Chap- 
ters. 

Though difficulties were present, with spirits undaunt- 
ed the brave workers struggled along, obtaining the 
necessary information from the best available sources. 
In 1889 only six Chapters were represented, but the con- 
ditions were bravely faced and this heroic band adopted 
effective steps to put the Order upon a firm foundation. 

At the 1892 session the State was divided into forty- 
five districts, but the number was reduced to ten in 1896. 



428 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Previous to 1895 the Grand Patron had been the execu- 
tive officer, but on that date the Grand Matron was 
clothed with that authority. 

A committee of the work was given full authority to 
communicate the secret work and in 1894 all copies of the 
work then in the hands of Chapters were called in. In- 
struction was to be given the delegates to Grand Chapter 
by the committee intrusted with that duty. 

In 1895 a test oath was adopted, the form for same 
having been presented by Sister Ree Alford who is now 
Past Grand Matron. The State having been invaded by 
persons who communicated the degrees without author- 
ity, it became necessary for the Grand Secretary to issue 
a circular letter of warning against such practices which 
were termed the work of ''Masonic Pirates." 

In 1898 the Grand Chapter donated $185.65 to the Ma- 
sonic Widows' and Orphans' Home fund, this being ten 
per cent of the receipts that year. The Grand and also 
the subordinate Chapters have made Hberal donations 
each year to both the Masonic Orphans' and Aged Ma- 
sons' Homes. 

The committee on work examines applicants in the 
secret work and grants certificates of proficiency at each 
meeting of the Grand Chapter, and copies of the secret 
work are given out only to members of this committee, 
the four principal Grand officers, and to each District 
Deputy. 

In 1908, by resolution of Brother E. J. Hosey, now 
Past Grand Patron, Grand Chapter appointed a gradu- 
ating committee whose duties are to locate the graduates 
from the Masonic Home in such employment and home 
surroundings as will best fit them for a useful and Chris- 
tian life. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 429 

In 1911, Sister Edith Findlater, Grand Matron, in be- 
half of the Grand Chapter, donated $300 to the Home 
for Aged Masons, to be used for furnishings. 

the: homk fund move:mknt 

In April, 1900, Sister Laura B. Hart, Past Grand Ma- 
tron and Grand Secretary, Brothers Ludlow and Atchi- 
son, Past Grand Patrons, memorialized the Grand Com- 
mandery. Knights Templar, of Texas, through Sir 
Knight Robert L. Ball, requesting a donation of $100 
as a nucleus for a Grand Chapter Eastern Star fund, to 
provide a home for aged and indigent Masons. This 
movement was successful and the $100 was contributed 
by the Grand Commandery. 

This suggestion had been offered by Grand Master 
Samuel R. Hamilton for the reason that the Masonic 
Home, which had been recently established at Fort 
Worth, Texas, provides only for the widows and orphans 
of Texas Masons; no provision whatever having been 
made by the Grand Lodge of Texas for the general care 
of their own aged and indigent members. 

In September, 1900, by resolution of Sister Kate M. 
Bryan, now Past Grand Matron, and Brother F. H. Shu- 
mate, $500 was donated to the Galveston flood sufferers 
from the general fund of the Grand Chapter ; there was 
also offered a resolution, signed by Sister Laura B. Hart 
and Brother A. C. McDaniel, appropriating $500 for a 
permanent charity fund; and providing further that in 
the future twenty-five per cent of the gross receipts 
should be appropriated for this purpose. This resolution 
was carried. 

On October 10, 1901, Brother P. S. Park, chairman of 
the board of trustees, reported $4.50 interest accrued on 



430 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the $ioo donation from the Grand Commandery, this be- 
ing the first interest ever earned by Grand Chapter 
funds. 

In October, 1902, Brother McDaniel, then the Grand 
Patron, recommended to the Grand Chapter in his an- 
nual address that the purpose of the charity fund be 
changed to provide a home and refuge for old people of 
the O.E.S. not eligible to the Masonic homes; and also, 
for any members, regardless of sex, who might choose 
to select this prospective home instead of the Masonic 
homes. 

It might be well to state here that only the widows and 
orphans of Texas Masons in good standing are eligible 
to the protection of the Home already established in Fort 
Worth ; thus leaving a large membership of the Eastern 
Star entirely without protection for their aged unmar- 
ried women and widows and daughters of Masons not 
registered in Texas. After most strenuous efforts with 
the finance committee, which had previously recommend- 
ed the rescinding of the twenty-five per cent appropria- 
tion. Brother McDaniel secured a recommendation that 
five per cent of the gross revenues of the Grand Chapter 
be set aside for the purpose named in his report. The 
committee also recommended that the Grand Comman- 
dery be advised of this change of purpose; and if the 
same were not agreeable to the wishes of that Grand 
Body, then the $100 which had been previously received 
was to be returned to them. It was later reported to the 
Grand Chapter that such change was not agreeable to 
the Grand Commandery, and the $100 was returned. 
The fund derived from the above mentioned five per cent 
appropriation was to be placed in the hands of three 
Grand Chapter trustees. 

In 1906, Brother McDaniel, then Past Grand Patron, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 431 

prepared a full and complete resolution for the trustees' 
report, providing that the number of trustees be in- 
creased from three to five, with terms of service of five 
years each ; they to serve without bond, the Grand Treas- 
urer being made the custodian of the fund. In this res- 
olution, five trust companies were designated as deposi- 
tories, to-wit: San Antonio Loan and Trust Company, 
of San Antonio; Bankers Trust Company, of Houston; 
Texas Bank and Trust Company, of Galveston; Dallas 
Trust and Savings Bank, of Dallas ; and the Continental 
Bank and Trust Company, of Fort Worth. 

In 1909, a new constitution was adopted, at which 
time the Home fund was placed under constitutional pro- 
tection, and the trustees given specified duties relating 
thereto. The State was at this time divided into five dis- 
tricts, each to be represented by one grand trustee, they 
to be, as before, elected in rotation for five year terms 
and to serve without bond or remuneration of any kind. 
The fund at present amounts in round numbers to 
$57,000, and is invested with the above trust companies 
at five per cent and six per cent interest compounded 
semi-annually. 

This splendid accumulation has been brought about by 
the appropriation of the five per cent of the gross rev- 
enues of the Grand Chapter, together with the surplus 
of the general fund each year over and above the neces- 
sary running expenses of the body. At the meeting in 
October, 191 2, Brother McDaniel and other members of 
the board of trustees presented a resolution which pro- 
vided that the fund should be further augmented by the 
payment, by each member of the Order, of $1 per capita, 
for five years ; this payment to be in the nature of a free- 
will oflfering, and no penalty for non-payment was at- 
tached thereto. This resolution further provided that 



432 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

when $75,000 should have been accumulated, the trustees 
should advertise for bids for the land location of the 
Home; but that they should not proceed to build until a 
permanent endowment of $100,000 had been secured, and 
enough additional funds for building purposes. At this 
date, about one-seventh of the Texas membership have 
paid the $1 per year as specified. 

At the 191 3 meeting, it was moved by Sister Edith 
Findlate, Past Grand Matron, that the children of O.E.S. 
members be admitted to the Home, which was unan- 
imously carried. 

Brother McDaniel has served continuously as a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees since 1906, and, with the ex- 
ception of one year, has been the chairman of said board. 
The trustees have carefully directed and guarded all in- 
vestments, and strenuously opposed and prevented any 
diversion of the fund from its original purpose. 

The enactment of the Eastern Star Home resolution as 
recommended by the board of trustees has resulted in 
added interest among the members and a decided in- 
crease in the growth of the Order. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 433 

Grand Chapte:r of Utah ^^ 

Nineteen hundred years ago 

The Star in the East first shone; 
In the light of that Star 

Lie the ages empearled, 
And that song from afar 

Has swept over the world. 

We rejoice in the light, 

And we echo the song 
That comes down through the night 

From the heavenly throng. 
Aye we shout to the lovely evangel they bring, 
And we greet in His cradle, our Savior and King. 

The light of His Star in the East was first visible to 
those within this State when Lynds Chapter No. i was 
chartered June 6, 1892, in Salt Lake City. This was fol- 
lowed by Mountain Chapter No. 2, Park City; Valley 
No. 3, Provo; Queen Esther No. 4, Ogden; Mizpah No. 
5, Salt Lake City, chartered September 20, 1905. 

By the organization of Mizpah Chapter No. 5, effected 
by Mrs. Madeleine B. Conkling, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, on September 20, 1905, in Salt Lake City, as- 
sisted by Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, Right Worthy Grand 
Secretary, there was then in existence the constitutional 
number of Chapters in Utah to form a Grand Chapter. 
The call having been issued by Dr. W. F. Kuhn, Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, the Grand Chapter was organ- 
ized September 20, 1905, by Mrs. Madeleine Conkling, 
Most Worthy Grand Matron, Deputy of the Most Wor- 
thy Grand Patron, assisted by Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, 
Right Worthy Grand Secretary. All Chapters were rep- 
resented, there being fifty members present. The consti- 
tution adopted fixed the annual dues at fifty cents per 

80 Organized September 20, 1905. Data by Mrs. Frances G. Shields, 
Grand Secretary. 



434 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

capita, but it was found necessary to advance the annual 
dues to seventy-five cents per capita, which was done in 
1908. Each Chapter was accorded three votes — one 
for the three principal officers and two additional votes 
to represent the collective votes of Past Matrons and 
Past Patrons. 

At the first annual session, held in Salt Lake City, the 
Grand Matron recommended that a beginning be made 
toward some charitable and benevolent work, urging that 
the social aspect of the Order must not overshadow its 
higher opportunities. 

The Chapter of Sorrow, by Addie C. S. Engle, was 
impressively rendered in 1906, also in 1909, and the 
miemorial service, by Sister Elvira Adams Atwood, was 
pathetically and impressively rendered at the meeting in 
191 1. Through the recitation of the vocal star at the 
1909 meeting, the well-beloved symbols as they were re- 
corded in the rituals of the Mosaic Book and Adoptive 
Masonry, Sister Addie C. S. Engle's conception of their 
application in this connection was beautifully presented 
to those in attendance at the Grand Chapter meeting. 

A special session was called in 1908 for the purpose of 
receiving Sister Ella S. Washburn, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, and listening to her broad-minded and helpful 
talks upon the value of concentrating the efforts upon 
the charitable work made possible through the members 
uniting in one common line of action. At this time, the 
''Home Fund" was started, with love and goodwill to- 
ward all. 

In 1 910 the ceremonies for instituting and constituting 
Chapters were adopted and the floral work exemplified. 
A special session was called for the instituting of Ivy 
Chapter at Mt. Pleasant, June 8, 191 1; also for insti- 
tuting Corinne Chapter at Corinne, February 16, 191 2, 



) 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 435 

and again for the purpose of instituting Radiant Chap- 
ter at Salt Lake City, January 13, 1914. 

Responding to a request from the Grand Matron, $217 
was raised by the subordinate Chapters for the purpose 
of helping to lift the mortgage on the home of a widowed 
sister who held her membership in Montana. 
Charity is the cornerstone of our Order, 

The key to our structure grand ; '7 

And he who would enter our portals \ 

Should bear it in his hand. 
And none is worthy to enter, 

Who envy or malice feel ; 
For each should work for the other 
To promote our Order's weal. 

Grand Chapter ov Vermont *^ 

Bright Eastern Star, though years have fled 

Adown Time's swiftly flowing stream. 
The holy light thy clear rays shed 

Yet mark the way with steady gleam, 
Still lead thou weary steps along 

The narrow path; it lonely seems. 
Though cheered anon by angel's song, 

To find Him of our hopes and dreams. 

— /. B. H. Boardman. 

In tracing the progress of the Order of the Eastern 
Star, we find it was very early introduced into Vermont 
and Chapters were organized as early as 1869. The rec- 
ords show that a charter was issued by Brother Macoy, 
dated December 21, 1869, for Mt. Anthony Chapter No. 
I, located at Bennington, which Chapter is in active ex- 
istence at the present time — an enviable record of duty 
well done for a period of forty-six years and an active 
Grand Chapter of forty-three years. 

Six Chapters having been organized. Electa Chapter 

81 Organized November 12, 1873. 



r 



436 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

No. 6, located at Brandon, invited all the Chapters to 
meet in convention with a view to the formation of a 
Grand Chapter. Accordingly, November 12, 1873, rep- 
resentatives of five of the six Chapters of the State met 
in convention at Brandon and there organized the fifth 
Grand Chapter, adopting the constitution of the Grand 
Chapter of New York with such changes as were neces- 
sary to comply with the best interests of the newly 
formed Grand Chapter. 

At various times committees have sought to improve 
the work of the Order by investigating the feasibility of 
the adoption of a ritual giving uniformity of work. Such 
a committee reported in 1876 that they recommended the 
use of the Adoptive Rite ritual as used in the State of 
New York. This report was concurred in by the Grand 
Chapter and 100 copies ordered to be purchased, but the 
Macoy Ritual had been issued at a date just previous to 
the time when purchase was to be made and instead the 
question was reconsidered and the Macoy Ritual adopted. 

In 1879 a resolution was adopted authorizing the ap- 
pointment of a committee of three with duties defined, 
''To consider the propriety of revising our ritual, and to 
recommend such work, as in their judgment, is best cal- 
culated to promote the good of the Order." 

The following year the committee reported that both 
the Ritual of the General Grand Chapter and the Macoy 
Ritual possessed merit, and further stated that the mat- 
ter concerned each individual Chapter and was of too 
great importance to be decided upon the recommendation 
of the committee. A resolution was then adopted that 
the matter of ritual be postponed until the next meeting 
with the request that the subordinate Chapters instruct 
their representatives as to their wishes with a view to thus 
g-ain the expression of all members. The following 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 437 

year, 1881, upon bringing the matter before the Grand 
Chapter, a motion to adopt the General Grand Chapter 
Ritual was lost, though there were many zealous and 
ardent friends of the General Grand Chapter among the 
sisters and brothers of Vermont. The question of co- 
operation with that body had been a fruitful topic for 
consideration at the annual meetings, and while there 
may have been a disposition to precipitate the issue and 
declare in favor of allegiance to the General Grand Chap- 
ter, it was deemed best that the spirit of unity be pre- 
served and await the time when harmonious arrange- 
ments could be reached. 

In 1888 dissatisfaction was expressed that the Macoy 
Ritual, at that time the only ritual used, could not be pur- 
chased except copies that contained the Queen of the 
South ritual also. This degree not having been adopted 
by the Grand Chapter of Vermont, the Grand Secretary 
was instructed to request that no Rituals be sold within 
the jurisdiction unless the request for same be under seal 
of the Grand Chapter or one of its subordinate Chapters. 

In 1 89 1 the Grand Patron, in his address to the Grand 
Chapter, recommended that the time had come for the 
Grand Chapter of Vermont to have a ritual of its own, 
and that a committee be appointed to prepare and present 
the same, combining the Macoy Ritual and the General 
Grand Chapter Ritual. For financial reasons, this rec- 
ommendation was not concurred in and further consid- 
eration of the matter was deferred until the financial con- 
dition of the Grand Chapter might warrant further ac- 
tion. However, in 1892 it was brought to the attention 
of the Grand Chapter that the only Macoy Rituals ob- 
tainable contained the Queen of the South and the Am- 
aranth degrees, and that same were publicly sold in book- 
stores, etc., with the misrepresentation that they were 



438 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the original and only Eastern Star manual. It was then 
resolved that a committee be appointed with full power 
to arrange for the printing of a ritual for the use of the 
Grand Chapter and its subordinate Chapters, separate 
from those containing the objectionable degrees, and if 
unable ta do so, that they have power to prepare and 
print a ritual for the use of the Grand Jurisdiction of 
Vermont. 

The following year, 1893, the report of the committee 
was concurred in, which report was that : 

We recommend that if suitable and satisfactory arrangements 
can be made with the General Grand Chapter, that purchases of 
rituals for all new Chapters be made from the General Grand 
Chapter ; that permission be granted to any Chapter to substitute 
the General Grand Chapter ritual for the Macoy, and that until 
some definite action as to the adoption of a ritual by this Grand 
Chapter, other than the one heretofore adopted, any of the Chap- 
ters within this Jurisdiction may use either the Macoy or General 
Grand Chapter ritual as they may determine, or may use the ritual 
of the General Grand Chapter, except as to the history of the five 
degrees, and, as to that, may, if they desire, substitute our present 
ritual. 

The selections, by Chapters, of either ritual, continued 
until 1 90 1, when the amendment to the constitution was 
adopted, declaring allegiance to the General Grand 
Chapter. 

In 1895 the Chapters in the State were divided into 
districts and it was made a compulsory duty on the Dep- 
uty of each of the several districts to appoint district con- 
ventions, to be held once each year, if possible. 

In 1896, upon the recommendation of the Grand Ma- 
tron, it was adopted that hereafter "no hats" shall be 
the rule in Grand and subordinate Chapter meetings. 
Each district, in addition to the District Deputy Grand 
Matron, also has a District Deputy Grand Patron and 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 439 

both make reports to the Grand Patron, who is the execu- 
tive officer and presides at all convocations of the Grand 
Chapter, grants special dispensations, receives all re- 
ports, and exercises the authority usually vested in the 
Grand Matron's office. 

At the twenty-ninth convocation of Vermont, held at 
Newport, June 5, 1901, an amendment to the constitu- 
tion, which had been proposed in 1900 and action de- 
ferred until 1 90 1 in order that all the members might 
fully understand its import before taking action, was 
adopted, Vermont thereby declaring itself in favor of be- 
coming a constituent member of the General Grand 
Chapter. By virtue of this action, notice of which was 
duly sent to the Most Worthy Grand Patron, that officer, 
together with the Most Worthy Grand Matron and Right 
Worthy Grand Secretary, recognized the Grand Chapter 
of Vermont as a constituent member of the General 
Grand Chapter. By the provisions of the constitution 
as amended, the Grand Patron and Grand Matron are 
granted coordinate powers, with the provision that, 
wherever they may fail to agree upon points of cooordi- 
nate power, the matter must be submitted to the Grand 
Chapter for decision. In case of the death, absence, or 
disability of the Grand Patron, the Grand Matron is to 
assume his powers and prerogatives. The Grand Pa- 
tron's address takes precedence. The Grand Warder is 
included with the elective officers. 

In 1906, upon the recommendation of the Grand Pa- 
tron and concurred in by the Grand Chapter, the Grand 
Matron was made the presiding officer and official head, 
and in 1906 the Grand Matron presided but the Grand 
Patron's address takes precedence. 

In 1907 the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., passed a 
resolution conveying permission to Masonic Lodges to 



440 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

grant Chapters of the O.E.S. the privilege of meeting in 
Lodge rooms, providing the members of the Lodge were 
agreed. In 1909 it was decreed that members of the 
O.E.S. shall not become members of either the Amaranth 
or the White Shrine of Jerusalem, and providing a pen- 
alty for those who ignore this decision. 

Though repeated recommendations have been made 
that the Grand Chapter of Vermont adopt the plan of all 
other jurisdictions except California, that the Grand 
Matron be made the executive officer with her duties de- 
fined, the recommendation has not been concurred in. 
The Grand Matron presided in 1906, 1908, 1911,1912, 
and 1914, not by rights conferred by the constitution, but 
by the courtesy of the Grand Patron. These two States 
— California and Vermont — still retain this practice, 
though provisions to the contrary are made by the ritual. 

The most cordial relations have always existed be- 
tween the Masonic Fraternity and the Order of the 
Eastern Star, and harmonious work for the Masonic and 
O.E.S. Home fund has been carried forward continuously 
since 1904; $176.45 was contributed to the Galveston 
flood sufferers. 

The total membership in 1914 was 7,527. 

In 1914 a committee was appointed to confer with the 
Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., at its annual session, 
with a view to determining the intent and purpose of the 
Home fund, whether or not it is desirable that the funds 
be retained as jointly accumulated or separate Homes be 
established. 

In 191 2, by a rising vote of the Grand Chapter, Sister 
Ruby Hawley, Grand Lecturer for eight successive years, 
was made honorary Past Grand Matron, with all the 
rights and privileges of an active one. 

In 1914 recognition was extended to a former resident 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 441 

of Vermont, one who had been made a Mason within the 
State, Dr. George A. Pettigrew, Most Worthy Grand 
Patron of the General Grand Chapter, and Past Grand 
Patron of South Dakota, by electing him an honorary 
member. A Past Grand Matrons' and Past Grand Pa- 
trons' Association was formed ; also a State Secretaries' 
Club. 

Grand Chapte:r o^ Virginia ^^ 

Have you found the heavenly light? 

Pass it on. 
Souls are groping in the night, 

Daylight gone. 
Hold thy lighted lamp on high, 
Be a Star in some one's sky, 
He may live who else would die, 

Pass it on. 



l 



During the month of January, 1872, a charter was 
granted for a Chapter at Portsmouth, Virginia, by 
Brother Macoy, and the first charter issued by the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter in this State was for Alpha No. i, 
located at Woodstock, on March 30, 1896, to twenty-two 
petitioners. This Chapter was constituted April 16, 
1896, by R. G. Alexander, Worshipful Master of Union 
Lodge No. 27, acting as Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, but became dormant in 1899, and the old- 
est surviving Chapter is Alpha No. 2, located at Peters- 
burg and working by authority of a General Grand 
Chapter charter issued April 17, 1896. This Chapter 
was constituted June 11, 1896, by D: S. R. Jones, Wor- 
Master of Stark Lodge No. 124, Powhatan, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with thirty-seven char- 
ter members. Charter was granted sixteen petitioners 
for Milnes Chapter No. 3, located at Shenandoah, dated 

82 Organized June 22, 1904. 



442 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

August 14, 1896, and the Chapter was constituted Sep- 
tember 10, 1896, by Chester B. Hayes, Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Botetourt Chapter No. 4, located at Gloucester Court 
House, was granted a charter November 20, 1896, and 
constituted December 8, 1896, by John B. Donovan, Dep- 
uty of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with twenty-six 
charter members. 

Electa Chapter No. 5, located at Luray, was granted a 
charter on February 10, 1897, and constituted February 
24, 1897, by J. H. Morrison, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with twenty-nine charter members. 

Blackwater Chapter No. 6, at Zuni, was granted a 
charter July 2y, 1897, with thirty charter members, and 
constituted September i, 1897, by Frank L. Snipes, Dep- 
uty of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Magdalene Chapter No. 7, at Stanley, was chartered 
November 13, 1897, and constituted November 19, 1897, 
by A. S. Harmon, Deputy of the Most W^orthy Grand 
Patron. 

Ruth Chapter No. 8, at Richmond, was granted a char- 
ter June 22, 1899, organized June 24, 1899, by Charles 
A. Nesbitt, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with twenty-four charter members. 

Tidal Wave Chapter No. 9, at Port Norfolk, was or- 
ganized June 6, 1902, by Charles N. Nesbitt, Deputy, 
with thirty-one charter members; chartered August 22^ 
1902. 

Urbana Chapter No. 10, at Urbana, was organized 
January 20, 1903, by Charles A. Nesbitt, Deputy, with 
thirty-nine charter members; chartered February 11, 
1903. 

Blair Chapter No. 11, at Williamsburg, was organized 
February 19, 1903, by Charles A. Nesbitt, Deputy, with 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 443 

fifty-one charter members; charter granted March 12, 
1903. 

Liberty Chapter No. 12, at Bedford City, was organ- 
ized December i, 1903, by George S. Spencer, Deputy, 
with thirty-two charter members ; charter granted Janu- 
ary 25, 1904. 

Chesapeake Chapter No. 13, at New Market, was or- 
ganized December 28, 1903, by John Hardy, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with twenty-two char- 
ter members; charter granted January 13, 1904. 

Pocahontas Chapter No. 14, at Pocahontas, was or- 
ganized June 10, 1904, by John M. Newton, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, in response to the 
prayer of twenty-eight petitioners ; charter was granted 
June 14, 1904. 

The Grand Chapter of Virginia was organized in 
Richmond, June 22, 1904, by the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, L. Cabell Williamson, assisted by the Most Wor- 
thy Grand Matron, Laura B. Hart, and the Right Wor- 
thy Grand Secretary, Lorraine J. Pitkin, and was rec- 
ognized by proclamation of the General Grand Chapter. 
Only nine of the fourteen Chapters were active at the 
date of the organization of the Grand Chapter, six of 
which were represented. The first officers selected were : 
Mrs. Annie L. Huber, Grand Matron; Charles A. Nes- 
bitt. Grand Patron; Mrs. Mary E. Nesbitt, Grand Secre- 
tary. Past Matrons and Past Patrons were made mem- 
bers of the Grand Chapter; the dues fixed at twenty- 
five cents per capita, but in 1906 were changed to fifty 
cents. 

The memorial service used at the 1914 session was ar- 
ranged by Sister Evelyn Wardwell Heath, Grand Ma- 
tron, and dedicated to the subordinate Chapters, O.E.S. 
of Virginia, by the author. Instructions were given for 



444 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

balloting, opening and closing of the Bible, presenting of 
Grand Officers, and the rules for a model Chapter. 

In the city of Richmond is the first building erected on 
the American continent devoted exclusively to Masonry. 
At Fredericksburg is located Masonic Lodge No. 4, in 
which our first President, George Washington, was in- 
itiated in 1752. The original record sheets, and the 
Bible on which he took his obligation are still in exis- 
tence and are prized by this Chapter as priceless treas- 
ures. 

Wherever the principles of our Order are practiced, 
they lift the burden from the tired heart; they place a 
smile on the face of care ; they wipe the tears from sor- 
row's eyes and touch the earth with the kiss of God; 
sympathies are more extensive, purposes ennobled, and 
lives made better. Among the manifold expressions of 
the wonderful skill of God, the great architect of the uni- 
verse, none appeals more strongly to our senses than the 
firmament, studded with stars, with their brilliant light 
when the world is dark after the sun disappears. Sig- 
nificant of His loving kindness was the Star of the East, 
proclaiming the birth of the Savior, whose life is the 
light of our lives, bringing "Peace on earth, good will to 
men." His advent was the emancipation of women; 
how fitting then that this, the greatest fraternal organ- 
ization of women, should have for its inspiration, the 
Star of Bethlehem ! 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 445 

Grand Chapte:r of Washington ^^ 

If you will look upon your map, you will find the State 
of Washington Vay up in the northwest part of the 
United States, called by some the ''jumping off place." 
It is 500 miles east and west and 350 miles north and 
south. Little notice was given it until the Northern Pa- 
cific undertook to build a railroad across the Cascade 
Mountains. One of the greatest engineering feats ac- 
complished was the building of the great Stampede tun- 
nel, two miles long, at a cost of over two million dollars. 
At its completion a three days' jubilee was held in Ta- 
coma, July 4, 5, and 6, 1889. People came from all parts 
of the United States. A great many remained, others 
invested and returned later to make it their home. 

It seems strange that the first Eastern Star Chapter 
should have been planted in the little village of Golden- 
dale, far remote from a railroad, in the south part of the 
State, when larger villages and towns existed along the 
river and railroad. But Peter Gunn and wife were en- 
thusiastic members and formerly belonged to a Chapter 
at Dixon, California, taking their dimit when they moved 
to Washington in 1887 and settled as pioneers seven 
miles from the village of Goldendale. The comforts and 
pleasures of other years were denied them in this new 
country and nothing but hardships and privations pre- 
vailed at that time. Longing for the pleasures of the 
Eastern Star, after a two years' residence they began to 
talk among the handful of Masons upon the subject of 
starting an Eastern Star Chapter. This finally resulted 
in the organization of Evergreen Chapter No. i, which 
received its charter from the General Grand Chapter No- 

^3 Data furnished by Libbie J. Demorest, Grand Secretary, June, 1892, 
to June, 1914. 



446 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

vember 12, 1881. As a Chapter Evergreen No. i has 
had its share of hardships, such as all pioneers encoun- 
ter. Twice has the demon fire wiped everything away, 
but the little Evergreen had become so firmly rooted that 
on each occasion it sprang up larger and more thrifty 
than before. They now have a fine brick building in 
which to hold their meetings and in 1908 there was great 
rejoicing when the last spike was driven in the railroad 
which connected them with the outer world. 

The following eight Chapters were organized by the 
General Grand Chapter: Evergreen Chapter No. i, Gol- 
dendale, chartered November 12, 1881 ; Rainbow Chap- 
ter No. 2, Dayton, chartered May 9, 1883; Chehalis 
Chapter No. 3, Chehalis, chartered April 16, 1885 ; Wash- 
ington Chapter No. 4, Colfax, chartered March 31, 1886; 
Silver Spray Chapter No. 5, Cheney, chartered June 12, 
1886; Lorraine Chapter No. 6, Seattle, chartered Octo- 
ber 18, 1886; Fern Chapter No. 7, Tacoma, chartered 
March 7, 1887; Henrietta Chapter No. 8, Sprague, char- 
tered January 23, 1888. 

At a meeting of Fern Chapter No. 7, Tacoma, held 
March 9, 1888, a resolution was introduced asking the 
eight Chapters in the State (then a Territory) to send 
delegates to Port Townsend during the annual session 
of the Grand Lodge, and to petition the General Grand 
Chapter to delegate some suitable person to constitute 
them as a Grand Chapter at that time. As a result of 
this communication the Grand Chapter was organized 
at Port Townsend July 11, 1888. All Chapters were 
represented, with twenty-three members present; the 
membership at that time was 367. 

It was quite an undertaking to launch a Grand Chap- 
ter in this vast territory, so thinly populated and with so 
small a membership, where prejudice and opposition to 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 447 

the Order on the part of the Masons was strong and 
when women, with a lack of experience as to what was 
really necessary to any organization where obstacles ex- 
isted, shrank from assuming office. 

It was fortunate that a most enthusiastic Mason was 
the first Grand Patron, Brother J. M. Taylor, who at that 
time was the head of the Order. One of the greatest 
difficulties he had to contend with was the delay of nine 
months over a trivial matter before the General Grand 
Chapter would release jurisdiction and proclaim the 
Grand Chapter of Washington organized. 

At the first annual session held in Olympia there were 
eight Grand Officers present and twenty members. At 
the second annual session held in Ellensburg only four 
Grand Officers were present and sixteen members. It 
was quite discouraging to find that at this session a less 
number were present than when they were organized, 
but the Territory was new to O.E.S. work, distances 
were great, money scarce. Chapters remote from place of 
meeting, and objections not yet removed. But by per- 
severance, faithful waiting, and earnestness on the part 
of all interested the prejudice was overcome, Chapters 
allowed to meet in Masonic halls, and great success has 
come. The State has grown in population, so has the 
Eastern Star increased in the number of members, until 
now few cities have halls large enough to accommodate 
the Grand Chapter meetings. The membership in June, 
1914, was 14,215. Electa Chapter No. 20, in Spokane, 
is the second largest Chapter in the world; membership 
January i, 1914, 746. 

In 1891 the Grand Matron was made the official head 
of the Order, Helen E. Edmiston being the first woman 
to preside as such and it is gratifying to know all her 
official acts were approved. 



44S HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

With hearts united in the one desire of doing their 
duty, the O.E.S. of Washington entered into a task of 
love, pleasure, and cooperation with the Masons. As a 
result of their combined efforts, there has been erected a 
beautiful Masonic and Eastern Star Home, situated on 
the hillside overlooking the beautiful Puyallup valley and 
city. To the east is the city of Sumner and to the west 
in the distance the city of Tacoma and Puget Sound. 
There are two electric lines, giving good connections 
with Tacoma and Seattle, and about sixty trains a day on 
the steam railroad passing within sight of the place. The 
original site consisted of twenty acres, the funds being 
raised principally by voluntary donations of Pierce 
County Masons. There were an eight room house, a 
four-room house, and two barns on the grounds, which 
were repaired and the Home opened with a few inmates, 
in January, 1912. John Thomas, born in Nazareth, Pal- 
estine, December 26, 1828, who was made a Mason in 
Glasgow, Scotland, over fifty years ago, was the first one 
admitted to the Home. 

The following year twenty-two city lots were pur- 
chased adjoining the Home grounds and later on two 
more acres and a section in Woodbine cemetery. On 
February 12, 191 3, just one year from the day the Home 
was opened in the temporary quarters, the corner-stone 
of a new building was laid. The grounds and buildings 
cost about $40,000. It is the intention to erect cottages 
throughout the grounds, and a separate building for 
children. In 191 5 there were in the Home three old la- 
dies, nine children, and nineteen men. Great interest is 
taken in the Home by the Chapters and individuals. 
Many Chapters have furnished rooms and maintain them 
thereafter. Over $23,000 was raised by the Grand 
Chapter for the Home. At the twenty-fifth anniversary 




Masonic and O. E. S. Home, Puyallup, Washington 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 449 

of the Grand Chapter a silver offering was taken for the 
Home which amounted to $1,039.85. 

When the news of the great earthquake that wrecked 
San Francisco, April 18, 1906, was received in Washing- 
ton, the Chapters did not wait for an appeal from the 
Grand Matron but sent to the stricken Chapters financial 
aid immediately, several Chapters contributing $100 
each. Thus it is shown that true generosity is the price- 
less coinage of the noblest form of sympathy. . 

Grand Chaptkr of Wkst Virginia^* 

Devotion to the great moral principles which the Or- 
der of the Eastern Star represents, and the desire to 
promulgate these principles, teaching respect to the bind- 
ing force of a vow, devotion to religious principles, fidel- 
ity to kindred and friends, undeviating faith in the hour 
of trial, charity and courage with patience and submis- 
sion even under the wrongs of persecution, were some of 
the forces which combined to prompt the twenty-seven 
petitioners to ask for a charter for the first Chapter to be 
formed in West A^irginia. 

In response to their request, charter was granted by 
the General Grand Chapter under date of April 20, 1892, 
for Miriam Chapter No. i. Wheeling, and organization 
was completed May 3, 1892, by Joseph Hall of Wheeling, 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with Mrs. 
Annie Waterhouse, Worthy Matron, Joseph Hall, Wor- 
thy Patron, Mrs. F. Lizzie Peterson, Associate Matron. 

Alpha Chapter No. 2, at Ceredo, was chartered by the 
General Grand Chapter February 25, 1896, with thirty 
petitioners. This Chapter was instituted March 7, 1896, 
by James McQuin, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 

8* Organized June 28, 1904. Data by Miss Etta M. Barnes, Grand Sec- 
retary. 



450 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Patron. Officers were Miss Maggie Walton, Worthy 
Matron, Samuel Ferguson, Worthy Patron, Mrs. Mag- 
gie Harrington, Associate Matron. 

August 30, 1897, a charter was issued by the Genera] 
Grand Chapter for Augusta Chapter, at Mason, with 
Mrs. Augusta Sehon, Worthy Matron, P. L. Clifton, 
Worthy Patron, and Mrs. Sarah E. Carriens, Associate 
Matron, with twenty-four petitioners. However, the 
original charter was returned to the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron and the Chapter was never organized, but re- 
quested the return of the charter fee. 

Athens Chapter No. 3, Athens, was granted a charter 
November 14, 1899, and organized December 2, 1899, 
by W. C. Hedeick, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with twenty charter members. Officers: Mrs. 
Mamie Gore, Worthy Matron, D. H. Thornton, Worthy 
Patron, Mrs. Mamie Fortney, Associate Matron. 

Esther Chapter No. 4, at Welch, was chartered Febru- 
ary 15, 1901, with twenty-nine petitioners, and organized 
by W. O. Perry, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron. Officers : Mrs. Jennie Payne, Worthy Matron, W. 
Burbridge, Worthy Patron, Mrs. Ada Greenawalt, As- 
sociate Matron. 

Silver Leaf No. 5, at Hinton, was chartered March 7, 
1901, and the Chapter was organized March 28, 1901, by 
H. C. Hedrick, of Athens, Deputy for the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with thirty charter members. Officers: 
Mrs. Ahce L. Pope, Worthy Matron; T. O. Flannagan, 
Worthy Patron; Mrs. Minnie L. Cox, Associate Matron. 

Augusta Chapter No. 6, at Mannington, was char- 
tered by the General Grand Chapter July 5, 1901, and 
organized by Henry Bostock of Pendleton, Indiana, Dep- 
uty for the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with thirty-two 
charter members. Officers: Mrs. Delia H. Huey, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 451 

Worthy Matron; James B. Marr, Worthy Patron; Mrs. 
Minerva C. Debendarfer, Associate Matron. 

Ruth Chapter No. 7, at Middlebourne, was chartered 
April 16, 1902, and organized May 5, 1902, by W. W. 
Chrisley, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with twenty-four charter members. Charter was grant- 
ed May 13, 1902, with Miss J. Dora Carter, Worthy 
Matron; Dr. M. M. Reppard, Worthy Patron; Mrs. 
Mary Grim, Associate Matron. 

Huntington Chapter No. 8, at Huntington, was grant- 
ed dispensation October 27, 1902, organized October 30, 
1902, by J. H. WilHams, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with forty-five charter members. The 
charter was granted December 30, 1902. Officers: Mrs. 
Mary J. Wallace, Worthy Matron; J. M. Hawkins, 
Worthy Patron; Mrs. Elizabeth W. Dickey, Associate 
Matron. 

Lorraine Chapter No. 9, at Cameron, was granted 
dispensation June 2, 1903, and organized June 5, 1903, 
by James B. Marr, Deputy for the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with thirty-six charter members. The charter 
was granted June 24, 1903. Officers: Mrs. Lizzie 
Howard, Worthy Matron ; Harry Burkley, Worthy Pa- 
tron; Mrs. Margaret Shaner, Associate Matron. 

Alkire Chapter No. 10, at Keyser, was granted a dis- 
pensation on December 8, 1903, and the Chapter was or- 
ganized January 14, 1904, by W. E. Heskitt, of West- 
ernport, Maryland, Deputy for the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with twenty-eight members. The charter was 
granted January 22, 1904, with Mrs. Carrie B. M'Neill, 
Worthy Matron ; George T. Carskadon, Worthy Patron; 
Mrs. Ella L. Parsons, Associate Matron. 

The Grand Chapter of West Virginia was organized 
June 28, 1904, at Wheeling, by the Most Worthy Grand 



452 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Matron, Mrs. Laura B. Hart, acting as Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, assisted by the Right 
Worthy Grand Secretary, Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin. The 
five Chapters represented at the organization of the 
Grand Chapter were: Miriam No. i, WheeHng, with 
twelve votes; Augusta No. 6, Mannington, four votes; 
Huntington No. 8, four votes ; Lorraine No. 9, Cameron, 
four votes; Algire No. 10, Keyser, three votes. The 
two Chapters not represented were Silver Leaf No. 5 at 
Hinton, and Ruth No. 7, at Middlebourne. 

The constitution adopted made the Grand Matron the 
presiding officer and all Past Matrons and Past Patrons 
members of the Grand Chapter. Per capita dues were 
fixed at twenty-five cents, but in 1906 were raised to 
thirty-five cents. In 1905 it was decided to pay the ex- 
penses of Grand Officers to Grand Chapter meetings out 
of the Grand Chapter treasury. In 1906 it was decided 
to allow two cents per mile to all Grand Chapter Officers, 
Past Grand Matrons, Past Grand Patrons, and one rep- 
resentative from each subordinate Chapter to be taken 
from the Grand Chapter treasury, when attending Grand 
Chapter meetings. Also, that the Grand Patron or his 
Deputy be allowed $7.50 for each Chapter organized. 
Also, that the Bible be opened at the second chapter of 
Matthew, which refers to the Star of in the East. Also, 
that the expenses of one of the representatives to the 
General Grand Chapter be paid — the Grand Matron, if 
she attends, if not, her proxy. 

In 1908 the floral work was exemplified before the 
Grand Chapter, and this year the memorial service was 
given for the first time. 

The same year Sister Minnie Hart M'Cowan com- 
posed and dedicated "To Our Beloved Worthy Grand 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 453 

Matron, of West Virginia, Mrs. Minerva C. Derben- 
darfer," a song, the words of which are given below : 

OUR be:thi.e:he:m star 

May the light from that Star 

So illumine our heart, 

That every day 

We may do our part ; 

And do all we can to lighten the way 

Of some struggling pilgrim every day. 

Bethlehem Star, My Eastern Star, 

Your colors will my zeal inspire, 

And lead us to that choir above, 

Where all sing in harmony and love, 

"We praise Thee, our Father, who giveth a home." 

The ancient were guided 

By the bright ray. 
Why should not we 

In this latter day? 
And if we but follow thy bright light 
It will always guide us in the right. 

Bethlehem Star, My Eastern Star, 

Your colors will my zeal inspire. 

And lead us to that choir above. 

Where all sing in harmony and love, 

"We praise Thee, our Father, who giveth a home." 

The Grand Jurisdiction was divided into five districts, 
by counties, and shortly after the closing of the session 
of 1908, the Grand Matron duly appointed five District 
Deputies in the newly formed districts. 

St. John's Day, June 24th, is designated as an Eastern 
Star Recreation Day, and Dr. Rob Morris's birthday, 
August 31st, as Founder's or Festal Day. The subor- 
dinate chapters are required to pay the expenses of any 



454 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Grand Officer, Deputy, or other person requested to visit 
them for the purpose of instruction. 

At the Grand Chapter meeting, 191 1, the home fund 
was given much careful consideration, the Grand Ma- 
tron stating in her address that "If there is any one ob- 
ject above another to which the Order of the Eastern 
Star is pledged, it is the protection of the widow and 
orphan. . . Almost all Jurisdictions have established 
homes or have home interests. West Virginia being the 
only state in the Union that has no official mention of a 
home fund. The brightening of the lives of our aged 
and helpless sisters and brothers, and the care of our in- 
nocent children will prove that we are indeed 'worthy of 
the support and protection of all good Masons'." Early 
in her work she had sent out letters urging that the in- 
terest and work during her administration should be di- 
rected to this worthy and eminently Masonic effort, 
which formed the nucleus around which the Home fund 
has been so tenaciously twined, and has enlarged until in 
1 9 14 the accumulated fund amounted to $2,191.74, all 
of which has been accumulated by voluntary contribu- 
tions. 

Following the recommendation of the Grand Matron, 
the Grand Chapter in 1910 set aside $100 annually for 
charitable purposes. During the year of 1913-1914 the 
first school of instruction was held, which consisted of 
five very interesting sessions, with all Grand Officers 
present and a Deputy from each one of the districts. 

One of the Past Grand Matrons, Mrs. Minerva C. 
Derbendarfer, served as Worthy Grand Warder of the 
General Grand Chapter from 1910 to 1913. West Vir- 
ginia now has sixty-eight chartered Chapters, and one 
U. D. Chapter, and a membership of 5,100. Though 
there are no definite plans for the Eastern Star Home, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 455 

interest is growing throughout the State and the earnest 
work that has been done along this Hne will bear fruit in 
a visible home at the earliest practicable date. 

Grand Chapter of Wisconsin ^^ 

Those who have known our beautiful Order only as 
it is today, will find it difficult to understand conditions 
as they existed in the very early period of its existence. 
The Grand Master of Masons in Wisconsin, in his an- 
nual address in 1875 tirade the following recommenda- 
tions to the Grand Lodge, A. F. and A. M., which were 
unanimously adopted by that body: 

In July, 1874, the Masters of several of the subordinates ap- 
plied to me by letter for advice and directions, stating that they 
had received printed circulars addressed to their lodges from a 
person whose name I omit here, as he has since died, notifying 
them that he would visit their lodges on certain days designated, 
in order to organize what he termed Chapters of the Eastern 
Star. I gave the matter immediate attention and thorough in- 
vestigation. I found that an organization under a somewhat dif- 
ferent name had existed and had been tolerated by the Grand 
Orient of France during the last century, but that it had decayed 
and died there. In somewhat different shape it appeared to have 
been revived in this country, and the effort was to import it into 
this Jurisdiction, in order that the projector might put money 
into his purse. A personal interview with him brought from 
him the open — and, as it seemed to me, the dishonest — avowal 
that his object in disseminating it was to enable him the better 
and more conveniently to sell books, etc., that he was engaged in 
retailing. He stated that he cared nothing for it, but that meet- 
ing the brethren assembled together in one place and at their 
lodge rooms to hear him lecture and receive this new Order, he 
was enabled thereby to sell his wares more conveniently, and 
that he was thus saved the time and trouble of calling on each 
one separately. In short his object at the bottom was to sell his 
goods, to spend his evenings pleasantly at the profit of $30.00 

85 Organized February 19, 1891. 



456 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

for each charter granted, which charter signed in blank, he car- 
ried with him; and this he proposed to do in the name of and as 
an attachment or appendage of Freemasonry. I at once stated 
to him that his project could have from me, only disapproval and 
discountenance; that I believe the sentiment of the Grand Lodge 
was against any such concern, and that our constitution and 
standing regulations positively prohibited it. He assured me that 
he would abandon the business in this Jurisdiction, but, feeling no 
especial confidence in any promises made by any man so un- 
worthy as I was satisfied he was, I caused a circular to be is- 
sued to all subordinates calling their attention to the fact that by 
the constitution the conferring of honorary or side degrees in any 
lodge is entirely forbidden. 

The action of the Grand Lodge was justly taken 
against one who would trample the principles of the 
Masonic Order, as well as those of the O.E.S. so thor- 
oughly beneath the status which they should occupy. A 
Deputy who would lose sight of the grand and noble in- 
tentions of his mission should not be tolerated and the 
Grand Master had the support of the Masonic Fraternity 
in his decision against the work as conducted under the 
auspices of the Supreme Grand Chapter. But this ac- 
tion of the Grand Lodge effectually closed all avenues 
and the Order was not accepted in Wisconsin until the 
conditions and sentiment changed. 

At the annual communication of the Grand Lodge of 
Wisconsin, held at Milwaukee, June lo, 1890, the Grand 
Master, Myron Reed, spoke as follows : 

During the past year I have received a large number of com- 
munications from Lodges all over the State, asking if our Lodge 
rooms could be used for meetings of an Order known as "The 
Eastern Star." This is an independent Order claiming to be 
closely allied to our Masonic Order, and aims to give practical 
effect to Masonry's beneficent purpose, to provide for the families 
of Masons. It is an Order composed of Masons and their wives, 
daughters, widows, mothers and sisters. It is not a new organ- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 457 

ization, but has been in existence for several years and is quite 
strongly established in several States of the Union. I lay before 
you such information as I have to aid you in d'etermining this 
question. 

The special committee to whom was referred this por- 
tion of the address, reported as follows: 

Your committee, to whom was referred such of the Grand 
Master's address as related to the Order of the Eastern 
Star, begs leave to report: Your committee recommends that 
in all cases when the Grand Master shall deem it expedient to 
grant dispensations to enable the Order of the Eastern Star to 
hold its Chapter in a Masonic Lodge room, that such dispensa- 
tion be granted without charge. 

This report was adopted and without exception, all 
requests from Chapters for the privilege of meeting in a 
Masonic lodge room have been granted. 

Following the above action of the Grand Lodge, the 
General Grand Chapter officers granted a charter to 
Honor Chapter No. i, on July lo, 1890, for the first 
Chapter, located at Sturgeon Bay, to thirty petitioners. 
This Chapter was organized on July 17, 1890, by F. J. 
Hamilton, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 
Then followed Milwaukee Chapter No. 2, located at 
Milwaukee, charter granted November 13, 1890, by the 
General Grand Chapter in response to the prayer of 167 
petitioners. This Chapter was organized November 20, 
1890, by A. H. Wright, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with Mrs. Mary Hendee, Worthy Ma- 
tron, John W. Laflin, Worthy Patron. Miriam Chapter 
No. I, of Chicago, responded to an invitation to go and 
exemplify the work, which they did, at their own ex- 
pense. This was done because of their zeal in the work, 
prompted also by the fact that A. H. Wright was the 
Associate Grand Patron of Illinois. 

Orient Chapter No. 3, located at Mazo Manie, was 



458 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

chartered January 13, 1891, and organized the same date 
by John W. Laflin, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with seventy-two petitioners. 

Queen Esther Chapter No. 4, Lodi, was granted a 
charter January 14, 1891, and organized the same date 
by John W. Laflin, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with thirty-nine charter members. 

Mizpah Chapter No. 5, located at Star Prairie, was 
granted a charter January 17, 1891, and organized the 
same date with thirty-two charter members, by A. P. 
Swanstrom, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Tomah Chapter No. 6, Tomah, was chartered January 
24, 1891 ; and organized the same day with twenty-nine 
charter members by John W. Laflin, Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron. 

Mineral Point Chapter No. 7, Mineral Point, was 
chartered February 12, 1891, and organized the same 
day with 11 1 charter members, by A. P. Swanstrom, 
Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Relief Chapter No. 8, located at Maiden Rock, was 
chartered February 14, 1891, and organized the same 
day by John W. Laflin, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with twenty-seven charter members. 

Naomi Chapter No. 9, located at Wonewac, was char- 
tered February 10, 1891, and organized the same day by 
John W. Laflin, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron, with twenty-six charter members. 

Rob Morris Chapter No. 10, Eagle, was chartered 
February 11, 1891, and organized the same day by John 
W. Laflin, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with twenty-nine charter members. 

On February 9, 1891, one day less than eight months 
after the date upon the first charter that was granted in 
the State, the Milwaukee Chapter extended an invitation 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 459 

to all Chapters in Wisconsin to meet with them and con- 
sider the advisability of organizing a Grand Chapter. 
The call was responded to and the organization was ef- 
fected at Milwaukee on February 19, 1891, with repre- 
sentatives present from eight of the ten Chapters, com- 
prising a membership of 605 active and zealous workers. 

The constitution adopted did not differ from the usual 
laws, granting membership to all Past Matrons and Past 
Patrons, but the constitution was changed rescinding 
their membership in 1897, clothing the Grand Matron 
with executive authority, and fixing the per capita dues 
at twenty-five cents which was increased to thirty cents 
in 1 90 1. Dispensation fee fixed at $20 and for charter 
$5. Mrs. Nettie Ransford, Most Worthy Grand Ma- 
tron, was present at the organization and installed the 
first board of officers. In 1894 the State was divided 
into districts and district Chapters held in each. 

In 1899 the State was divided into fifteen districts, 
but this arrangement did not long prevail and in 1904 
the State was again divided into ten districts with nine 
District Deputy Grand Matrons, the tenth district being 
reserved for the Grand Matron. These were abolished 
and a Grand Lecturer, for whom a salary was provided, 
was substituted in 1908. During the life of the District 
Deputy system, the expense of the schools of instruction 
were paid by the Grand Chapter; the expenses of the 
Deputies to be paid by the Chapter visited. 

In 1898 an aged widow of a Master Mason and form- 
erly member of the O.E.S. was placed in a home for old 
ladies through the efforts of the Grand Chapter. The 
same year a beautiful silk flag was presented the Grand 
Chapter by some of the Past Grand Matrons and Past 
Grand Patrons, and as the ''Star Spangled Banner'' was 
rendered, the flag was accorded Grand Honors. 



460 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

In 1899 a tornado almost entirely destroyed the town 
of New Richmond, and the Grand Matron, realizing the 
value of help at the time of disaster and with the true 
fraternal spirit as her guide, issued an appeal for the 
relief of those who were sufferers from the storm. Con- 
tributions of bedding, clothing, etc., were made, also cash 
to the amount of $1,192.76 as well as quantities of food. 
Annually, an appropriation of $50 has been made that 
life may be made more comfortable for one of the sisters 
in need of assistance. Unsolicited donations were made 
from Chapters to the amount of $21.50 for the Temple of 
Fraternity at St. Louis, and $100 was appropriated by 
the Grand Chapter. 

This Grand Chapter has a permanent home in Mil- 
waukee in the commodious building erected by Wiscon- 
sin Commandery No. i. Knights Templar, for the very 
reasonable rent of $100 per year, this amount providing 
an office also a hall for the Grand Chapter meetings. 
The General Grand Chapter was entertained in 1907 at a 
cost to the Grand Chapter in money of about $1,500. 
The result was a gain of many times this amount in the 
cultivation of that much desired gift, the real O.E.S. 
spirit which Wisconsin sisters possess in super-abun- 
dant supply. They are ever ready and willing to wel- 
come members of the Fraternity with that true hospital- 
ity which so impresses the guest at every moment that 
all are glad to have the opportunity of a stay among 
them. 

In 1893 ^ committee was appointed to consider the ad- 
visability of establishing an O.E.S. Home, but progress 
was not marked until 1901 and 1902. In 1902 it was 
resolved to erect a Home as soon as sufficient funds were 
raised to establish and maintain the Home without levy- 
ing a tax upon the Masons or Eastern Stars. Later, 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 461 

arrangements were completed whereby the Scottish Rite 
Home agreed to care for dependants upon the O.E.S. for 
a stipulated sum that would be the actual cost of main- 
taining the person, not to exceed $3.50 per week; this 
arrangement to obtain until such time as the funds were 
sufficient to have the desired buildings, etc., of their own. 
In 1914 the report of the treasurer of the Masonic Home 
fund shows almost $20,000 accumulated and all invested 
in good mortgages or other securities. 

Grand Chapter o^ Wyoming ^^ 

Alpha Chapter No. i, located at Laramie City, in Al- 
bany County, was chartered by the Grand Chapter of 
New York on December 24, 1879, but it surrendered its 
charter and was rechartered by the General Grand Chap- 
ter on August 5, 1880. The rechartered Chapter was 
organized by J. H. Hayford, Grand Master A. F. and 
A. M., Special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron, with Mrs. Nancy M. Gavitt, Worthy Matron; Ira 
I. Williamson, Worthy Patron. 

This was the only Chapter until fourteen years had 
passed, when Naomi Chapter No. 2 was chartered March 
3, 1894, by the General Grand Chapter with thirty char- 
ter members, and organized by J. F. Hoop, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

The General Grand Chapter granted a charter to for- 
ty-one petitioners for a Chapter at Lander, to be known 
as Olivet Chapter No. 3, which was organized by F. G. 
Burnett, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

Fort Casper Chapter No. 4, located at Fort Casper, 
was chartered November 16, 1894, with sixty members 
and organized by J. A. J. Stewart, special Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

86 Organized September 14, 1898. 



462 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Electa Chapter No. 5, Sundance, was chartered July 
22, 1895, by the General Grand Chapter, with thirty- 
seven charter members. This Chapter was organized 
by Alfred J. Pozhansky, Past Grand Patron of South 
Dakota and special Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron. 

Oak Leaf Chapter No. 6, Cheyenne, was chartered 
May 17, 1897, and instituted May 26, 1897, by A. S. 
Harman, Past Worthy Patron of Alpha Chapter No. i, 
with twenty-five charter members. 

Wyoming Chapter No. 7, located at Rawlins, was 
chartered November 19, 1897, and instituted December 
9, 1897, by A. S. Harman, with thirty-seven charter 
members. 

Mystic Chapter No. 8, Green River, w.as chartered 
August II, 1898, with twenty-three members and in- 
stituted August 20, 1898, by Dr. E. P. Rohrbaugh, 
Grand Master A. F. and A. M., special Deputy of the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron. 

The convention to organize the Grand Chapter was 
called by the Most Worthy Grand Patron, and met in the 
Masonic Hall, Casper, September 14, 1898, with repre- 
sentatives present from six of the eight Chapters then 
organized. The constitution adopted provided for the 
meeting of the Grand Chapter at the same place and the 
day preceding the meeting of the Grand Lodge, A. F. 
and A. M. ; made the Grand Matron the executive officer, 
and fixed the per capita fees at twenty-five cents, which 
were increased to fifty cents in 1906. Past Matrons and 
Past Patrons were made permanent members of the 
Grand Chapter and the three principal officers represen- 
tative members. 

In 1 901 it was decided to permit Chapters to hold 
special elections to fill vacancies at their pleasure, but 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 463 

revoked in 1902. In 1904 it was decided that subordin- 
ate Chapters include in their by-laws the provision that 
any member of the O.E.S. engaging in any manner in 
the sale of intoxicating Hquors should forfeit his mem- 
bership in the O.E.S. 

The early efforts in this Grand Jurisdiction were at- 
tended by many discouraging features, but are therefore 
more truly recognized as sincere and all the more highly 
appreciative of their responsibilities and true loyalty to 
advancement of the Order. One Grand Matron visited 
fifteen of the sixteen Chapters in the jurisdiction in 1905 
and in making these visits she traveled twenty-five hun- 
dred miles by rail and four hundred and fifty by stage or 
private conveyance, and had she visited one Chapter not 
visited, it would have required a further trip of two hun- 
dred and thirty miles by rail and a stage ride of three 
hundred miles. All the Chapters are doing good work, 
and some members travel as far as twenty miles to at- 
tend meetings, making the drive with the thermometer 
registering almost twenty degrees below zero, while a 
candidate once drove sixty miles to be initiated. In 
1903 the Grand Chapter met in the extreme northeastern 
part of the State and it was necessary for a number of 
the representatives to travel long distances to reach the 
meeting. A few went the entire length of the State, 
several hundred miles in Nebraska, and across a part of 
South Dakota, at an expense for railroad fare alone of 
more than fifty dollars, with faulty railroad connections 
and waits. New York could have been reached in a 
shorter number of hours. Truly it is inspiring to com- 
prehend the energy and faithfulness of these pilgrims 
toward a blessed eternity. 

At their first session, a public installation of the Grand 
Ofificers was held in connection w4th the installation of 



464 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

the Grand Officers of the Masonic Grand Lodge, and this 
harmony of the members of the two bodies has prevailed 
continuously; each year a joint social function has been 
courteously tendered by the local Lodge and Chapter. 
In 1908 the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, A. F. 
and A. M., presented Mrs. Ella Simmons Washburn, 
Most Worthy Grand Matron, with an armful of flowers 
in recognition of her position and as the guest of honor 
of the Grand Chapter. All Chapters hold their meet- 
ings in Masonic Halls and this cordial and friendly ex- 
change of fraternal sympathy has remained unbroken. 

This Grand Chapter has responded generously to the 
benevolent work, having donated $25.63 to the O.E.S. 
headquarters at Portland Exposition; $50 to the suffer- 
ers from the San Francisco fire; and in 1908 a per cap- 
ita tax of ten cents was levied for the benefit of the Ma- 
sonic Home fund. 



/ 



In life, not death — / - 

Hearts need fond words to help them on their way, / 

/ Need tender thoughts and quiet sympathy; I 

Caresses, pleasant looks, to cheer each passing day. ) 

Then hoard them not until they useless be; f 

In life, not death. 

In 1909 an edict was issued declaring "All Orders, 
or so-called Orders, which base their membership, in 
whole or in part, upon membership in the Order of the 
Eastern Star, which have or may hereafter invade the 
jurisdiction of this Grand Chapter, are hereby declared 
to be clandestine, and all Eastern Star members holding 
membership in said Order, or so-called Order of 'The 
True Kindred of Masonry,' are hereby required to cease 
membership therein within sixty days from the date 
hereof, or be subject to expulsion for conduct unbecom- 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 465 

ing a member of this Order, in refusing or failing to 
obey the above mandate of this Grand Body." 

Chapti:rs unde:r thk Imme:diatk Jurisdiction of the: 
GknkraIv Grand Chapter 

The General Grand Chapter maintains exclusive juris- 
diction over all unorganized territory, where no Grand 
Chapter exists, as prescribed by article vi, section 3, of 
the constitution, which is designed to include all terri- 
tory not included in the jurisdiction of the fifty-two 
Grand Chapters on this continent, the Grand Chapter 
of Scotland, and the Grand Chapter of Porto Rico. 

ALASKA 

The first Chapter in Alaska was Alaska Chapter No. 
I, Nome; organized June 28, 1907, by Mrs. Hattie Day 
Delkin, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with 
thirty-four charter members; the charter was granted 
August I, 1907. 

Nugget Chapter No. 2 was organized August 23, 
1909, by W. H. Nor r is, Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
with thirty-three charter members. This Chapter is lo- 
cated upon Douglas Island, just across the bay from 
Juneau, the capital of Alaska. 

Aurora Chapter No. 3 was organized at Ketchikan by 
the Rev. Willis D. Engle, Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
on August I, 191 1, and charter granted October 30, 
1911. 

Cordova Chapter No. 4 was organized at Cordova by 
John Orchard, special Deputy, on January 30, 191 3, 
and charter was granted September i, 191 3. 

Valdez Chapter No. 5 was organized at Valdez by 



466 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

John Orchard, special Deputy, on February 17, 191 3, 
and charter was granted September i, 1913. 

Midnight Sun Chapter No. 6 was organized at Fair- 
banks, September 29, 1913, by Captain John Rex Thomp- 
son, of Seattle, Washington, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, with thirty-five charter members. Fol- 
lowing in the order regularly adopted in the establish- 
ment of a new Chapter, the charter was granted Novem- 
ber 24, 1913. This Chapter has the distinction of being 
the farthest north of any Chapter of the Order of the 
Eastern Star in the world. The first formal installation 
of elected officers was April 17, 1914, at which time a 
pleasing musical program followed the impressive ser- 
vices of installation. 

Juneau Chapter No. 7 was organized at Juneau, Alas- 
ka, December 15, 191 5, by Brother John Orchard of 
Ketchikan, Alaska, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand 
Patron, with thirty charter members, and charter was 
granted April 13, 1914. 

CANAIv ZON^ PANAMA 

Orchid Chapter No. i was organized at Gorgona by 
the Rev. Willis D. Engle, Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
on October 25, 191 1, with fifty-one charter members. 
The charter was granted by the General Grand Chapter 
February i, 1912, which was the date that the Eastern 
Star shone for the first time in the land of the Southern 
Cross. 

The abundant growth of orchids in Panama suggested 
this name for the Chapter, and perhaps the best known 
variety is the Spiritus Sanctus, which has a white bell 
enclosing a stamen formed like a dove and is commonly 
known as the "Holy Ghost" orchid. White, yellow, and 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 467 

purple predominate in the colors. Formerly the orchids 
were very difficult to gather, as the rarest ones grow in 
the tops of the highest trees, but as the waters of Gatun 
Lake began to rise, it was possible to go out in row-boats 
and launches and take them from the branches. In the 
autumn of 191 3 the town of Gorgona was so nearly sub- 
merged by the waters of Gatun Lake that the site had to 
be abandoned and consigned again to tropical flora as 
Nature made it. The Chapter was then moved to Em- 
pire, and when activities of canal construction ceased 
there, the Chapter was again moved, this time to Balboa 
at the Pacific entrance to the canal, where by chance of 
fate, the Chapter holds its meetings in the same hall in 
which it was instituted, thirty miles away. In addition 
to the fifty-one charter members, thirty-seven were in- 
itiated the first year, twenty-eight the second, and twelve 
the third year, with two affiliations. 

Though the Masonic Fraternity did not regard the 
establishment of Eastern Star Chapters in a favorable 
light, and opposition was offered by some of the Masons, 
the field that has been opened has a firm footing and at 
this early date many of those who were listed among the 
opponents have learned more of the purposes of the Or- 
der and now look upon the work as a complement to 
Masonic influences. 

HAWAIIAN ISIvANDS 

The first Chapter was Hawaii Chapter No. i, located 
at Hilo; charter was granted March 15, 1899, to thirty- 
four petitioners and the Chapter organized June 30, 
1899, by John U. Smith, Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron of the General Grand Chapter. The first 
Worthy Matron was Mrs. Nova J. Galbraith, who had 



468 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

seen the light of the Star in Oklahoma Chapter No. lo, 
U. S. A. ; Philip Peck, Worthy Patron. 

Leahi Chapter No. 2, located at Honolulu, was char- 
tered by the General Grand Chapter February 26, 1901, 
in response to the petition of sixty-two persons, and was 
organized by C. A. Galbraith, Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, with Mrs. Emily Elizabeth 
Grant, Worthy Matron ; Louis Theodore Grant, Worthy 
Patron. 

Lei Aloha Chapter No. 3, Honolulu, was organized 
December 12, 1905, by Philip Peck, of Hilo, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with forty-six charter 
members, with Mrs. Margaret Moore, Worthy Matron; 
Clarence M. White, Worthy Patron. The charter was 
granted by the General Grand Chapter May 3, 1906. 

Harmony Chapter No. 4 was organized at Honolulu 
by Carrie B. Riley, special Deputy of the Most Worthy 
Grand Patron, on May 6, 191 1, and a charter was grant- 
ed on October 30, 191 1. 

At the earnest solicitation of the Chapters in the 
Hawaiian Islands, the Most Worthy Grand Matron, Sis- 
ter M. Alice Miller, officially visited all the Chapters in 
the Islands and found them in flourishing condition and 
working in harmony. During her stay of two months, 
excellent work of instruction was given, first at Hono- 
lulu, Island of Oahu, Territory of Hawaii, at which place 
seven schools of instruction were held in the Masonic 
Temple. The Most Worthy Grand Matron presided at 
a public installation of officers of Leahi Chapter on Jan- 
uary 2, 191 3, and true fraternalism reigned in each heart. 

At Hilo, on the Island of Hawaii, three schools of in- 
struction was held in the splendid Masonic Temple. The 
Worshipful Master of the Masonic Lodge was initiated 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 469 

during the visit of Sister Miller, with the work rendered 
word perfect, and good music. As the guest of the 
Chapter, the Most Worthy Grand Matron visited the 
world-famed volcano, Kilauea, during a period of active 
operation, when the great fire-pit of molten, yellow-red 
lava, seething and tossing, with fountains of fire playing 
high in the air, presented a most wonderful and awe-in- 
spiring sight. 

Leahi Chapter No. 2 has organized a Past Matrons' 
and Past Patrons' Club that meets each month, also a 
"Golden Circle Sewing Club,'' the former based upon 
furthering the social and fraternal advancement of its 
members, the latter an organization for securing funds 
for charitable purposes of the Order. In 191 5 Mr. and 
Mrs. Johnson (Mrs. Johnson is a Past Grand Matron 
of Minnesota) were elected honorary members of Leahi 
Chapter No. 2, which recognition was a marked courtesy 
worthy of emulation. 

Charity has received much attention in the O.E.S. 
work of the Islands. Leahi Chapter No. 2 for several 
months maintained a bed in one of the hospitals in Hon- 
olulu, where a number of Masonic and Eastern Star 
members were cared for. 

The Most Worthy Grand Matron, in 191 3, in accord- 
ance with the wishes of all concerned, granted concur- 
rent jurisdiction over Eastern Star material in the other 
Islands of the group as follows : 

It is hereby ordered by the Most Worthy Grand Matron and 
the :\Iost Worthy Grand Patron, attested by the Right Worthy 
Grand Secretary, of the General Grand Chapter, Order of the 
Eastern Star, that a Special Dispensation be and is hereby grant- 
ed to the Chapters of the Order in the Hawaiian Islands — Ha- 
waiian Chapter No. 1, located at Hilo, Hawaii; Leahi Chapter 
No. 2, Lei Aloha Chapter No. 3, and Harmony Chapter No. 4, 



470 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

located in Honolulu, Oahu, Territory of Hawaii, permitting said 
Chapters to hold and exercise concurrent jurisdiction over East- 
ern Star material in the Islands of Maui, Kauai, Molokai, Niihau, 
Lanai and Kaula, for the purpose of extending the Order of the 
Eastern Star in these Islands, residence of six months, imme- 
diately preceding the presentation of petitions of persons eligible 
to the degrees, being required. 

PHIIvIPPINK ISI.ANDS 

Mayon Chapter No. i, located at Manila, was granted 
a charter by the General Grand Chapter on January 1 1 , 
1905, and was represented at the thirteenth triennial as- 
sembly of the General Grand Chapter by Brother Milton 
E. Springer, Worthy Patron. 

CANADA 

The prejudice against the Order among Masons, some 
of them influential members, high in authority, in the 
Provinces of Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, is a 
feature that has retarded the progress of the work there. 
In some instances they forbid a Mason to vouch for the 
eligibility of petitioners either in writing or personally. 
Though this condition existed in the States during the 
earlier days of the Order, it has almost entirely disap- 
peared in consequence of the efficient work of the Fra- 
ternity, and those who formerly were opposed to it, now 
have become its most earnest advocates and it is reason- 
able to anticipate a like result in the Canadian territory. 

MANITOBA 

Queen Winnipeg Chapter No. i was organized at 
Winnipeg, Province of Manitoba, on August 2, 1909, 
and chartered by the General Grand Chapter on August 
12, 1909. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 471 

On April 28, 19 14, the Star Club was organized, hav- 
ing for its purpose, the raising of funds with a view of 
helping any sister or brother in distress and to furnish a 
bed in one of the city hospitals. During the brief months 
of its existence it has been a potent factor in promoting 
good fellowship, as well as the added interest of a nu- 
cleus for the charitable work of the Chapter. 

Electa Chapter No. 2, located at Portage La Prairie, 
Province of Manitoba, was organized May 20, 1914, by 
Brother Samuel R. M'Kee, of M'Clusky, North Dakota, 
with twenty-five charter members, and chartered by the 
General Grand Chapter July 6, 19 14. 

NKW BRUNSWICK 

Victoria Chapter No. i was organized at Woodstock, 
Province of New Brunswick, on March 2^,, 1909, and 
chartered by the General Grand Chapter on April 28, 
1909. 

Sunrise Chapter No. 2 was organized at Upper Mills 
by the Most Worthy Grand Patron, the Rev. Willis D. 
Engle, on June 2, 191 1, and chartered by the General 
Grand Chapter June 24, 191 1. 

Celestial Chapter No. 3 was organized at Fredrick- 
ton, Province of New Brunswick, by the Rev. Willis D. 
Engle, Most Worthy Grand Patron, on June 5, 191 1, and 
chartered by the General Grand Chapter on June 24, 
1911. 

que:bec 

King Edward Chapter No. i was organized at Coati- 
cook. Province of Quebec, on September 21, 1908, and 
chartered by the General Grand Chapter October 13, 
1908. 



472 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Maple Leaf No. 2 was organized at Frelighsburg on 
February 15, 1909, and chartered by the General Grand 
Chapter February 25, 1909. 

Unity Chapter No. 3 was organized at Cookshire by 
the Rev. Willis D. Engle, Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
on May 30, 191 1, and charter was granted by the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter on June 24, 191 1. 

Connaught Chapter No. 4 was organized at Richmnod 
by the Rev. Willis D. Engle, Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron, on September 18, 191 2, and chartered by the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter on September i, 1913. 

In 1 9 14 the Chapters observed August 31st in a man- 
ner suited to the proper observance of the natal day of 
our much revered founder. Brother Rob Morris. After 
greetings were exchanged a program, including a bio- 
graphical sketch of Brother Morris, also a brief history 
of the founding of the Order, was rendered. 

CUBA 

The General Grand Chapter granted a charter to 
Mercedes Mora Chapter No. i, located at Havana, Cuba, 
on April 18, 19 14. Chapter was organized by Brother 
F. Figueredo, Grand Master of the Masonic Order in 
Cuba, and Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, 
Dr. Geo. A. Pettigrew, of Sioux Falls, South Dakota. 
The organization of this Chapter with thirty-two char- 
ter members signaHzed the progress of the principles of 
charity, truth, and loving kindness in this beautiful is- 
land and with the Spanish Ritual now ready for those 
who care to use it. Chapters will no doubt be added in 
the near future. 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 473 

de:]:,aware: 

As a result of earnest effort and untiring zeal, a Chap- 
ter of the Order of the Eastern Star has been organized 
in Wilmington, Delaware. The Most Worthy Grand 
Matron, Mrs. Rata A. Mills, being deputized by the 
Most Worthy Grand Patron, Dr. Geo. A. Pettigrew, 
visited Wilmington on March lO, 1914, and duly institut- 
ed Delaware Chapter No. i, with 128 charter members, 
which Chapter was chartered by the General Grand 
Chapter, April 18, 19 14. 

The opening ceremonies were performed by the fol- 
lowing distinguished officers : Mrs. Rata A. Mills, Most 
Worthy Grand Matron; Walter M. Jones, Past Grand 
Patron of Pennsylvania, as Most Worthy Grand Patron ; 
Mrs. N. Luella Jackson, Worthy Grand Matron of Penn- 
sylvania, as Right Worthy Associate Grand Matron ; T. 
Roberts Bright, Worthy Grand Patron of Pennsylvania, 
as Right Worthy Grand Secretary; Mrs. Martha E. 
Gelston, Worthy Grand Marshal, as Worthy Grand Or- 
ganist, and all other offices filled by Past Matrons or Past 
Patron. 

The instituting ceremony was impressively conducted, 
and was followed by the exemplification of the ritualistic 
work by officers chosen from Excelsior Chapter No. 38, 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who performed their re- 
spective duties in a highly meritorious manner. 

The officers of the newly organized Chapter were in- 
stalled by the Most Worthy Grand Matron, assisted by 
the Worthy Grand Marshal, Chaplain, and Organist. 

With Delaware in line, the circuit is complete. Every 
State in the Union now has the Order of the Eastern 
Star established therein and the right hand of fellowship 
is most cordially extended to Delaware Chapter No. i. 



474 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

INDIA 

Pioneer Chapter No. i was organized at Benares, 
India, by T. E. Madden, special Deputy of the Most 
Worthy Grand Patron, Nathaniel E. Gearhart. This 
Chapter in the far-a-way British possessions was char- 
tered October 30, 1899, in response to the petition of eight 
eligible members, and organization completed on March 
12, 1900, having for the first officers Mrs. Laura Eliza- 
beth Madden, Worthy Matron; Travers Edward Mad- 
den, Worthy Patron. 

The New Century Chapter No. 2, located at Calcutta, 
India, was granted a dispensation by the General Grand 
Chapter on October 15, 1901, and the Chapter was or- 
ganized December 14, 1901, by Sarbotosh Bose, Deputy 
of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with twenty charter 
members. Charter was granted February 26, 1902, and 
the first officers were Mrs. Edith Mathilde Jackson, 
Worthy Matron; Atul Krishna, Worthy Patron. 

By the terms of the Concordat with Scotland, Section 
B, adopted by a convention of all the Chapters of the Or- 
der of the Eastern Star in Scotland held in Glasgow on 
August 20, 1904, and adopted by the General Grand 
Chapter September 20, 1904, the territory of India was 
released to the Grand Chapter of Scotland. By its 
terms, the "Grand Chapter of Scotland shall have su- 
preme and exclusive jurisdiction over Great Britain, 
Ireland and the whole British dominions (excepting only, 
those upon the Continent of America) and that a Su- 
preme or General Grand Chapter of the British Empire 
shall be formed as soon as Chapters are instituted there- 
in and it seems expedient to do so." 



BRIEF HISTORIES OF GRAND CHAPTERS 475 

MEXICO 

Owing to the unsettled condition of Masonry in Mex- 
ico, where there is only one legitimate Grand Lodge, 
"The Grand Lodge de Valley of Mexico," and even this 
one has not been accorded recognition by all the Grand 
Lodges of the United States, the organization of O.E.S. 
Chapters has not been encouraged by the General Grand 
Chapter. 

A petition for a Chapter at Cananea, Sonora, signed 
by Americans who lived there, was recognized and a 
dispensation granted by the General Grand Chapter for 
Cananea Chapter No. i. This Chapter was organized 
on April 17, 1906, by Mrs. Bessie H. Grosetta, of Tuc- 
son, Arizona, Deputy of the Most Worthy Grand Pa- 
tron, with forty-six charter members. The charter, 
which was granted May 3, 1906, named Mrs. Carrie E. 
Talbot, Worthy Matron ; F. E. Beecher, Worthy Patron. 

Owing to the multiplicity of disturbances resulting 
from the grave political strife within Mexico, on July 31, 
1913, Cananea Chapter No. i voted to surrender its 
charter, paid all dues, and demits were issued to thirty- 
five members. It being the wish of the Chapter to turn 
the funds remaining in their hands over to the Masonic 
Lodge for use in caring for destitute Masonic families, 
that have been or may be brought to that condition by 
the war then waging in the country of which Cananea is 
the storm center, the request was made that they be per- 
mitted to use the funds in that manner rather than to pay 
them to the General Grand Chapter. Sister M. Alice 
Miller, Most Worthy Grand Matron, recognized the jus- 
tice of the appeal, and knowing something of the strain 
and stress that country had been laboring under, and the 



476 



HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 



great need likely to obtain, the rights of the General 
Grand Chapter were waived and permission granted to 
retain the funds for the purpose named. 

YUKON 

Yukon Chapter No. i, located at Dawson was organ- 
ized August 3, 1906, by Mrs. Rosetta West, Deputy of 
the Most Worthy Grand Patron, with twenty-one char- 
ter members and was chartered by the General Grand 
Chapter on November 15, 1906. 



^.^^ 




APPENDICES 



[Appendix A] 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 

OF THE 

AMERICAN ADOPTIVE RITE, 



BY 

ROB MORRIS, LL.D, 
1857. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 

OF THE 

AMERICAN ADOPTIVE RITE. 

IN TWO PARTS 



PART I. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 
PART II. THE RITUAL. 



SECOND EDITION 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SUPREME 

CONSTELLATION OF THE AMERICAN 

ADOPTIVE RITE. 



NEW YORK 

J. B. TAYLOR, V. E. GR'D SECY, 335 BROADWAY. 

18 5 7 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

The favorable reception given to this beautiful system of Adop- 
tive Masonry, at home and abroad, has encouraged its originators 
to prepare a second edition of the Mosaic Book. A few changes, 
to render the work more available in practice, have been made. 
These consist in substituting words for symbols, and omitting all 
allusions to part third, which has not been found necessary. 



INDEX 
Part I — Ge:nkrai, Instructions 



Chap. 


I. — Objects of the Rite, 


Page 487 


Chap. 


IL— The Landmarks, 


'' 488 


Chap. 


III. — Means of Communication, 


" 492 


Chap. 


IV.— The Pillars, 


" 492 


Chap. 


V. — The Correspondents, 


" 495 


Chap. 


VI.— The Membership, 

Part II — The Rituai. 


" 496 


Chap. 


I. — Opening of Constellation, 


Page 499 


Chap. 


IL— The Initiation, 


" 515 


Chap. 


III.— Jephthah's Daughter, 


" 525 


Chap. 


IV.— Ruth, 


" 530 


Chap. 


v.— Esther, 


" 534 


Chap. 


VI.— Martha, 


" 537 


Chap. 


VIL— Electa, 


" 538 


Chap. 


VIIL— The Lectures, 


" 544 



TAKE HEED! 
Brother. 

We commit this volume to your care under the covenant-seal of 
secrecy. It must not be lent, sold, or wilfully mislaid. It must 
not be copied in whole or in part. 

Copies placed in charge of Heleon, are for the use of the Pil- 
lars and Correspondents of this Constellation, and for no other 
persons ; and upon its dissolution or the forfeiture of its Charter, 
they are to be immediately returned — carefully enveloped and 
sealed — to the Grand Secretary [as named on the title page]. 
Vide! Audi! Tace! (See! Hear! Keep silent.) 



CONSTELLATION ODES 

OPENING ODE 

By James B. Tayi^or, G. S. 

Air, ''Rosseau's Dream'' 

Gathered in our Constellation, 
From the outer world secure ; 

We here mingle our devotion, 
With affections chaste and pure. 

Here, before our altar bending, 

Every passion we abjure; 
With our aspirations blending, 

Hear us Lord and keep us pure. 

From temptations, strife and danger. 
Guide and guard us with thy hand, 

Fill our hearts with kind compassion, 
Bless with peace this chosen band. 

Thine be endless praises given, 
God of Love, of Life Divine ; 

Raise us to thy throne in heaven, 
Where thy glories constant shine. 



CLOSING ODE 
By James B. Tayi^or, G. S. 
Air, ''Meeting of the Waters" 

Now our labors are ended, to God let us raise, 
Like incense uprising, a sweet song of praise, 
To Him Who redeemed us, who makes us to move. 
In the bright paths of Virtue, of Honor and Love. 

Ascribe to Jehovah one glad song of Praise, 
Who watches our movements and lengthens our days, 
Who guards us from danger, whose Spirit is nigh 
To shield and support us, and check every sigh. 



OBJECTS OF THE RITE 
Chapter I 

Sec. 1. The objects contemplated in the establishment of the 
American Adoptive Rite, are, 1, to associate in one common bond, 
the worthy wives, widows, daughters and sisters of Free masons, 
so as to make their Adoptive privileges available for all the pur- 
poses contemplated in Masonry; 2, to secure to them the advan- 
tages of their adoptive claims in a moral, social, and charitable 
point of view ; and 3, to gain from them the performance of cor- 
responding duties. 

Sec. 2. So far as the American Adoptive Rite may succeed in 
these, there will be cause for congratulation, whatever amount of 
opposition it may encounter. No such attempt upon a National 
basis, has heretofore been made in America. The communica- 
tion of such degrees as ''The Mason's Daughter," "The Good 
Samaritan," "The Heroine of Jericho," etc., etc., though it may 
answer the temporary purpose of pleasure and amusement, docs 
not, in any important degree, enlighten the recipients in the in- 
herent claim possessed by the female relatives of Masons. Much 
less does it put them in Masonic relation with the vast brotherhood 
and sisterhood of the York Rite. Least of all does it influence 
them to the performance of reciprocal duties, without which, the 
Adoptive claim is but an imposition. 

Sec. 3. For a wider diffusion of the Masonic scheme of teach- 
ing morality and religion by significant emblems; for inclining 
the influence of females towards the York Rite; for increasing 
social enjoyment by the Masonic tie; for ameliorating the condi- 
tion of widows and orphans ; and for affording increased facilities 
in relieving distressed travelers, the American Adoptive Rite has 
been framed and is now published. 



488 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Sec. 4. To secure successful results it is necessary that its 
votaries should apply its rules in a rigid sense ; maintain its land- 
marks valiantly; affiliate into its bonds only those calculated, by 
temperament and principle, to understand and appreciate it, and 
v^ork out patiently and untiringly its grand designs. 



THE LANDMARKS 
Chapter II 

Sec. 1. The nine following principles are established as the 
Landmarks of the American Adoptive Rite, viz : 

L The "Star of Christ," or "Eastern Star," is the basis of the 
five Degrees of the American Adoptive Rite. 

H. This Rite contains nothing in its ceremonies and lectures, 
that can afford a clue to the ceremonies and lectures of any other 
Rite. 

HL Its lessons are eminently Scriptural and Christian. 

IV. Its obligations are based upon the honor of the female sex ; 
and framed upon the principle that w^hatever benefits are due by 
the Masonic fraternity to the v^ives, widows, daughters, and sis- 
ters of Masons, corresponding benefits are due from them to the 
members of the Masonic fraternity. 

V. The control of the Rite lies in a central Head, styled the 
Supreme Constellation. 

VI. The Supreme Constellation delegates its authority to form 
Subordinate Constellations respectively, to five affiliated Master 
Masons of the York Rite, associated together for that purpose, 
and responsible to the Supreme Constellation alone. 

VII. An intimate periodical relationship is maintained between 
each Subordinate Constellation and the Central Head. 

VIII. The ceremonial and lectures of this Rite are communi- 
cated by the joint instrumentality of both sexes. 

IX. The entire ritual of this Rite, both esoteric and exoteric, 
is reduced to writing and entrusted, under due precautions, to the 
heads of Constellations. 

To these nine Landmarks, comments are here appended : 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 489 



REMARKS UPON LANDMARK I 



Sec. 2. In selecting some Androgynous Degree, extensively 
known, ancient in date, and ample in scope, for the basis of this 
Rite, the choice falls, without controversy, upon the "Eastern 
Star." For this is a degree familiar to thousands of the most 
enlightened York Masons and their female relatives; established 
in this country, at least before 1778; and one which popularity 
bears the palm in point of doctrine and elegance over all others. 
Its scope, by the addition of a ceremonial and a few links in the 
chain of recognition, was broad enough to constitute a graceful 
and consistent system, worthy, it is believed, of the best intellect 
of either sex. 

REMARKS UPON LANDMARK II 

Sec. 3. The arcana, secrets, or esoteric portions of every Rite 
— and especially those of the York Rite, by far the most popular 
in America — have been so profoundly hidden under the sacred 
veil of obligation, that the most penetrating eye will fail to dis- 
cover any of them in the American Adoptive Rite. 

REMARKS UPON LANDMARK III 

Sec. 4. To establish a correspondence between the principles 
of this Rite and those Masonic developments of the nineteenth 
century which are so eminently Christian, was considered an ob- 
ject of prime importance. The spirit of an ascended Saviour is 
pervading the workings of symbolical Masonry in America to 
such an extent as to influence its votaries in their selection of ma- 
terial and the style of their labor. This striking fact, however 
incongruous with Craft Masonry such a spirit may be deemed to 
be — is cheerfully accepted and justified in this Rite, wherein the 
Christian illustrations of the "Eastern Star," as heretofore com- 
municated, have been extended in a liberal spirit, and elaborated 
so far as social, moral and charitable scheme will allow. 

REMARKS UPON LANDMARK IV 

Sec. 5. The common-sense principle of reciprocal benefits has 
been unaccountably overlooked in the developments of Craft 
Masonry in this country. It is a principle philosophical and just. 



490 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

A woman who disregards, perhaps purposely wounds, the feelings 
of the Masonic fraternity, and who is negligent in rendering them 
encouragement in word or work, assuredly merits but little active 
aid from them. In this Rite, the Scriptural adage will be ac- 
knowledged, that "they who would have friends must themselves 
be friendly." 

REMARKS UPON I^ANDMARK V 

Sec. 6. The Supreme Constellation was, at the organization of 
the Rite, a self-assumed body, and will so continue during a 
period sufficiently protracted to test the merits of the American 
Adoptive Rite, and afford experience as a basis for its improve- 
ment. The Constitution and edicts of this body constitute the Su- 
preme law of the Order, both to individual members and to Con- 
stellations; and its acts will establish precedents for the parlia- 
mentary usages, &c., of the Order. 

REMARKS UPON LANDMARK VI 

Sec. 7. Charters are granted to those associated under the title 
of Pillars, in sacred trust that the Constitution and edicts of the 
Supreme Constellation shall be strictly observed. To effect this, 
they are allowed the power plenipotentiary of selecting their fe- 
male associates in office and the material to form their Constella- 
tion. 

REMARKS UNON LANDMARK VII 

Sec. 8. To secure the highest benefits of which the American 
Adoptive Rite is susceptible, and to preserve the Order from in- 
jury by imposters, a Memorial is communicated semi-annually 
from the Supreme Constellation to Heleon of each Subordinate 
Constellation and by him to the other Pillars; likewise to such 
Stellae and Protectors of his own Constellation as may contem- 
plate a journey. A semi-annual of the membership and condition 
of each Subordinate Constellation is communicated to the Supreme 
Constellation, and every means practiced to sustain a vital com- 
munication between the two. 

REMARKS UPON LANDMARK VIII 

Sec. 9. In the organization of a Subordinate Constellation, the 
Pillars select five females from the number applying for and en- 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 491 

titled to the knowledge of this Rite, and associate them with them- 
selves under the title of Correspondents. These female officers 
take an active part in the ceremonial and discipline of the Order. 

RE:MARKS upon landmark IX 

Sec. 10. The publication of Tuilleurs, however novel in Ameri- 
ca, is common in France, Germany, &c., where the most sacred 
arcana of the various Rites are boldly committed to paper. By 
limiting the circulation of such works to worthy and discreet mem- 
bers, however, the evils to be anticipated from such a course are 
avoided, and a uniformity of work and instruction attained, of 
which, in America, Masons have no conception. 

The Rituals of the American Adoptive Rite are ten in number, 
termed Hue Books, viz : 

The Mosaic Book in two parts, embracing Preliminary Instruc- 
tions, and the Rituals, Constitution and Miscellanae. 

The nine smaller Books, embracing those portions, respectively, 
which are used by the various subordinate officers in a Constella- 
tion. 

The [Hue] Books are delivered to Heleon under the following 
pledges : 

1. That they are not to be sold, lent, or wilfully mislaid, that 
no portion of them is to be copied ; and when not in use, that they 
are to be kept under lock and key. 

2. Heleon will distribute those sent to him to the proper offi- 
cers respectively, under the same binding pledges, who will be 
permitted to use them only for the purposes designated. None 
but Pillars and Correspondents and their legal successors can have 
access to them. 

3. Pillars and Correspondents receiving them will commit 
their respective portions to memory as soon as possible. 

4. The fact of the existence of such books is not to be made 
known to the public. 

5. Upon the dissolution of the Constellation or forfeiture of 
its Charter, they are to be carefully enveloped, sealed, and returned 
to the V. E. Grand Secretary of the Supreme Constellation, as 
named on the title page. 

6. They are always to be considered to be the property of the 
Supreme Constellation, to be returned when called for. 



492 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 
Chapter III 

Sec. 1. The means of communication and recognition teach 
the peculiar lessons of the Rite, and enable its members to recog- 
nize each other under every circumstance in which they may be 
placed. They are so contrived as to be easy of acquirement and 
use. 

Sec. 2. They are of three sorts : 

I. The signs, passes, emblems and technical lectures of the 
"Eastern Star," founded upon its traditions, and communicated 
without ceremonial. These are exceedingly beautiful and instruc- 
tive. 

II. The signs and lectures added to the above, by which it was 
constituted into an Order of five degrees, conferred with a cere- 
monial. 

III. A Memorial communicated semi-annually by the Supreme 
Constellation to Heleon, and by him to all the Pillars and Corre- 
spondents and such of the Stellae and Protectors as may contem- 
plate traveHng. 



THE PILLARS OF THE RITE 
Chapter IV 

Sec. 1. The individuals described in Landmark VI are reck- 
oned as the Pillars of the American Adoptive Rite. 

Sec. 2. Those desiring to take part in the diffusion of this Rite, 
will associate to the number of five, possessing a harmony of sen- 
timent and purpose, and petition the Supreme Constellation in the 
following form: 

TO THE M. E. GRAND LUMINARY OF THE M. E. SU- 
PREME CONSTELLATION OF THE AMERI- 
CAN ADOPTIVE RITE: 

The undersigned affiliated Master Masons, members in good 
standing in Lodges of the York Rite, as appears by the Certificate 
annexed, being desirous of associating ourselves in a Subordinate 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 493 

Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite for the purposes con- 
templated in the Constitution and By-Laws thereof and no other, 
do hereby solicit a Charter under the title of Con- 
stellation, No , to be opened at 

And by our signatures appended to this petition we do pledge 
our Masonic faith, each for himself, that should this petition be 
granted, we will strictly conform to the Constitutional require- 
ments of the Supreme Constellation in all things appertaining to 
the American Adoptive Rite and if the Subordinate Constellation 
herein solicited fail to become organized, or at any time hereafter 
be dissolved, we agree, each for himself and his successors, that 
the Charter and Hue Books shall be immediately returned to your 
Grand Secretary. 

In token whereof we have severally affixed our hands in Ma- 
sonic faith. 

(Signed) 

Each petitioner must attach his signature in his own handwrit- 
ing, and append an official title in the proposed Constellation. 

The avouchal of each petitioner's Masonic standing and affilia- 
tion must be in the following form: 

I certify that Brother whose name is affixed 

to the above petition, is a Master Mason, affiliated in good stand- 
ing in this Lodge. 

(Signed) Master 

of -Lodge, No , 

This avouchal may be made, when more convenient, by the Sec- 
retary or one of the Wardens ; if by the former, the Lodge seal 
should be impressed. Parties unknown to the Secretary of the 
Supreme Constellation may afford a further identification by send- 
ing him the By-Laws of their respective Lodges, and the pro- 
ceedings of their Grand Lodge. Should either of the petitioners 
be an official member of his Lodge, (Master, Warden, Treasurer 
or Secretary), he may vouch for all. Two or more petitioners, 
members of the same Lodge, require but a single certificate of 
avouchal. 

Sec. 3. The Pillars, so long as they sustain that relationship 
to the Order, are ex-officio members of the Supreme Constella- 



494 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

tion. They will be invited to all its Grand Sessions, consulted in 
every emergency, advised of every movement, and their sugges- 
tions upon all topics relative to the Rite will be studiously con- 
sidered and valued. In the various publications of the Supreme 
Constellation their names will be enrolled, and upon their decease, 
their memory will be perpetuated with the respect due their ser- 
vices in this great and important enterprise. 

Sec. 4. The Pillars associate with them five females styled 
Correspondents to take part in the exercises of the Rite, and the 
management of the Constellation. These are responsible to the 
Pillars alone. 

Sec. 5. As responsible to the Supreme Constellation, the Pil- 
lars will report semi-annually, through Herald, the names of their 
initiates, the catalogue of their membership, deaths, suspensions, 
withdrawals, and expulsions; likewise the names and localities 
of visitors, if from a distance ; the state of their finances ; changes 
in the Board of Pillars and Correspondents ; and general informa- 
tion and advice. The Charter and Hue Books, the labor and har- 
mony of the Constellation, and the purity of the Rite are placed 
under their control and responsibility. 

Sec. 6. To enable them to sustain their responsibilities befit- 
tingly the amplest powers are delegated to them by the Supreme 
Constellation, authorizing them to choose their own Correspond- 
ents; to select, from the materials offered them, proper subjects 
for Stellae and Protectors ; nominate their own successors in office 
in the event of death, resignation, &c., appoint the times and places 
of meetings ; decide on the qualifications of visitors, &c., &c. 

Sec. 7. The specific duties of the Pillars respectively, are 
sufficiently defined in the following brief summary: 

Heleon, President of the Constellation; conservator of the 
Charter; draws checks upon the Treasurer; and is Chairman of 
the Board of Relief. 

Philomath, Lieutenant to Heleon, and in his absence, chief; 
conservator of the Landmarks, and lecturer upon the Rite. 

Verger, Treasurer of the Constellation and keeper of its regalia, 
jewels, and other property. 

Herald, Secretary of the Constellation ; collection of fees and 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 495 

dues ; marshal of processions, and prosecutor of offenders against 
morality and obligations of the Rite. 

Warder, Keeper of the portals ; conservator of the safety of the 
Constellation from intrusion ; examiner and voucher of all visitors, 
and steward at the festivals. 

Sec. 8. Vacancies among the Pillars are filled as follows : The 
remaining Pillars by unanimous vote nominate to the M. E. Grand 
Luminary suitable persons for the vacancies — who must be mem- 
bers of their own Constellation — which said nominees will supply 
the vacancies until the decision of the M. E. Grand Luminary is 
had. Should the nomination be confirmed, the newly appointed 
Pillars will be endorsed upon the back of the Charter of the sub- 
ordinate Constellation, by Herald, and enrolled in the Books of the 
Supreme Constellation as full members. 



THE CORRESPONDENTS OF THE RITE 
Chapter V 

Sec. 1. The females alluded to in Landmark VIII, styled Cor- 
respondents, are reckoned the Ornaments of the American Adop- 
tive Rite. Their names will be inserted in the Charter by Herald. 

Sec. 2. The benefits of this Rite are mainly to the female sex. 
For them this temple has been reared, these walls set up. They 
are its glory and crown; and its value consists in the spirit in 
which they enter it, and the grace they throw around it. 

Sec. 3. In the organization of a Subordinate Constellation the 
Pillars choose five Correspondents to aid them in conferring the 
degrees, dispensing charity, visiting the sick, and seeking out the 
various objects of relief. The Correspondents are responsible to 
the Pillars alone. 

Sec. 4. The specific duties of the Correspondents respectively 
are found in Part II, of this volume. 

Sec. 5. Changes in the Board of Correspondents must be re- 
ported to the Supreme Constellation. 



496 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

THE MEMBERSHIP 
Chapter VI 

Sec. 1. The title of female members of this Rite is Stellae; 
that of male members Protectors. 

Sec. 2. The lawful recipients of the American Adoptive Rite 
are such worthy females — being wives, widows, daughters or 
sisters of worthy affiliated Master Masons — as may be nominated 
by two or more Correspondents and unanimously elected by the 
Pillars of a Subordinate Constellation. If unmarried, they must 
have attained the age of eighteen years to be eligible. 

Likewise, such worthy Master Masons, affiliated in regular 
Lodges of the York Rite, as may be nominated by two or more 
Protectors, and unanimously elected as above. 

Sec. 3. The form of a petition from a lady is as follows : 

To the E. Heleon, Philomath, Verger, Herald, and Warder, of 

Constellation No , of the American Adoptive 

Rite: 

"Your petitioner, the (wife, widow, daughter, or sister) of Mr. 

solicits the light of Adoptive Masonry from your 

Constellation. 

"She pledges her honor that if the prayer of her petition is 
granted she will, in all respects, conform to the legal requirements 
of your Constellation, and be subject to the constitutional rules 
and regulations of the Supreme Constellation. 

" ( Signed) 

"Recommended by 



"Correspondents" 

Sec. 4. The form of a petition from a gentleman is as follows : 
To the E. Heleon, Philomath, Verger, Herald, and Warder of 

Constellation, No of the American Adoptive 

Rite: 

Your petitioner, a Master Mason, and a member in good stand- 
ing in Lodge, No , of the Ancient York Rite, 

held at solicits the light of Adoptive Masonry from 

your Constellation. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 497 

"He pledges his honor as a Mason, that if the prayer of his 
petition is granted, he will, in all respects, conform to the legal 
requirements of your Constellation, and be subject to the Consti- 
tutional Rules and Regulations of the Supreme Constellation. 
'' ( Signed) 

"Vouched for by 



"Protectors" 

Sec. 5. A Stella or Protector demitted from another Constella- 
tion and wishing to affiliate again, will use the following form of 
petition : 

To the E. Heleon, Philomath, Verger, Herald, and Warder of 

Constellation, No of the American Adoptive 

Rite: 

"The undersigned, late a member of Constellation, 

No , as certified by the accompanying Signet of Withdraw- 
al, solicits affiliation in your Constellation. 

"If this petition is granted she (he) pledges her (his) honor 
(honor as a Mason) to conform, in all respects, to the legal re- 
quirements of your Constellation. 

"(Signed) 

"Recommended by 



"Stellae (Protectors)" 

The petition must be accompanied by the Signet of Withdraw- 
al from the last Constellation in which the petitioner was affiliated. 

Sec. 6. Twenty-five Stellae and as many Protectors — inde- 
pendent of the Pillars and Correspondents — constitute the whole 
membership of a Subordinate Constellation : Provided, however, 
that Honorary members may be made without restriction as to 
number. As vacancies occur upon the Membership Board, they 
are filled as in the case of original applications. 

Sec. 7. Members of Subordinate Constellations, in good stand- 
ing, desiring to change their residence, affiliate with another Con- 
stellation, or withdraw from the Order, will be entitled, upon the 



498 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

majority vote of the members of the Constellation, to a Signet of 
Withdrawal in the following form: 

"We have seen his Star in the East, and are come to worship." 

To the Enlightened Stellae and Protectors of the American 
Adoptive Rite, this Signet of Withdrawal witnesseth: 

That Sister , whose name — ne varietur — ap- 
pears in the margin of this instrument, was initiated into the light 
(or affiliated into membership) of the Christian Star in this Con- 
stellation, on the day of , 18 

That during her connection with us, she has, in all respects, con- 
formed to the legal requirements of this Constellation, and the 
Constitutional rules and regulations of the Supreme Constellation. 

That in her withdrawal she bears with her the love and esteem 
of the officers and members of this Constellation ; and we Heleon, 
Philomath, Verger, Herald, and Warder of Constella- 
tion, No of the American Adoptive Rite, holden at , 

do hereby most affectionately commend her to the kindly offices 
and friendship of all enlightened Stellae and Protectors wherever 
in the journey of human life she may be found. 

(Signed) .Heleon 

Philomath 

- Verger 

(Seal) Herald 

- Warder 

No Signet of Withdrawal is valid without the seal of the Sub- 
ordinate Constellation. For traveling purposes, the seal and sig- 
nature of the Grand Secretary of the Supreme Constellation are 
likewise requisite. 

Sec. 8. The membership of a Protector is forfeited: 1. By 
absence from the sessions of the Constellation for twelve consecu- 
tive months. 2. By demitting from the Masonic Lodge in which 
he is affiliated. 3. By suspension or expulsion from said Lodge. 
4. By suspension or expulsion from the Constellation ; Provided, 
however, that honorary members of either sex do not incur this 
forfeiture on account of absence from the Constellation, neither 
shall absence on account of protracted journeying or ill health 
involve any penalty. 

A majority vote of members present at any stated meeting of 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 499 

the Constellation may remove the forfeiture, if for the first cause. 
AffiUating with a Lodge will remove it for the second cause; 
restoration to good standing in the Lodge for the third — and in 
the Constellation for the fourth. 

Sec. 9. The membership of a Stella is forfeited: L By ab- 
sence from the sessions of the Constellation for twelve consecu- 
tive months. 2. By suspension or expulsion from the Constella- 
tion. 3. By the demittal, suspension or expulsion of the indi- 
vidual or the person through whom she was adopted upon her 
original petition. Provided that, if she can prove adoption 
through another Master Mason, affiliated and in good standing, 
the Pillars of the Constellation are at liberty to substitute his name 
on the Membership Board for the one originally entered there. 

Sec. 10. The membership of a Subordinate Constellation have 
original powers in the following particulars : 

I. In all matters of discipline involving inquiry into miscon- 
duct, and trial, and punishment for the same. Provided, how- 
ever, that in all cases an appeal to the Supreme Constellation shall 
be allowed. Provided further that the Correspondents shall only 
be responsible to the Pillars and they to the Supreme Constellation. 

II. In all appropriations of the funds of the Constellation. 
Sec. 11. The specific duties of the members of this Order are 

minutely defined in their own By-Laws; in the covenant of the 
American Adoptive Rite, and in the Lectures attached to the five 
degrees, respectively. They are in general to cultivate peace and 
harmony towards one another ; to extend relief liberally ; to coun- 
sel kindly ; and to extend the religion of a crucified Savior by pre- 
cept and example, as opportunity may offer. 



PART II — THE RITUAL 

OPENING OF CGNSTElvI^ATlON 

Chapter I 

Sec. 1. The business of the Constellation is to act upon peti- 
tions ; to initiate ; to dispense charity and sympathy ; to confer the 
Five Degrees of the American Adoptive Rite and communicate the 



500 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

lectures of the same; to exercise discipline; likewise to take all 
proper measures for cultivating peace and harmony, and extending 
the Christian principles of morality and love among the members. 
Finally to aid in the important work of extending the benefits of 
the American Adoptive Rite to every community where there are 
persons entitled to receive it. 

Sec. 2. The meetings of a Constellation are Stated and 
Cali.e:d. 

The State^d meetings are those enjoined by the By-Laws, and 
may be held either Weekly, or Semi-monthly, Monthly, Bi-month- 
ly or Quarterly, at the choice of the members expressed in the 
By-Laws. 

The Called meetings are those summoned at the will of Heleon, 
or, in his absence, by the highest Pillar in rank, upon any emer- 
gency apparent to him. 

All business proper for a Stated meeting is legitimate for a 
Called meeting except the appropriation of the funds of the 
Constellation. 

No meeting, either Stated or Called, is lawfully held unless 
the Charter is present and visible to the members and visitors. 

None can be present at the opening of the Constellation save 
those who have received all the Degrees of the Order. 

Sec. 3. The place of meeting may be a hall, private apartment, 
or the forest and plain. It must be sufficiently secluded to secure 
secrecy; and central to accommodate the members of the Con- 
stellation. Caution is essential in the selection of the place of 
meeting, so as to avoid slanderous imputations from the unen- 
lightened. 

A contiguous apartment for the examination of visitors &c., will 
be found convenient and is recommended. 

Sec. 4. The paraphernalia essential to the meetings of the Con- 
stellation are one or more Bibles, Membership Board, Charter and 
By-Laws. To these should be added, when convenient, the Ban- 
ner of the Constellation, a sword, two spring bells, and other ap- 
pliances for work and instruction. 

If initiation is to be performed or Degrees conferred, a Scepter, 
Sheaf of Grain, Crown, Cup of Wine, Loaf, Black Veil, Basket, 
Pitcher, Cross, and other paraphernalia will be convenient. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 501 

Every meeting, whether Stated or Called, should be con- 
cluded, when practicable, with a social repast. 

Sec. 5. A meeting of the Constellation for any business save 
initiation or conferring Degrees, may be opened and held by the 
Pillars or a majority (three) of them. 

But the number essential to initiate or confer the Degrees is five 
of each sex, including the Warder. 

Sec. 6. Those precautionary measures which form so prom- 
inent a feature in all secret affiliated systems, whereby they are 
enable to detect imposters and reject them from their assemblies, 
are of the highest possible importance in the American Adoptive 
Rite, in view of the peculiar intimacy between the sexes which 
constitutes the prime feature and aim of this society. This in- 
timacy is, in itself, calculated to furnish the world with a subject 
for slanderous imputations ; and it will infallibly render any neg- 
ligence allowed, though apparently slight and unimportant, serious 
in its consequences. 

The Pillars of the Constellation are, therefore, enjoined by 
every principle of prudence and self-preservation, to study crit- 
ically the standard measures of precaution; to exercise extra- 
ordinary vigilance in purging their assemblies ; and to allow 
neither fear nor favor to bias them in the admission of unworthy 
or unenlightened visitors. 

Not only will the honor of the Order suffer by any relaxation 
in these particulars, but wounds, not easily healed, may be inflict- 
ed upon the peace and happiness of those amiable ladies who 
honor us with their association. 

Sec. 7. The hour for opening the Constellation having arrived 
— 'Whether Stated or Called Meeting, the formula is the 
same — the Pillars will assemble in private and appoint mem- 
bers pro tem. to fill any vacancies both in their own number and 
in the number of Correspondents. This being done, they will in- 
vite the Correspondents to assist them in purging the membership 
board. The object of performing this ceremony at every meeting 
or session of the Constellation is to secure the integrity of the So- 
ciety. If any are recorded upon the Membership Board who 
should be excluded, either on account of their own unworthiness 
or that of the Masons through whom they were respectively 



502 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

adopted, (as by suspension, expulsion, or demitting from the 
Lodge) their names must be obliterated by Herald and they de- 
nied admission by Warder until regularly re-instated. (See Part 
I, Chapt. VI, Sees. 8 and 9.) 

Sec. 8. The place of meeting must now be cleared of all per- 
sons save the Pillars and Correspondents. 

Heleon addresses the Warder: Sir and Pillar! the Constella- 
tion is about to be opened for the purposes contemplated in this 
Charter. (He removes it from its case, opens and displays it.) 
Your duties will require you to remain without, guarding, with 
all diligence, the entrance to this place and suffering neither fear 
nor favor to influence you in admitting improper visitors. Will 
you perform this trust in truth and vigilance ? 

Warder — What guarantee have I that, in my absence, the 
work of the Constellation will be performed agreeably to the Con- 
stitution of the Supreme Constellation and the usages of the 
American Adoptive Rite? 

Heleon — The honor of a Mason. 

Warder — It is well — I accept it — and, if you will furnish 
me with the means of security, I will guard you in truth and 
vigilance while here assembled. 

Heleon — receive this key. ( He presents him with the key of 
the room whereupon Warder retires to the Ante-room, locks the 
door on the outside, and thenceforth, until the close of the meet- 
ing, the security of the Constellation is under his sole and peculiar 
charge. ) 

Sec. 9. Heleon — Ladies and Sirs : The hour of meeting has 
arrived. The precautionary measures of security, both within 
and without, have been duly taken, and it is now my will that the 
Christian Star be formed for the purposes of improvement and 
Social pleasure. 

Heleon takes his seat at a point opposite the door and about 
two paces from the wall behind him. A small round table is 
placed before him at a distance of about one half the breadth of 
the room. The Bible is laid upon it. (See Diagram, Fig. 11.) 
A cord is then stretched from his seat to the center of the table, 
and a circle made with that length of cord so as to ascertain with 
exactness the stations of the other four Pillars. The five, when 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 



503 



seated, represent five points of a Star, the Bible being the center. 
(See Diagram, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.) 
The stations of the Correspondents are exactly ascertained as 



26 ^Qcits /br Protectors 




/ /ff/eon 6iun«(^<Jahf 

2 Philomath 7 f/or<i(/^uth) 

3 l/'erger ff/te/Scr/sMe^ 
4- /feratcl 9Thef/s(/farthi,) 
S i^^can/ Cfioj'r cMirl lOAfemeff/ecU) 



/2 ZocArffDocr 
/3 iVArder 



follows : Hebe takes her seat facing Heleon on the opposite side 
of the Bible and at half his distance from it. The cord is now 
stretched from her seat to the center of the table and a circle made 



504 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

with that length of cord. Around that circle their seats are 
placed, so that, when seated, they represent five points of a Star 
contained within the former one and having the same center. 
(See Diagram, Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10.) 

Full Description of Diagram 

1. Station of Heleon. 8. Station of Hebe. 

2. " " Philomath. 9. " " Thetis. 

3. " " Verger. 10. " " Areme. 

4. " " Herald. 11. Table. Bible. 

5. Vacant Places of the Banner. 12. Closed Door. 

6. Station of Luna. 13. 25 seats for Stellae. 

7. " " Flora. 14. 25 " " Protectors. 
The angular line is the Labyrinth. 

The Bible is opened at Isaiah LXIII. 
The Banner is set up so as to exhibit the head of the Lion. 
The Pillars and Correspondents should sit so as to face the 
Bible. 

Sec. 10. The following system of Signals, peculiar to the 
American Adoptive Rite, is applicable to all of the work and in- 
struction of the Order. These sounds may be made with the 
palms of the hands, but are best performed with spring bells in 
the hands of Heleon and Warder. The vStellae and Protectors 
should be made very familiar with them. 

Signal No. I. I — I — I — I — I Be seated and keep silent. 
" II. II— I— I— I Rise to your feet. 
" III. Ill— I— I The Christian Star is formed. 

The Constellation is ready for 
members and visitors. 
" IV. nil- 1 An applicant for the light of 

Adoption is without. 
" " V. mil Herald will retire; inquire as 

to her qualifications; if found 
worthy, instruct her and con- 
duct her in. 
" " VI. I — nil A sister partially enlightened 

is without and craves further 
light in Adoption. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 505 

" VII. I— I— III The Correspondents will re- 

tire ; greet your sister with an 
Adoptive welcome ; instruct 
her and conduct her in. 
" VIII. I— II— 'II The Constellation is about to 

be closed. 
' " " IX. Confusedly five The Constellation is closed, 
raps. Open the door. 

In making these signals pause the space of one second between 
each set of sounds. Where sounds are marked as coming to- 
gether, make them as rapidly as possible, only taking care to make 
them distinct from each other, so that they can readily be counted. 

Sec. 11. The Christian Star having been formed, (see Sec. 
9th) Heleon makes Signal No. 1. 

Warder responds by the same signal from without, and prepares 
to admit members and visitors. 

Members are admitted by displaying the Tessera, but as Ward- 
er is legally responsible for the security of the Constellation while 
open, he will be expected to satisfy himself thoroughly as to the 
qualifications of visitors, before admission. The communication 
of the semi-annual memorial ; the avouchal of one or more mem- 
bers who are personally conversant with the visitor's qualifica- 
tions as member of the Adoptive Rite in good standing; the 
Tessera; and an examination upon all the Signs, Passes, and 
means of recognition of the Rite, form the various safeguards at 
the command of Warder — to be used more or less rigidly, at his 
discretion. The evil that would result from the admission of an 
imposter is sufficiently obvious to impress him with the vital im- 
portance of his position. 

See Sec. 14 of this Chapter of a description of the Tessera. 

See Sec. 15 of this Chapter for the manner of communicating 
the semi-annual Memorial. 

See Sec. 16 of this Chapter for further instructions in relation 
to examining visitors. 

Sec, 12. The door is opened by Warder for the admission of 
only two persons at a time. When convenient, they should be 
one of each sex — the lady walking on the right. 

They pass the Labyrinth according to the instructions in 



506 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Section 17 of this Chapter. The lady should take the left of the 
gentleman when they pass Philomath. 

As each chair is passed they make the Initiation Sign — See 
Section 18 of this Chapter — and receive from its occupant the 
Responsive Sign. See Sec. 19 of this Chapter. Chair No. 5 be- 
ing vacant, the signs are omitted in passing that place. 

Arriving before Heleon, each presents a Tessera to that official, 
who examines it, and if found correct, invites them to proper 
seats. See Diagram, for full instructions as to seats of officers, 
members, and visitors, and the general arrangement of a Con- 
stellation when opened. 

Sec. 13. The members and visitors having entered, the cere- 
mony of opening the Constellation is thus performed : 

Heleon, addressing Philomath — Sir and Pillar : Will you com- 
municate to us some of that Divine Light which is appropriated 
to the interesting work in which we are about to engage ? 

Philomath — ■ What guarantee have I that we are secure from 
spies, traitors, and imposters? 

Heleon — The honor of a Mason. 

Philomath — It is well ; I accept it. 

He advances to the Bible, faces Heleon and reads aloud the 
first six verses of Isaiah LXIII. 

Heleon — It is well. The Prophet has spoken eloquently of 
Him who was yet to come. But communicate to us Light from 
the same Divine source, in proof that Jesus Christ was that 
Mighty to Save, of whom the Prophet spoke. 
• Philomath reads the last five verses of I Peter 11 (21st-25th). 

Heleon — ■ It is well. 

He strikes Signal No. 2. 

Let us pray : — • Holy and Merciful God ! who hath revealed 
thyself to us in the person of thy Son Jesus Christ, that they who 
believe on Him might not perish, but have everlasting life ! grant 
to each of us here assembled a saving knowledge of Him, — that 
in His merits our sins may be forgiven ; in His strength our weak- 
ness may be lost; and in the triumph of His resurrection, our 
death may be swallowed up in victory. May the light of thy 
Divine Truth illumine us as we contemplate Him in His various 
relations to mankind, as the Word, the Lily of the Valley, the 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 507 

Sun of Righetousness, the Lamb of God, and the Lion of the 
Tribe of Judah! And may the instructive lessons we here enjoy 
work due effect in our hearts and actions, here and elsewhere, now 
and forever. Amen. 

He strikes Signal No. 1. 

Here commences the opening Lecture given under the instruc- 
tions of Philomath. 

Philomath — Let us attend to the instructive lessons of our 
Order. 

We have five Degrees named respectively, J^phthah's Daugh- 
te:r, Ruth, Esther, Martha, and Ei^ECTa. In these, we con- 
template certain exalted virtues in their relationship to this history 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, that perfect Exemplar of all virtue. 

In His eventful and blessed life we view Him resigning His 
life to fulfill His Father's oath that the soul that sinneth shall die ; 
forsaking His princely mansion in heaven to dwell in a humble 
place on earth; offering Himself a victim to rescue His people 
from impending and eternal death; relying, with unswerving 
faith, upon the promises of God ; and, finally, sacrificing all things, 
fame, power, friends, and life, in testimony of the religion He 
came to establish. Was there ever Love like His ? 

The lessons of our Order teach, in emblematic guise, these 
grand truths. Sisters, rehearse your respective portions of them. 

Sister Luna, whose history have you? (As each Correspondent 
replies to her respective questions, she rises and makes the initia- 
tion sign.) 

Luna — That of Adah, the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite. 

Philomath — What was her lot ? 

Luna — To resign her life in fulfilment of the oath of her 
father — even as Christ the Word of God resigned his. 

Philomath — Have you an emblem ? 

Luna — I have The Sword which, in the hands of her own 
father, became the instrument of her death. 

Philomath — • Have you a sign ? 

Luna — I have this : ( She gives the hailing sign of Jephthah's 
Daughter as described in Sec. 20 of this Chapter.) 

Philomath — What are its allusions ? 

Luna — It alludes to the Firmness with which Adah adhered to 



508 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

her determination to die in the light, suffering no stain to rest 
upon her memory after death. 

Philomath — What symbolic lessons have you ? 

Luna — My color Bi.uE, — which is the hue of distant moun- 
tains under Judah's clear sky, — reminds me of the two months' 
stay made by Adah in the mountains, while fortifying her mind 
against the terrors of a violent death. 

Philomath — It is well ; and when a Sister in distress hails us 
with that sign, we will recall the merits of Jephthah's Daughter, 
and of you, my sister, her representative; be reminded of our 
Covenant of Adoption ; and, responding with the Pass of this De- 
gree, afford her prompt relief. Brothers, shall it be so? 

All reply, "Even so !" 

Sister Flora, whose history have you? 

Flora — That of Ruth the Moabitess, the widow of Mahlon of 
Bethlehem. 

Philomath — What was her lot ? 

Flora — To forsake her native country, princely friends, and a 
beloved home, for the love of God, — even as Christ, the: Lily 
of the Valley, forsook His. 

Philomath — Have you an emblem ? 

Flora — I have — The Shkai? — which, in the field of Boaz, 
became the means of preserving her life and exhibiting the benev- 
olence of a faithful Brother. 

Philomath — Have you a sign ? 

Flora — I have this : ( She gives the hailing sign of Ruth, as 
described in Sec. 20 of this Chapter.) 

Philomath — What are its allusions ? 

Flora — It alludes to the faith in God which, in her hour of 
hunger, loneliness and despair, buoyed her up to declare, by this 
expressive sign, her innocence of wrong and her trust in Heaven. 

Philomath — What symbolic lessons have you ? 

Flora — My Color Yellow, — which is the hue of the barley 
fields on the plains of Judah, — reminds me that, in that place of 
harvest, all her prayers were answered, her faith rewarded, and 
her trust in God vindicated. 

Philomath — It is well ; and when a sister in distress hails us 
with that sign, we will recall the merits of Ruth and of you, 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 509 

my sister, her representative; be reminded of our Covenant of 
Adoption, and, responding with the Pass of this Degree, afford 
her prompt rehef . Brothers, shall it be so ? 

All reply, "Even so." 

Sister Hebe, whose history have you ? 

Hebe — ^That of Esther, the Queen of Persia, one of the de- 
spised people of God, exiles in a cruel land. 

Philomath — What was her lot ? 

Hebe — To offer her crown and life to rescue her people from 
impending death — ^even as Christ, the: Sun of Righteousness, 
offered His. 

Philomath — Have you an emblem ? 

Hebe — I have — the Crown — which, denoting royalty, is 
the measure of that vast sacrifice so cheerfully made by Esther for 
the preservation of her people. 

Philomath — Have you a sign ? 

Hebe — I have this : ( She gives the hailing sign of Esther, as 
described in Sec. 20 of this Chapter.) 

Philomath — What are its allusions ? 

Hebe — It alludes to the Pledge made her by the King, her 
husband, in acknowledgment of her talents and virtue. 

Philomath — What symbolic lessons have you ? 

Hebe — My Color Whiter, which is the hue of the silken 
robes of Esther — reminds me that, in the spotless purity of 
Christ alone I can expect to find favor at the Throne of God. 

Philomath — It is well ; and when a sister in distress hails us 
with that sign we will recall the merits of Esther, and of you, 
my sister, her representative; be reminded of our Covenant of 
Adoption, and, responding with the Pass of this Degree, afford 
her prompt relief. Brothers, shall it be so? 

All reply, "Even so !" 

Sister Thetis, whose history have you? 

Thetis — That of Martha of Bethany, sister of Lazarus whom 
Jesus loved. 

Philomath — What was her lot? 

Thetis — To mourn desolate, four weary days and nights, the 
loss of friends, even as Christ the Lamb of God, mourned His. 

Philomath — Have you an emblem ? 



510 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Thetis — I have ; the PilIvAR Re:nt, which denotes the sud- 
den death of Lazarus. 

Philomath — Have you a sign ? 

Thetis — I have this : ( She gives the hailing sign of Martha as 
described in Sec. 20 of this Chapter.) 

Philomath — What are its allusions ? 

Thetis — It alludes to that appealing glance which Martha, in 
the depths of her misery, cast into the countenance of her friend 
and Saviour. 

Philomath — What symbolic lessons have you ? 

Thetis — My Color Grke^n, which is the hue of spring, and 
covers every grave as a mantle, reminds me that as Lazarus came 
forth at the breath of the Lord Jesus Christ, so shall I, in the 
springtime of the Resurrection, be summoned from my grave by 
the same commanding voice. 

Philomath — It is well ; and when a sister in distress hails us 
with that sign, we will recall the merits of Martha, and of you, my 
sister, her representative; be reminded of our Covenant of Adop- 
tion, and, responding with the Pass of this Degree, afford her 
prompt relief. Brothers, shall it be so ? 

All reply, "Even so." 

Philomath — Sister Areme, whose history have you ? 

Areme — That of Electa, the martyr of Christ; the wife of the 
Past Grand Master of Masons. 

Philomath — • What was her lot? 

Areme — To resign her life for a testimony to the power and 
importance of religion, even as Christ, the Lion of the Tribe 
of Judah, resigned his. 

Philomath — Have you an emblem ? 

Areme — • I have the Joined Hands, which denoting ar- 
dent hospitality, teaches that, though the Christian Saint could 
not render to God the benefits received from Him, she neglected 
no opportunity to dispense charity to His people. 

Philomath — Have you a sign ? 

Areme — ■ I have this : ( She gives the hailing sign of Electa, 
as described in Sec. 20 of this Chapter.) 

Philomath — What are its allusions ? 

Areme — It alludes to the Cross upon which Electa found 
a passage from this cruel world to a home of eternal rest. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 511 

Philomath — What symbolic lessons have you ? 

Areme — My color Red, which is the hue of blood and wine, 
reminds me to dispense of my temporal means to the poor, even 
as the Redeemer gave His heart's best blood to save me from 
eternal death. 

Philomath — It is well. And when a sister in distress hails us 
with that sign, we will recall the merits of Electa and of you, 
my sister, her representative; be reminded of our Covenant of 
Adoption, and responding with the Pass of this Degree, afford 
her prompt relief. Brothers, shall it be so ? 

All reply, "Even so." 

Enlightened Heleon ! the Lecture is closed. Our Sisters are 
found to be well versed in the lessons of the Order. 

Here, if convenient, the Constellation may be called up to sing 
an opening Ode appropriate to the work. 

Heleon — I declare this Constellation prepared for the diffusion 
of light. 

He gives signal No. 1, and the Constellation is considered to be 
open. 

It is urgently recommended to the ladies who officiate as Cor- 
respondents in this Constellation, that each one commit to mem- 
ory at least her own six responses in the opening ceremonies. 
They contain the spirit of the whole Rite ; the lessons they convey 
are transcendently beautiful ; the effect of the dialogue is vastly 
enhanced by each portion being uttered as if extemporaneously; 
and, in short, the intention of this Rite will only be partially sub- 
served if the passages from the Hue Books are merely read by 
the officers instead of being spoken. 

At the first organization of the Constellation, or in the event of 
a difficulty in finding ladies disposed to take this trouble, the parts 
may be delivered by gentlemen; but the result will not be so 
pleasing as when the Correspondents do it in the manner pre- 
scribed. 

Sec. 14. The Tessera is a metallic object in the form of a Five- 
pointed Star, the points being so disposed that one is directed 
downwards, on the front of which appears the Lion, the symbol 
of this Order, — on the back the name of the Stella (or Protec- 
tor) who presents it, and the name and number of Constellation of 
which she (or he) is or was last a ^lember. The theory of the 



512 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

American Adoptive Rite is that every Stella and Protector is pro- 
vided with a Tessera, to answer as a visible token of membership 
in 'traveling and to present to Warder at the door of the Con- 
stellation as a testimonial of qualifications. 

In such cases, however, as the loss of the Tessera, or its being 
absent, or the party not having provided herself (or himself) with 
one. Warder will provide in its stead a slip of card, or paper con- 
taining the name, locality, &c. of the party ; and this may be ex- 
hibited to Heleon on entering, as a substitute. 

No person, member or visitor, can, under any circumstances, 
enter a Constellation without exhibiting the Tessera or its sub- 
stitute to Warder and Heleon. 

Sec. 15. The Semi-annual Memorial, see Part I, Chap. 3, Sec. 
2, is a means of communication chiefly designed for traveling 
purposes. 

It originated with the M. E. Grand Luminary, and is communi- 
cated by the Grand Secretary through Herald of each Constella- 
tion to each of the Pillars and Correspondents thereof ; — likewise 
to such of the Stellae and Protectors as may contemplate a journey. 

But, as no visitor can be admitted into a Constellation without 
giving this as one of the proofs of qualification, it is advised that, 
where there are two or more Constellations in the same place or 
vicinity, the Memorial be communicated to all the members of 
both, for the furtherance of social pleasures and the general pros- 
perity of the Order. And either of the Pillars is authorized to 
communicate it, at discretion, to any of the Stellae or Protectors 
of his own Constellation. 

The manner of its communication is as follows: — the Pillar 
about to give it, collects four members together, who are entitled 
to receive it, and disposes of the third portion of it first. This is 
followed up by the first portion — then the fifth and fourth, — he 
reserving the second to himself. Having thus communicated it, 
it is passed around the circle sufficiently often to impress -it upon 
the memory of each, and a lecture is given to the effect that they 
are not entitled to communicate it to any one; that they cannot 
enter a Constellation as visitors unless they are in possession of it ; 
that it is changed and becomes inoperative after the first day of 
the succeeding January or July, as the case may be; that it is il- 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 513 

legal to write it for the better recollection of it ; and that a visitor 
on being examined must give the third, first and fifth portions in 
the order mentioned, and these only. 

A person demitting from a Constellation is not entitled to re- 
ceive the Semi-annual Memorial. This injunction of course de- 
bars such an one from visiting any Constellation save his (or her) 
own after the next semi-annual change of Memorial. 

Sec. 16. The examination of visitors who are not otherwise 
vouched for, devolves upon the Warder, who alone is responsible 
for their qualifications. A legal avouchal is the declaration of 
some members of his own Constellation, or of a person whom he 
knows to be a member of some other Constellation, that he (or 
she) knows the visitor to be a member of a Constellation in good 
standing. But even in that case the applicant must be in posses- 
sion of the Memorial or be denied admittance. 

When the communication of the Memorial is demanded from a 
visitor. Warder will require him (or her) to give the third, first 
and fifth portions, he giving the second and fourth only. (Sec. 
11 of this Chapter.) 

Sec. 17. The Guide to the Labyrinth is given in Manuscript; 
(see Tuilleur). 

Sec. 18. The description of the Initiation Sign is given in 
Manuscript (see Tuilleur). It represents the manner of grasp- 
ing the Scriptures while receiving the Covenant of Adoption. 

Sec. 19. The description of the Responsive Sign is given in 
Manuscript (see Tuilleur). It points out the source from whence 
Adoptive Masonry receives its illumination. 

Sec. 20. The Signs of each Degree are explained in manu- 
script (see Tuilleur). They are suggestive of the actions upon 
which the Degrees respectively are founded, and should be well 
understood by every votary of Adoptive Masonry. In the hour 
of peril they form the means of relief and escape to the otherwise 
helpless lady, — and who can know what day or what hour that 
time may come? They are the manner of claim upon the honor 
and chivalry of the Brother, — and who can know what day or 
what hour that claim may be made? Let each Stella, then, for 
her own security, and each Protector, for his own honor, impress 
these signs deeply upon the tablets of memory, that they may 



514 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

never be overlooked or disregarded, when the time comes to use 
them. 

The Hailing Sign of Ji:phthah's Daughte:r represents her 
unveiling three separate times, despite her father's commands; 
and, finally, her vigorous refusal to submit to the proffered in- 
dignity. 

The Hailing Sign of Ruth represents her silent declaration of 
innocence and devout appeal to God. 

The Hailing Sign of Esthkr represents her appeal to her 
husband's long-remembered vow, and the manner of his recogni- 
tion of the sign, and assent to her wishes. 

The Hailing Sign of Martha represents her earnest glance, 
from her place at Christ's feet into his benignant countenance. 

The Hailing Sign of Electa represents the manner of her 
death. 

Sec. 21. The Constellation is closed as follows: — When the 
work which was presented for the purpose is performed, or the 
fitting hour for closing has arrived, the minutes of the meeting are 
read for correction. 

Heleon then makes Signal No. 8, and then Signal No. 2. The 
following prayer is then offered : 

"Holy and Merciful God! Thou who answereth prayer and 
doth not scorn the petition of the humblest of thy children — be- 
stow upon us, in our parting, that spirit of affection which can 
resist the selfishness and coldness of the world, and cause us to 
remember our Covenant with one another, and with Thee. Pre- 
serve us. Oh! Mighty Lord, from the accidents of life and the 
sting of death ; and grant that, in due time, all of us may be per- 
mitted, with loving hearts, to assemble again under these pleasing 
bonds for our own instruction, for thine honor, and for the good 
of our fellow men. We ask through Christ our Saviour. Amen." 

A closing Ode, appropriate to the work, may be sung. 

Any of the prayers recorded in this volume may be omitted at 
pleasure and others improvised in their stead. 

Heleon then pronounces the Constellation closed, and makes 
Signal No. 9, to that effect. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 515 

THE INITIATION 
Chapter II 

Sec. 1. The ceremonial of Initiation into the American Adop- 
tive Rite is not reckoned a Degree, but rather a mental prepara- 
tion and a trial of the temper and a spirit of the applicant, pre- 
paratory to her being favored with the full light of Adoption. 
One month's time must be given between the Initiation and the 
Degrees, save where Dispensations are granted by the officers of 
the Supreme Constellation, permitting a more rapid advancement. 

The system of Initiation comprises the whole of the Covenant 
of Adoption, which must be carefully explained to the applicant 
before requiring her to receive it. 

It is requisite, in general, if the candidate is a lady, that she have 
one or two of her female friends with her, members of the Order, 
to bear her company in the ante-room, until she enters the Con- 
stellation. But the presence of her husband, father or brother 
may be substituted in case the membership of the Constellation is 
too small to spare the ladies from the room. 

For form of petition, see Part I, Chap. 6, Sec. 3. 

Sec. 2. In considering a petition for the light of Adoptive Ma- 
sonry, let these five points of inquiry be made : 

I. Is the petition in due form, signed by the applicant's own 
hand, recommended by the Constitutional number, and accom- 
panied by the fee required by the By-Laws? — The duty of an- 
swering this inquiry devolves upon Herald. 

II. Is the applicant a suitable subject for the American Adop- 
tive Rite — if a lady, 18 years of age and upwards, the wife, wid- 
ow, daughter, or sister of an affiliated Master Mason in good 
standing? — if a gentleman, an affiliated Master Mason in good 
standing. The duty of answering this inquiry rests with Verger. 

III. Is the applicant personally acceptable to every officer and 
member of the Constellation so far as can be known ? — The duty 
of answering this rests with Warder. 

IV. Is there a vacancy upon the Membership Board ? — The 
duty of answering this inquiry, as well as the first, rests with 
Herald. 



516 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

V. Is the applicant of sound mind and capable of acquiring a 
knowledge of the Rite? — The duty of answering this inquiry- 
rests with Philomath. 

Sec. 3. The petition, duly signed and recommended, is consid- 
ered in private by the Pillars of the Constellation who have the 
sole right to select the material for the work of Adoptive Masonry. 
They are at liberty, however, to ask advice from the Correspon- 
dent:s and other members, and even when they think proper, to ad- 
mit them to ballot; but the Pillars alone will be held responsible 
to the Supreme Constellation for the character of the initiates and 
the correctness of the work. For while we grant the impolicy of 
admitting a new member who is offensive to any of the old mem- 
bers, and advise that such a step should in general be avoided, yet 
the Supreme Constellation will not authorize any deviation from 
the Landmark that "the sole responsibility of the work is in the 
Pillars, who form the only legal communication between the Su- 
preme and the Subordinate Constellation." 

Sec. 4. The petition having been thus thoroughly considered, 
the vote must be taken by secret ballot and the result recorded by 
Herald. But as it is legal for either of the Pillars to object to 
further advancement at any time previous to the applicant taking 
the Fifth Degree, her name must not be recorded on the Member- 
ship Board until that consummation. 

If the ballot is favorable the petitioner may at once be initiated. 
If not, an interval of at least three months must elapse before the 
application can be renewed. 

Sec. 5. The applicant, if a lady, being elected, and in waiting, 
a communication to that effect is made by Warder by means of 
Signal No. 4. In reply Heleon makes Signal No. 5. Herald then 
retires to the ante-room, with the petition in his hand, introduces 
himself to the candidate as an official member of the Constellation 
and thus addresses her : 

Herald — Are you the lady whose name is appended to this 
petition ? 

Applicant — I am. 

Herald — Do you still entertain the desire expressed in this 
petition to receive the light of Adoptive Masonry ? 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 517 

Applicant — I do. 

Herald — Who will be responsible to the Constellation for the 
good faith of this lady? 

Warder — By my knowledge of the Masonic Brethren who 
have recommended her petition, I will. 

Herald — It is well — I accept it. 

It behooves me then as one of the Pillars of this Constellation 
to instruct you in the general nature of the Covenant of Adoption 
and explain to you the first and second portions of it . This Cove- 
nant is the solemn pledge or promise which you must make before 
you can be admitted into our Order. But we do not wish you to 
make it, nor would we permit you to make it, save with your own 
consent and with a full understanding of what is implied by it. 
Listen to me, then — and after I am done, should you be unwilling 
to bind yourself thus solemnly, you may, without impediment or 
offense, retire from this place. 

The objects for which we are banded together, are to comfort, 
protect and aid each other through the Labyrinth of human life, 
and make its hardships light by means of cheerful companionship, 
and social pleasures. We are willing you should join us in this 
pleasing work. 

We are in possession of certain signs, passes, ceremonies, and 
lectures, by means of which we recognize each other wherever we 
go. We are willing to make you acquainted with these secrets, 
that you, too, may be recognized as an Adopted Mason. 

We are governed by a Supreme Constellation which makes our 
laws and regulations uniform with those of all other members of 
this Order throughout America, and by a form of By-Laws 
framed by ourselves. We are bound to obey these Rules, Regula- 
tions and By-Laws so long as we remain members of the Society. 
In this obedience we shall expect you to share. 

We are tonguetied against slandering any member of this Or- 
der ; and bound with chains and fetters against doing one of them 
any manner of wrong. You will in like manner be placed under 
restraint. 

We are all of us in faith. Christians ; and it is a large part of 
the business of this Society to rehearse the life and doctrines of 



518 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Christ, and endeavor to imitate and practice upon his example. 
In this faith, and in these works, you, too, will be expected to 
participate. 

Is there any thing thus far explained to you that you would not 
be willing to promise? 

Applicant — There is not. 

Herald — Do you, then, covenant your honor, as a woman, and 
your truth, as a believer in the Bible, that you will never reveal 
our secrets and that you will be obedient to the Rules, Regulations 
and By-Laws of our Society ? 

Applicant — I do. 

Herald — It is well. Warder, give us admittance to the Con- 
stellation ! 

Herald enters with the applicant and the door is closed. Herald 
takes his seat, as Thetis comes forward, takes the Applicant by 
both hands and thus addresses her: 

Thetis — Welcome, my dear friend, to our Constellation. The 
recommendations you bring us have convinced us that you are a 
proper subject for the light of Adoptive Masonry. We trust that 
the lessons we shall teach you here, will both please and instruct 
you. Human life is a Labyrinth through which we wander, too 
often, alas ! blindly and in ignorance. It is good for us to have a 
friendly form by our side who has trod this way before us, and a 
friendly hand that can guide us with infallible certainty and safety 
through its most intricate mazes. Such a companion may be 
found in Jesus Christ; who lived as WK are living, died as WR 
must die, and went before us to heaven to prepare a place for us. 

Permit me, however, on the present occasion, to act as your 
guide through a Labyrinth which otherwise you could not pass, 
and to lead you to the presence of our enlightened chief officer. 
But receive, first of all, this copy of the Divine Guide of Life. 
Hands her a small Bible and teaches her how to grasp it as de- 
scribed in Chap 1, Sec. 18. 

The Labyrinth is now passed as described in Chap. 1, Sec. 17. 

As they pass the station of Herald (see Diagram) they are ac- 
costed: 

Herald — What bringest thou ? 

Thetis — I know not. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 519 

Herald — You know not ? 

Thetis — But I have a hope. 

Herald — What hopest thou, then ? 

Thetis — Affection. 

Herald — It is well. Pass, Affection ! 

As they pass the station of Thetis, they halt : 

Thetis — This is the seat which I have vacated for a time, that 
I may assist your wandering steps through our Labyrinth. We 
are taught in the lessons of Adoptive Masonry to resign, at times, 
our comforts and ease, that by so doing, we can benefit our fellow 
creatures. Be seated. 

The applicant takes the vacant chair. 

Soon may you be enlightened, my dear friend, to fill this or 
some other station in our Order. Whenever wearied on the jour- 
ney of human life, may you always find, as you do now, a friend, 
who has a place and a heart to refresh you. Rise, now, and let 
us be going. 

The candidate rises and the Labyrinth is resumed. As they 
pass the station of Hebe they are accosted : 

Hebe — What bringest thou ? 

Thetis — I know not. 

Hebe — You know not? 

Thetis — But I have a hope. 

Hebe — What hopest thou, then ? 

Thetis — Amiability. 

Hebe — It is well. Pass, Amiability. 

As they pass the station of Verger, they are accosted : 

Verger — What bringest thou? 

Thetis — I know not. 

Verger — You know not? 

Thetis — But I have a hope. 

Verger — What hopest thou, then ? 

Thetis — Charity. 

Verger — It is well. It behooves me now, as one of the Pillars 
of this Constellation to instruct you in the third and fourth Sec- 
tions of the Covenant of Adoption. 

The Society of Adoptive Masonry is bound together by ties of 
mutual aid and relief. We counsel each other when in difficulty ; 



520 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

sympathize with each other when in affliction; and give aid to 
each other when in distress. Are you wilHng to covenant your 
honor, as a woman, and your truth, as a believer in the Bible, 
that you will take a zealous part with us in this work ? 

Applicant — I am. 

Verger — It is well. Adoptive Masons, deriving their knowl- 
edge from the pages of the Blessed Volume you bear, have learned 
that we are exposed through every moment of our lives to be led 
away by temptations. We pray that we may not be led into 
temptation. We encourage each other to resist temptation, and 
we are solemnly pledged not to do an injury to one another, by 
word or act. Are you willing to covenant your honor, as a 
woman, and your truth, as a believer in the Bible, that you will 
take a zealous part with us in this work? 

Applicant — I am. 

Verger — It is well. Pass, Charity ! 

As they pass the station of Flora, they are accosted : 

Flora — What bringest thou ? 

Thetis — I know not ! 

Flora — You know not? 

Thetis — But I have a hope. 

Flora — What hopest thou, then ? 

Thetis — Constancy. 

Flora — It is well. Pass, Constancy. 

As they pass the station of Philomath they are accosted : 

Philomath — What bringest thou ? 

Thetis — I know not ! 

Philomath — You know not? 

Thetis — But I have a hope. 

Philomath — What hopest thou, then? 

Thetis — Delicacy. 

Philomath — It is well. It behooves me now, as one of the 
Pillars of this Constellation, to instruct you in the fifth and last 
Section of the Covenant of Adoption. 

The Society of Adoptive Masonry is a Society of Christians. 
None enter our ranks save those who believe that Jesus Christ is 
the Son of God, the Redeemer of the World, and the Almighty 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 521 

Saviour. We teach no lessons but such as relate to Him. We 
make no prayers but through His holy name. We entertain no 
religious hopes but those which are founded upon His Birth, Life, 
Death, Resurrection and Ascension. Are you willing to covenant 
your honor, as a woman, and your truth, as a believer in the Bible, 
that you will take a zealous part with us in the work of promul- 
gating these truths ? 

Applicant — I am. 

Philomath — It is well. Pass, Delicacy. 

As they pass the station of Luna, they are accosted : 

Luna — What bringest thou ? 

Thetis — I know not. 

Luna — You know not ? 

Thetis — But I have a hope, 

Luna — What hopest thou, then? 

Thetis — Discretion. 

Luna — It is well. Pass, Discretion. 

As they pass the station of Areme, they are accosted : 

Areme — What bringest thou ? 

Thetis — I know not. 

Areme — • You know not ? 

Thetis — But I have a hope. 

Areme — What hopest thou, then ? 

Thetis — Faith. 

Areme — • It is well. Pass, Faith. 

As they pass the station of the Banner they halt : 

Thetis — This is the second period of your rest. Be seated. 

The Applicant takes the vacant chair. 

You are now very near the end of your Labyrinth, and so are 
you not far from the end of human life. Above you is suspended 
the Banner of our Order, the Lion of the Tribe of Judah. Under 
the shadow of this Rock may you dwell. And when, in the last 
stages of the Labyrinth of life, old age shall admonish you of 
your speedy end, may you be revived by the unfailing strength of 
Him whom you have faithfully served. Rise, let us be going. 

They pass in front of Heleon and halt : 

Heleon — What bringest thou ? 



522 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Thetis — Hopes, hopes — many and bright. A field of virtues 
in which the principles of our Order may produce an abundant 
harvest. 

Heleon — It is well. May they be amply realized. And that 
they may, it behooves me, as the chief Pillar of this Constellation 
to bind you, my sister, to us and to our Order by the Covenant of 
Adoption. 

This covenant was explained to you, my sister, at various stages 
of your journey. You consented to receive it. Yet, even now, 
if you have any reluctance to make these solemn promises, we will 
release you from your pledge, and permit you to withdraw. I 
will repeat it to you, lest you may, in any manner, be deceived. 

If any explanation is demanded by the Applicant, she is entitled, 
at this stage, to be thoroughly enlightened upon the nature of the 
Covenant of Adoption. It is highly solemn and binding; while 
it is not, strictly speaking, an oath, it is equally impressive and 
bears upon it every mark of earnestness and truth. We require 
that it be repeated, clause by clause, by Heleon, before the Appli- 
cant is permitted to give her assent to any part of it. 

(For the form of the Covenant of Adoption, see Tuilleur.) 

After the candidate has been made satisfied upon each clause of 
the Covenant and consents to take it, Heleon will place a small 
Bible in her hands, in the manner described in the Initiation Sign 
(see Tuilleur) and explain to her that the sanction of her pledge 
is the Word of God which she is now clasping. In that position, 
let her give her assent as above enjoined. 

Heleon — Do you to all these pledges covenant your honor, as 
a woman, and your truth, as a believer in the Bible ? 

Applicant — I do. 

Heleon — It is well. We readily accept the pledge you make 
to us. We share with you in this Covenant and do now accept 

you into our band. Herald, make record that Sister , 

the of Brother , an affiliated Master Mason, is 

now initiated into the American Adoptive Rite. Sisters, give her 
a kind assurance of her welcome among us. 

The Correspondents advance and take her kindly by the hand 
with words of welcome and pleasure, and she is then conducted 
to the station of the Banner, and seated. If others are to be initi- 
ated at the same meeting, she is requested to take a place with the 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 523 

female members of the Constellation until the ceremonial is com- 
pleted that the lecture may be given to all the Initiates at once. 
When the time comes for the Lecture the Initiates are seated near 
Heleon, who, first instructing them in the Initiation Sign, thus 
addresses them : 

Sec. 6. Heleon — My Sisters ! We hail with true pleasure 
your coming among us. The work of Adoptive Masonry is amply 
sufficient for us all, and we shall rejoice to find you excelling in 
your zeal that of the most devoted members of our Society. 

We are laboring to increase our own happiness and to promote 
that of others. Our experience and the wisdom we gain from the 
Scriptures alike teach us that this world is a harsh, unfriendly 
scene, poorly adapted to impart felicity; and that it is chiefly by 
combining the efforts of the good and true, in the work of moral- 
ity and religion, that happiness is to be acquired and extended. 
The greater our ability to do good, the more pleasure we shall 
enjoy. 

We meet in private that we may arrange our plans for the good 
work in which we are engaged, without interruption from those 
who cannot understand or sympathize with us. In our meetings 
we strive to learn our duty as beings who possess an immortal 
part, and when we return home it is our care to perform it. We 
cultivate a spirit of harmony that the Enemy of our Souls may 
acquire no advantage over us. 

And as a large portion of our work as Adopted Masons lies in 
acquiring the doctrines and temper of Jesus Christ, whom truly 
to know is everlasting Life, we often unite to address the Heav- 
enly Throne and to plead with God that the very spirit of Faith 
and Wisdom may descend upon us and make our meeting-place a 
place like Heaven. In such a prayer let us now with cheerful 
faith combine. 

He makes Signal No. 2. 

''Source of all Wisdom, Truth and Love! grant to us that, in 
the reception of these persons, we may add strength to our 
strength and grace to our grace. Oh, may the golden chain thus 
lengthened become the brighter for these links and be strength- 
ened for the great work we do. Enlarge our powers to benefit 
mankind and to honor God. And when, one by one, each link 
shall fall away in death, may the parting be temporary and the 



524 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

meeting eternal. In the world where death comes not, may we 
realize the full happiness of loving and serving Thee forever. We 
ask through Christ our Saviour, Amen." Heleon makes Signal 
No. 1, and thus the Initiation is closed. 

The Initiation Sign and the Responsive Sign are now taught, 
as in Chap. 1, Sees. 18 and 19, and the plan of the Labyrinth re- 
hearsed. Such further explanations may be given as may appear 
proper to the occasion, and the meeting closes with a social repast. 

One month must elapse before the Initiates can receive their 
Degrees. 

Sec. 7. In the Initiation of gentlemen the work and lectures 
must be varied to suit. The Labyrinth will be taught by Herald 
instead of Thetis, and the other portions of the ceremonial 
changed at discretion, or even entirely omitted. 

It is not important, however, that the ceremonial be performed 
at all in such cases ; only we enjoin that the Covenant of Adop- 
tion be given in the manner prescribed in Sec. 5 of this Chapter, 
and that the Signs be carefully explained to them. 

Sec. 8. Nothing can be more important to the interests of the 
Adoptive Rite than that the initiation be performed with solemn 
impressiveness and that degree of earnestness that interests the 
feelings. With this the Initiate returns home pleased, and in- 
structed ; and when permitted to re-visit the Constellation, for the 
purpose of receiving the Degrees, she seizes the opportunity with 
eagerness, ardently anticipating further gratification. 

To the end that nothing be inadequately performed, let the 
officers, as far as possible, memorize their respective portion, or if 
that is impracticable, familiarize themselves by repeated perusals 
of the text, that they may readily pronounce them, when the cere- 
mony demands it. 

The difficulty of realizing the dramatic effect of a dialogue by a 
mere perusal is very great. It must be seen to be appreciated. 
The machinery, the manner of the actors, the impressiveness of 
the ceremonial, and the mystery thrown around the whole, must 
be taken into consideration before this beautiful ceremonial of 
initiation can be properly estimated. Further, it must be recol- 
lected that its chief impressiveness is designed to affect the female 
mind. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 525 

JEPHTHAH'S DAUGHTER 
Chapter III 

Sec. 1. This Degree, together with the subsequent ones, is 
regularly conferred only upon females. Brethren who have been 
initiated into the American Adoptive Rite as in Chap. 2, Sec. 6, 
will acquire a knowledge of the Five Degrees by witnessing the 
ceremony of conferring them upon the ladies. There is no pledge 
or covenant in any of the Degrees additional to that contained in 
the initiation, but this must be repeated in each Degree. 

A Sister, having been regularly Initiated as in Chapter 2, must 
wait at least one month before she is eligible to receive the De- 
grees. 

But this rule may be suspended by a Dispensation from any of 
the officers of the Supreme Constellation, and in the organization 
of a new Constellation, authority is always given to the Pillars 
to dispense with this requisition at least to the number of five 
applicants. 

When more than one application is made for the Degrees at the 
same meeting, the first person elected should be caused to pause 
after receiving the First Degree and required to witness the con- 
ferring it upon the others, before she advances further ; the same 
arrangement may be adopted in relation to the other Degrees. 

The whole of each Lecture should be rehearsed in immediate 
connection with the Degree to which it relates. 

No preparation of the candidates, save a willing and obedient 
spirit, is demanded for this or the subsequent Degrees. But as a 
means of ascertaining the feelings which prompt the applicant to 
advance, it is recommended that she be solicited to devote a sum, 
small or great according to her ability and disposition, to the 
"Widow's Fund" of the Constellation, as the First Fruits of her 
Adoption. Moneys so received must be set apart in strict accor- 
dance with the wishes of the donor. 

No ballot is demanded upon an application for the Degrees, and 
no fee shall be charged for them. Whatever ballots or fees are 
required by the Regulations of the Order, they must be satisfied 
in the action upon the original petition. 

The room is prepared for the ceremonial of Degrees by dis- 



526 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

solving the Christian Star; removing the chair and table; and 
dividing the apartment into two parts by means of a curtain ; that 
portion nearest the door of entrance to comprise about two-thirds 
of the room, which should be well lighted throughout. 

Songs and instrumental music form delightful accompaniments 
to each Degree, and should always be introduced when practicable. 

The plan adopted in conferring the Degrees is, for some one of 
the Correspondents to represent the Candidate not only in the 
dialogue (which of course, is unavoidable), but likewise in the 
ceremonial. This course certainly deprives the scene of much in- 
terest to the Candidate's mind, which would be more forcibly im- 
pressed were she to perform these parts herself. But the difficulty 
of arranging the work for this seemed to us insuperable. 

We leave the matter, however, to the discretion of the Pillars. 
If they can arrange it upon a plan analogical with that adopted in 
conferring the Degrees in Symbolic Masonry, they are authorized 
and recommended to do so. 

It is recommended further, that great care be exercised in prac- 
ticing upon the Signs and Passes, that they may be kept entirely 
distinct, both in name and nature. A little confusion at first will 
be apt to embarrass the whole of the after-work. For the better 
recollection of the Hailing Signs, they may be styled respectively : 
"The Daughter's Sign"— 'The Widow's Sign"— ''The Wife's 
Sign"— "The Sister's Sign"— "The Christian's Sign." 

Sec. 2. The paraphernalia necessary for the Degree of Jeph- 
thah's Daughter are a sword, a heavy black veil, and a wreath of 
flowers. 

Sec. 3. The Degree of Jephthah's Daughter or the Daughter's 
Degree comprises the history of Adah, only child of Jephthah the 
Gileadite, who resigned her life to fulfill the oath of her father. 
The Scriptural account of the transaction is contained in Judges 
XI, verses 35 to 40. The ancient Degree of "The Eastern Star" 
affords the traditions upon which the ceremonial and lectures are 
based. 

Jephthah is represented in the dialogue by Heleon; Adah by 
Luna. All the members of the Constellation, male and female, 
should take part in the drama, to give it due effect. 

Sec. 4. The Candidate being announced by Warder, in the 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 527 

ante-room, as in readiness, by Signal No. 6, Heleon makes Signal 
No. 7 in reply; the five Correspondents then retire to the ante- 
room to receive her, and Luna thus addresses her : 

Luna — My dear Sister ! you are about to represent Adah, that 
devoted woman, the daughter of Jephthah, the Gileadite, who re- 
signed her life to fulfill the oath of her father. Carefully observe 
whatever passes under your notice, my dear Sister, and let the im- 
pressive lessons of this Degree sink deeply into your heart. 

Warder repeats the Covenant of Adoption to her and demands 
her assent to it. The ladies then enter in company and remain by 
the door. Behind the curtain, a sound is heard as of the tramp- 
ling of feet and of music. After listening for a moment, Luna, 
who represents Jephthah's Daughter in this ceremony, speaks : 

Luna — Hosanna ! they come ! they come ! Oh the rapture of 
this hour ! For this have I waited ; for this my prayers have as- 
cended day and night to heaven. Hosanna! they come! they 
come! Soon I shall meet my father, no more to be separated. 
Soon I shall crown him with this wreath of triumph and my nation 
will hail him as their Delieverer. Hosanna ! they come ! they 
come! On the brow of yonder hill, I already see their banners 
and the glitter of their spears. I hear their music echoing from 
the mountain side. Oh God of Israel, thou alone art God, and 
there is none other ! 

The curtain is now drawn aside, and Heleon, who represents 
Jephthah, enters with a sword in his hand, accompanied by the 
other Pillars. 

Heleon — Once more I see my native village and the dwelling- 
place of my child. Soon shall I greet her, and, in the history of 
my exploits and the joys of victory, forget all the dangers to 
which I have been exposed. Beloved Adah ! how must your gentle 
heart now bound with joy. But, here I pause to recall the solemn 
vow I made when last I stood upon this spot. As I went forth, 
in the might of Israel's God, to repel the hosts of Ammon, I 
swore with uplifted arm, that if HE would, without fail, deliver 
them into my hand, when I returned home in peace, whatsoever 
should come forth from the doors of my house to meet me, it 
should be the Lord's and I would offer it up for a burnt-offering. 

Now I pause to learn what shall be the victim. The pet lamb 



528 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

of my beloved Adah was wont to run and meet me when I re- 
turned from the mountain chase. It were a harsh welcome to my 
daughter to slay her gentle favorite ; yet my oath is registered in 
heaven. I am becoming anxious. Trumpets, sound again! that 
Adah may know of my approach and send out some messenger to 
meet me. 

The trampling of feet and music are renewed. The ladies who 
have remained near the door now move slowly toward Heleon. 
As his eyes fall upon them, he starts in anguish, cries aloud: 
Alas, my daughter! and then, falling upon his knees, buries his 
face in his hands. The ladies approach him and Luna accosts 
him: 

Luna — My father, why this distress ? 

Heleon — Alas, my daughter! 

Luna — What has thy daughter done, to distress thee ? 

Heleon — Thou hast brought me very low ! 

Luna — Father, father, what cruel words are these ? 

Heleon — Thou art one of them that trouble me ; for I have 
opened my mouth to the Lord, and I cannot turn back. Heleon 
rises, and after a short pause continues slowly and solemnly: 
Daughter ! Beloved and only child ! When I went forth at the 
head of the army of Israel, I felt that in God alone could I hope 
for victory. Therefore I consecrated myself in solemn prayer to 
Him. And I vowed a vow, that should I return victorious and 
in peace, whatsoever should come forth to meet me should be the 
Lord's — a victim — a burnt offering! Oh my daughter! how 
little did I anticipate this result! How much better had I per- 
ished by the sword of Ammon ! Alas, my daughter ! my vow is 
registered in heaven. My soul is perjured. I shall be miserable 
both in this world and in the next; for I cannot, cannot take thy 
life. 

Luna — My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the- 
Lord, do to me according to that which has proceeded out of thy 
mouth. Better that I should die, dear father, than thou lose thy 
soul. Yea, rather better a thousand deaths. I will die, and our 
people shall see that Adah was worthy to be the daughter of 
Jephthah, the deliverer of his people. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 529 

She takes the sword from her father's hand and examines the 
blade. Then, with a pathetic impulse, she adds: 

But oh, my father, in this first hour of your return, while the 
nation is exulting at your victory, it is hard to die today ! I can- 
not submit my neck to this sword today. Give me a little time to 
contemplate this awful change and prepare for it. I ask for two 
months to fit my mind for death. Let me go in the mountains in 
company with these maidens, for two months, and I will surely 
return. 

Heleon — Go, my daughter, and the God of truth go with thee. 

The ladies return to the door while Heleon remains in his place. 
After a few minutes separation, they return, Jephthah's daughter 
being crowned with a wreath, and Luna addresses Heleon : 

Luna — Father, I am come again, agreeable to my pledge. In 
the caves of the mountains, in answer to my earnest prayers, I 
have found resignation and peace. I am come, willing I trust, 
to fulfill your vow, and give myself a victim. For this purpose, 
with this wreath that I prepared to celebrate your victory, I am 
crowned. My father, do not afflict your heart too much at my 
sacrifice. Be resigned to the will of God. And when you think 
of me, and remember how willingly I suffered this, to save you 
from dishonor, do not forget in your anguish at my loss, the 
splendid triumph God granted you in answer to your vow. 

Father — friends — life — farewell. A long, a last farewell. 

She folds her arms resignedly, and casts her eyes upward : 

Do not delay the fatal blow. 

Heleon — My daughter! there is another world, where the 
errors of this life shall be forgiven, and sorrow lost in universal 
joy. I will meet you there. 

Casts the veil over her face. All present cover their faces with 
their veils. She instantly throws her veil back upon the floor, 
they imitating her, and speaks, with great resolution : 

Luna — Nay, father, I did not consent to this. I cannot per- 
mit my eyes to be covered. I will die in the light. 

She again folds her arms and looks upward. He picks up the 
veil, and, while again casting it over her face, says: 

Heleon — ■ My daughter, I cannot strike you while your eyes are 
fixed upon mine. 



530 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

She throws it off as before, but with more determination, and 
says : 

Luna — Then I will turn them away from you ; I will fix them 
upon yonder mountain tops, where I found peace. But you shall 
not put me to death in the dark. 

Turns from him and folds her arms as before. He regains the 
veil, and going behind her says, while he covers her face the third 
time: 

Heleon — Do not disobey me thus, my daughter ! It is neces- 
sary you should consent to this. 

She throws it from her face, but retains the ends of it in her 
hands grasping it with much force. Turning towards him, with 
a firm and steady look and voice, she says : 

Luna — I declare to you, my father, I will never consent to this. 
To die with my face covered, like a criminal, would be a mark of 
perpetual infamy and disgrace — a stain upon my memory. This 
multitude, who have come to witness my death, would be per- 
suaded that I am suffering the penalty of my own crime. I will 
not thus be debased, and my name go down to the future dishon- 
ored. I die innocent. I die not for myself, but for another, even 
for you. I die to maintain your integrity — and if you will not 
suffer me to preserve my good name, upon your head be the pen- 
alty, for I will not submit to death at all. 

She casts her eyes upward. 

Heleon — Let it be so, then. Have your desire. 

Here ends the ceremony. Heleon invites the candidate to be 
seated. If others are to receive the Degree at this meeting, she is 
requested to witness the ceremony, after which the lecture is 
given to all. See Chap. VIII for all the lectures. 



RUTH 

Chapter IV 

Sec. L The paraphernalia necessary to the Degree of Ruth 
are: Sheaves and Parcels of Straw; a Sickle, and a Basket of 
Refreshments. 

The room is strewed with Parcels of Straw to represent a bar- 
ley field. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 531 

The Degree of Ruth, or the Widow's Degree, comprises the 
history of Ruth, the Widow of Mahlon the Bethlehemite, who, 
forsook her native country, princely friends and a beloved home, 
for the love of God. 

The scriptural account of the transaction is contained in the 
Book of Ruth. The ancient ''Degree of the Eastern Star" af- 
fords the traditions on which the ceremonial and lectures are 
based. 

Boaz is represented in the dialogue by Philomath ; Ruth by 
Flora ; Naomi by Areme ; the Overseer by Herald. All the mem- 
bers of the Constellation — both male and female, should take 
part in the drama, to give it due effect. 

Sec. 3. The Candidate being announced by Warder, in the 
ante-room, as in readiness, by Signal No. 6, Heleon makes Signal 
No. 7 in reply. The five Correspondents then retire to the ante- 
room to receive her and Flora thus addresses her : 

Flora — My dear Sister. You are about to represent Ruth, 
that pious woman, the widow of Mahlon the Bethlehemite, who 
forsook her native country, princely friends and a beloved home 
for the love of God. Carefully observe whatever passes under 
your notice, my dear Sister, and let the impressive lessons of this 
Degree sink deeply into your heart. 

Warder repeats the Covenant of Adoption and demands her 
assent to it. The ladies then enter in company and remain by 
the door. 

Areme, who represents Naomi, addresses Flora, who represents 
Ruth: 

Areme — My daughter, we have nothing left now but to trust 
in God. Our money is expended ; our last morsel of food is con- 
sumed ; I have called at every house where a friend or relative 
once resided, and have sought relief, but in vain. My friends do 
not recognize my claim. My relatives are dead or the few who 
survive have forgotten me. All my humiliation has been in vain. 
The Almighty hath dealt very bitterly with me. I pray you then, 
my daughter, no longer attempt to share my cheerless lot, but 
rather return to your own princely home and friends, and be hap- 
py there. You have already sacrificed too much for me. Go dear 
Ruth, and leave me to my fate. 

Flora — Entreat me not to leave thee or to return from follow- 



532 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

ing after thee ; for whither thou goest I will go, and where thou 
lodgest I will lodge; thy people shall be my people, and thy God 
my God ; where thou diest I will die, and there will I be buried ; 
the Lord do so to me and more also, if aught but death part thee 
and me! 

I will go, my mother, into the barley-fields and glean. It can- 
not be, but that some liberal man among this people may yet take 
compassion upon our distress and afford me the means of main- 
taining you ; while I have the strength to toil for your subsistence, 
you shall not suffer want. Give me your blessing, then, my moth- 
er, and let me go. 

Areme — Nay, my daughter, I will go. Such hardships are 
not for you. Our long journey from Moab has already exhausted 
your strength, and you could not endure it. So delicately nur- 
tured as you have been, the hot sun in the barley-fields would 
overpower you ; I am more accustomed to toil and I will go. 

Flora — The strength of a good resolution will support me, my 
mother and the arm of the Almighty will strengthen me. Give me 
your blessing and let me go. 

Areme — The Lord recompense your work and a full reward 
be given thee of the Lord God of Israel, under whose wings thou 
art come to trust. 

The ladies now move toward the curtain, which is thrown aside, 
and they behold a representation of a barley-field, in which work- 
men and gleaners are engaged. Upon the floor appears sheaves 
and loose straw. The Pillars are observed to be arranging the 
sheaves — one of them, the Overseer, having a sickle in his hand. 
Flora picks up a few bits of straw with apparent fatigue, and 
then rising, speaks, as if to herself: 

Flora — I feel that Naomi spake truly. The sun glares upon 
my head like a sheet of flame. The stubble scorches my feet like 
coals of fire. My heart begins to sink within me. I feel that I 
must faint. I will try to return to Naomi. Oh, God of Israel, 
for whom I have forsaken all things, witness my distress and hear 
the Widow's cry! Give me help! 

Goes near the door and reclines against the wall as if exhaust- 
ed. Philomath, who represents Boaz, and who has been thus far, 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 533 

in the background, out of view, now comes among the reapers 
with a basket in his hand, and speaks to the Overseer : 

Philomath — It is well. The workmen have done a good task 
today. Call them around me now and let them partake of the 
refreshments I have provided. 

Observes Ruth: 

But what — who — whose damsel is this ? 

Herald — It is the Moabitish damsel who came back with 
Naomi, out of the country of Moab — and she said to me, I pray 
you, let me glean and gather after the reapers, among the sheaves. 
So she came, and hath continued here, even from the morning 
until now. 

Philomath — She appears to be fatigued. She is quite ex- 
hausted. 

Herald — Sir, it is plain she has not been accustomed to hard- 
ships like these. I observed early this morning, how painfully 
the stubble scorched her feet, and with what difficulty she gath- 
ered up the gleanings. And as the sun came over us, she has 
dropped more and more, until, like a stricken lily, she bows her 
head and can do no more. Sir, observe her with those two hand- 
fuls of barley ; it is all she has gathered today ! 

Philomath — God has sent her to us that she may find relief. 
I will invite her to partake of these refreshments. 

He advances towards her. As she observes him approaching, 
she raises her head, and looking towards heaven, speaks as if to 
herself. 

Flora — It is the owner of the field. What should he want of 
me but to insult and reproach me? O cruel people! shall I not 
find one friendly soul among you ! He takes me to be an in- 
truder — peradventure a thief — and he will drive me from the 
field. Oh God of Israel, for whom I have forsaken all things, 
witness now my distress, and hear the Widow's cry! Give me 
help ! Holds up her two handfuls of barley to show him that she 
is but a poor gleaner, and gazes intently towards heaven. ( Phil- 
omath comes before her and speaks.) 

Philomath — Ruth, it hath been fully showed me all that thou 
hast done unto thy mother-in-law since the death of thine hus- 



534 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

band, and how thou hast left thy father and thy mother, and the 
land of thy nativity, and are come unto a people which thou knew- 
est not heretofore. The Lord recompense thy work, and a full 
reward be given thee of the Lord God of Israel, under whose 
wings thou dost trust. Come with me and partake of the re- 
freshments which I have provided for my reapers. They all 
gather around the basket and partake, accosting one another with 
cheerful words. After a minute or two Philomath addresses : 

Herald, let her glean even among the sheaves, and reproach 
her not : and let fall also some of the handfuls of purpose for her ; 
and leave them that she may glean them and rebuke her not. 

Here ends the ceremony. Heleon invites the candidate to be 
seated. If others are to receive the Degrees, at this meeting, she 
is requested to witness the ceremony, after which the lecture is 
given to all. See Chap. VIII for all the lectures. 



ESTHER 
Chapter V 



Sec. 1. The paraphernalia necessary to the Degree of Esther 
are, two Crowns, a Scepter, a white Scarf and two Swords. 

The room requires no preparation save the curtain. 

Sec. 2. The Degree of Esther, or the Wife's Degree comprises 
the history of Esther, wife and Queen of Ahasuerus, king of 
Persia. This pious lady offered her crown and life to rescue her 
people from impending death. The Scriptural account of the 
transaction is contained in the Book of Esther. The ancient De- 
gree of "The Eastern Star" affords the traditions on which the 
ceremonial and lectures are founded. 

Ahasuerus is represented in the dialogue by Verger ; Esther by 
Hebe; the two guards by Philomath and Herald. All the mem- 
bers of the Constellation, both male and female, should take part 
in the drama, to give it due effect. 

Sec. 3. The Candidate being summoned by Warder, in the 
ante-room, as in readiness, by Signal No. 6, Heleon makes Signal 
No. 7 in reply. The five Correspondents then retire to the ante- 
room to receive her, and Hebe thus addresses her : 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 535 

Hebe — My Sister, you are about to represent Esther, that 
heroic woman, the wife and queen of Ahasuerus, who voluntarily 
periled her crown and life to preserve her nation, the people of 
God, from impending destruction. Carefully observe whatever 
passes under your notice and let the impressive lessons of this 
Degree sink deeply into your heart. 

Warder repeats the Covenant of Adoption to her and demands 
her assent to it. The ladies then enter in company, and remain 
by the door. Hebe, who represents Esther, then addresses the 
other Correspondents, who represent her maidens. 

Hebe — All now is in readiness for the effort. I have done all 
I could to prepare for this trial, and nothing remains but to make 
the attempt. By prayer, and fasting, for three days and nights, 
I have endeavored to secure the favor of God. For, is it not for 
his dear sake that I am thus imperiling all that I hold dear ? In 
this cruel edict my life is not attempted ; nor should I personally 
suffer this dreadful penalty. But, Oh my people! the hunted 
exiles of Judah ! doomed nation of God ! to what a fate are you 
exposed? How can I live and see you destroyed? Better that 
we all perish together, and the faithfulness of death seal the 
friendship cemented in life. 

This is the last day which remains for me to accomplish my 
purpose, and even now it is full late. I will go in unto the king, 
which is not according to the law, and if I perish, I perish. 

Maidens, robe me for the sacrifice. Give me a garb of purest 
white and the golden crown upon my head. Peradventure, when 
the king beholds me thus arrayed, he will be reminded of the 
solemn vow which, in the years gone by, he made me, and I shall 
accomplish my purpose. 

The attendants tie the white scarf over her left shoulder, so 
that it crosses her breast to the right side, and place the crown 
upon her head. 

Now, my maidens, let us move forward, and while we approach 
the gate of the Palace, in which life or death awaits us, let your 
hearts, with mine, be directed to that Throne whence cometh all 
our help. 

They move slowly forward. 

Hebe — Be pleased. Oh Lord, to deliver me: Oh Lord make 



536 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

haste to help me. Withhold not thy tender mercies from me, Oh 
Lord; let thy loving kindness and thy truth continuously preserve 
me. Why art thou cast down Oh my soul? and why art thou 
disquieted within me? hope thou in God: for I shall yet praise 
him who is the health of my countenance and my God. 

Marching two and two they approach the Guards, who are seat- 
ed in front of the curtain. The Guards rise, cross their swords 
before her, and Philomath accosts : 

Philomath — Back ! You cannot pass here. Back ! I say. Do 
you not know that this is the King's palace and that we are his 
guards ? 

Hebe — Stand aside ! I command you. I am your Queen and 
will enter. Guards, stand aside. 

Philomath — Madam, I recognize you, and respect you, both 
for your station and your character. Your kindness and affabil- 
ity to all your subjects have endeared your memory throughout 
the nation. I know that your word here is law. Yet it is at your 
peril if you enter this place. 

To-day is the Grand Council of the Nation. With the King 
are assembled the Princes and Rulers of the land, and His Majes- 
ty will on this occasion, more than all others, be offended at your 
intrusion. I pray you, Royal Madam, do not pass. 

Hebe — Stand aside, I have estimated the peril and I will un- 
dertake it. Let me pass ! 

Herald — Royal Madam, it is an inviolable law of the Palace, 
that no person shall enter unless summoned by the King, under 
penalty of death. I entreat you be warned before your blood 
stains these walls. If you enter, it is to certain death. 

Hebe — Let me pass, and no longer delay my enterprise. The 
responsibility be upon my own head. 

Herald — Pass then, and may God protect you ! 

The curtain is here drawn aside and exhibits the Grand Coun- 
cil. The King is seated; the other Officers are standing on his 
right and left; he wears a crown upon his head and bears in his 
right hand a scepter; as the ladies enter he is speaking to those 
around him: 

Verger — As to this accursed nation, let their destruction be 
sharp and sure. See that no lingering slaughter or protracted 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 537 

death makes their fate uncertain ; but in one day, yea if it be pos- 
sible, in one hour, let the sword reach them, old and young, until 
not one be left. Then shall my kingdom — 

At this instant his eye falls upon Hebe, and he abruptly pauses. 
He rises to his feet, his countenance expressing the greatest sur- 
prise and anger. He speaks: 

Verger — What means this intrusion ? Guards, upon your 
lives be this act. Are my strictest orders thus to be disregarded ? 
Were it my mother, she should die. Take her at once to the 
courtyard and put her to death. 

The Guards rush upon her and seize her by each hand to lead 
her away. She accompanies them a few paces, then snatches her 
hands from theirs, turns towards the King and makes two parts 
of the Hailing Sign of Esther, her eyes being directed towards 
heaven. (See Tuilleur.) The King speaks quickly and in a 
softened tone: 

Verger — Stop Guards^ release her. Return to your posts. 
Esther, my Queen, approach hither, and receive my pardon. 

She advances to him and places her right hand upon the top 
of the sceptre, which he extends toward her. 

Verger — 'What wilt thou, Queen Esther? and what is thy 
request? It shall even be granted thee to the half of the king- 
dom. 

Here ends the ceremony. Heleon invites the candidate to be 
seated. If others are to receive the Degree at this meeting, she 
is requested to witness the ceremony; after which, the lecture 
is given to all. See Chapter VIII for all the lectures. 



MARTHA 
Chapter VI 

Sec. 1. This Degree is communicated without ceremonial; 
and to all the Candidates simultaneously. 

This was found necessary, as the principal male character in 
the dialogue would necessarily have represented the Lord Jesus 
Christ, whom to attempt thus to impersonate would be blasphem- 
ous. The well-informed lecturer will be able, however, to make 



538 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

an impression upon the minds of the Candidates but little short 
of that made by a dramatic rehearsal. The Covenant of Adop- 
tion must be repeated to the Candidate as in the other Degrees, 
and her assent demanded to it. 

Sec. 2. The Degree of Martha, or the Sister's Degree, com- 
prises the history of Martha, the sister of Lazarus and friend to 
the Saviour. This faithful lady, oppressed with the loss of all 
she held dear on earth, could yet look up through her sorrows to 
Christ and profess an unshaken reliance upon his words. The 
Scriptural account of the transaction is contained in the Book of 
John. The ancient Degree of the "Eastern Star" affords the tra- 
dition on which the lectures are founded. See Chapter VIH for 
all the Lectures. 

ELECTA 
Chapter VII 

Sec. L The paraphernalia necessary to the Degree of Electa 
are a Sword, a black Cross, a bundle of Clothing, a Purse, and a 
Dish covered with Food. 

Sec. 2. The Degree of Electa, or the Christian Martyr's De- 
gree, comprises the history of Electa, the Martyr of Christ, and 
the wife of the Past Grand Master of Masons. She sacrificed all 
things in testimony of her love for Christ. The only Scriptural 
allusion to Electa — and this is but brief and indistinct — is in the 
Second Epistle of John. The ancient Degree of "Eastern Star" 
affords the traditions on which the ceremonial and lectures are 
founded. 

St. John is represented in the dialogue by Herald; Electa by 
Areme. No others need take part in the drama of this Degree. 

Sec. 3. The Candidate being announced by Warder, in the 
ante-room, as in readiness, by Signal No. 6, Heleon makes Signal 
No. 7 in reply. The five Correspondents then retire to the ante- 
room and Areme thus addresses her: 

Areme — My dear Sister : You are about to represent Electa, 
that renowned lady, the friend of St. John and wife of Gains, 
Past Grand Master of Masons. She sacrificed all things for the 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 539 

love she bore to the Saviour. Carefully observe whatever passes 
under your notice, my dear Sister, and let the impressive lessons 
of this Degree sink deeply into your heart. 

Warder repeats the Covenant of Adoption to her and demands 
her assent to it. The ladies then enter in company and stand 
some distance to the right or left of the door. Herald, who is 
on the inner side of the veil, is heard as if reading from a letter 
he has just received: 

Herald — That the new Religion be crushed out from every 
nation where the Roman rule prevails! that its votaries, one and 
all, be required to renounce it, or be mercilessly sacrificed ! That 
the Roman soldiers — ah, cruel band ! — visit the dwelling of 
every suspected Christian, and see that he acquit himself of the 
suspicion by trampling upon the Cross ! Take notice, Most Wor- 
shipful Grand Master, and govern yourself accordingly. 

Ah, cruel Emperor! Ah, hapless people! Alas, the persecut- 
ed Church of Christ, what will avail you now? People of the 
living Saviour, whither now will you flee? Is there no rest but 
the grave, for the friends of Jesus? 

And you, pious Electa, true-hearted Sister in Christ, delight of 
all who love the Lord, what will be your fate, now? How will 
you sustain this dreadful trial? Many will deny Christ in these 
latter days of persecution, and purchase a miserable life by deny- 
ing Him who gave His life as a ransom for many. Will your 
name be added to that traitorous band? I tremble to consider it. 
Yet, how many, who have been devoted to Him, in the day of ease 
and quiet, afterwards, when affliction or persecution ariseth for 
the Word's sake, are offended. 

I am oppressed with anxiety concerning this woman. If Electa 
is found to shrink under this calamity, who, then, will be faithful ? 
Aged and infirm as I am, under the yoke of five score years, I will 
arise and go to her dwelling, to satisfy my mind that she is faith- 
ful. And that she may not easily recognize me until I have com- 
m.unicated this message, I will disguise myself in the garb of a 
Roman soldier, the bitterest enemy of the Cross, and thus present 
myself at her door. 

The curtain is now drawn aside and exhibits Herald armed 
with a Sword. He walks slowly as if with weariness and pain, 



540 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR ' 

towards the door of entrance. Arrived there, he halts and solilo- 
quizes : 

The task is more than I had reckoned it. Had the distance been 
but a little greater, I could not have accomplished it. Five score 
years have done their work too faithfully for such journeys as 
these. I will apply for adrnission. 

He knocks. 

Dusty and disguised as I am in this garb, Electa will surely be 
unable to recognize me. I am quite exhausted. 

He leans upon the sword in his left hand by the side of the 
door. The ladies approach him. 

Areme, who represents Electa — Observes him narrowly and 
halts. She soliloquizes: 

Areme — ■ A soldier ! A Roman soldier ! The butchers of 
Christ, and the insatiable ravagers of his flock — what does he 
here? Why has he chosen to call upon me? But my duty is 
plain, whatever may be his motives I will dispense to him Christian 
hospitality. I perceive he is very aged and infirm. He appears 
overcome with heat and fatigue. I will hesitate no longer. Per- 
haps God has sent him here for his soul's good. 

She goes to him and takes him kindly by the hand. 

My aged Brother, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, wel- 
come to my dwelling. Let it be your home while you tarry here. 
Enter. The liberal hand of providence has endowed me richly 
with the means of hospitality. Enter, and, as if sent by Him, 
partake freely of His benefits. 

She leads him a little way and seats him. 

Let me refresh you with water. 

She brings him water of which he drinks. 

The day is hot, the roads are hard and dusty — your journey 
has been too great for you. It was often so with our blessed- 
Saviour, who, in his ministry, used to pass this way when I was 
but a little child. Hungry and thirsty and wearied as you are, 
he has often realized in this very dwelling how bitter is the lot 
of man! 

Now, my Brother, you seem refreshed ; the color mounts to your 
cheek and light comes again to your eye. Does the name of 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 541 

Christ bring such animation to your soul? Ah, I have experi- 
enced its benefits. 

Cheer up, then, cheer up, aged friend ! There shall nothing be 
wanting for your comfort here. The love of Christ constraineth 
me and whatever I have is your own. Speak, brother, and com- 
mand me what I shall do for you ? 

Herald — I am hungry. Since the morning watch I have not 
broken bread. Yet a few crusts will suffice me and I will be 
thankful. 

Areme — No crusts from me. While Electa has an abounding 
providence for her own support, the wayfarer whom Christ may 
direct hither shall not have crusts. 

She presents him a dish covered with food. 

Take of the best my house affords and welcome. 

After a few minutes she brings him a cup of wine. 

Accept this cup of the richest wine my house affords. May its 
generous flavor give you new strength and prove, at least, the 
earnest of your welcome. 

After he has drunk she continues. 

But what further token of hospitality can I offer you. Speak, 
Brother, and command me, what I shall do for you. 

Herald — Draws forth an empty purse and hands to her. 

My purse is empty — my home is far away. I have but little 
strength to labor for money. Give me a few farthings to enable 
me to reach the next village and I will be thankful. 

Areme — Nay not a few farthings. 

She fills the purse as if with gold. 

But rather let me furnish you the means for your entire jour- 
ney. And when you shall once again reach that distant home, 
may you find its loved ones all in health and prepared to meet you. 

She returns him the purse. 

But all your wants are not yet supplied. Speak, again, Brother, 
and command me. What shall I do for you ? 

Herald — My raiment is old and worn. Yet I shall not much 
longer need a covering, therefore, if your husband or servants 
have any cast-off garments you would bestow upon me, I would 
be thankful. 



542 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Areme — Not so, my Brother, I will deal more bountifully with 
you than you ask. 

She presents him with a bundle as if filled with clothing. 

Here is the best in our wardrobe, and may they give you com- 
fort and warmth until you reach your distant home and friends. 
But is there not something further I can do for you ? Think : I 
should feel loth to know that any left me in distress while I have 
the means for their relief. 

Herald — No, kind lady, nothing further. All that I was in 
want of has been supplied me, and for your generous bounty, be- 
lieve me, I am thankful. But now that I am refreshed and able 
to deliver my message, I will inform you what is my business in 
this part of the country. The Emperor at Rome has been pleased 
to issue an edict, to the effect "that the new Religion be crushed 
out from every nation where the Roman rule prevails ! That its 
votaries, one and all, be required to renounce it or be mercilessly 
sacrificed! that the Roman soldiers visit the dwelling of every 
suspected Christian, and see that he acquit himself of the sus- 
picion by trampling upon the cross." I have, therefore, come to 
inquire of you, as of one who is best acquainted throughout this 
region, are there any Christians amongst your neighbors, and if 
so, to demand their names. 

He looks her steadily in the face. She returns his look with a 
surprised air, but makes him no reply. After a brief pause he 
continues : 

Madam, there is something suspicious in your silence. Why 
should you hesitate to reply? Are there any Christians in your 
family? Your manner would seem to indicate it. Give me their 
names, or you will suffer the penalty as though you were one in 
person. 

He again pauses and looks in her face as before ; but she makes 
him no reply. He rises and continues : 

Madam, can it be that you are a Christian? One so wealthy, 
so accomplished, so hospitable ! Can it be possible that you have 
subjected yourself to such a horrid doom? But no, there is a 
means of escape; there is a method, easy and sure, by which this 
terrible punishment may be avoided. Madam, you have been 
kind to me in my hour of distress, and I will show you that I am 
grateful. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 543 

He draws from his pocket a small black Cross. 

According to the terms of the law, whoever is suspected of be- 
ing a Christian, may acquit himself of the suspicion by trampling 
on the Cross. You will preserve your life, your property and the 
lives of your husband and children by casting this upon the floor 
and putting your foot upon it. Then I will go forth and declare 
that you have submitted to the law and renounced the Christian 
religion. Take it. 

All this time she has not ceased to look him sternly and indig- 
nantly in the face. But now, she takes the Cross from his hand, 
her countenance changes to tenderness, she presses the Cross 
ardently to her lips and bosom ; then she speaks. 

Areme — < Sir, are you a demon in the form of humanity, that 
you strive to imperil my soul with these allurements? and think 
you I am terrified with your threats? Why, what is there in all 
you have said to move me? Have I not lived fifteen years daily 
expecting, waiting, desiring this message, and shall it shake me 
now? 

You ask me, too, if I am a Christian? and you profess to be 
astonished to discover that I am a Christian; did I not meet you 
at my threshold and welcome you in the name of Jesus Christ? 
Have I not fed you and tended upon your wants for the sake of 
Jesus Christ? What was there in you or in me, independent of 
my faith in the Crucified One, which should prompt me to such 
actions ? 

Cease, then, your allurements, and spare me the further recital 
of my perils. I am a Christian. This family, one and all, are 
Christians. One and all we have long been prepared to render 
up all things for the sake of Him who gave all things to us — go 
on, then, and do your duty. Spare no part of it for the remem- 
brance of my hospitality, and God, for Christ's sake, will enable 
me to do mine. 

She places herself in the position of the Sign of Electa. (See 
Tuilleur.) Herald lays aside his sword and speaks kindly to her : 

Herald — Electa, my Sister, tried and true, look upon me again. 
Do you not know me ? I am John. 

Areme — John ! it is indeed ! Oh Sir, how could you try my 
feelings in this cruel manner? 

Herald — That I might learn the strength of your religious 



544 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

character. I confess, my dear Sister, that I feared this alarming 
and most unexpected intelligence might shake your faith, and I 
disguised myself in this manner to try you unobserved; but all is 
clear now, your gold is altogether pure ; you are the fairest among 
ten thousand and altogether lovely. 

Electa, in a few days you may expect that this scene which 
has tried you so, will be realized. The soldiers will come and the 
rest will follow. I see in store for you a terrible sacrifice and a 
cruel death. But you need no pity. Your reward is in heaven, 
and soon shall I meet you there to rehearse the events which now 
are nigh at hand. 

Electa, we will Masonically embalm your religious fortitude 
and your triumphant death. As Grand Master of Masons I will 
institute a Degree to be entitled after your name, which shall 
perpetuate your history among us while there is a woman's eye 
to weep or a man's heart to feel for the sorrows of suffering 
virtue. 

Here ends the ceremony. Heleon invites the Candidate to be 
seated. If others are to receive the Degrees at this meeting, she 
is requested to remain and witness the ceremony, after which the 
lecture is given to all. See Chapter VIII for all the lectures. 



THE LECTURES 
Chapter VIII 

Sec. 1. The Lectures which follow, when combined with the 
references to the Tuilleur, which accompany them, constitute all 
the instructions that is thought necessary to offer in this volume. 
But those portions of Scripture which give the histories of Jeph- 
thah's Daughter, Ruth, Esther, and Martha, may be considered 
essential parts of these Lectures ; and the enlightened Mason who 
would attempt to interest the female mind upon this subject, must 
familiarize himself, first of all, with the inspired word or he will 
scarcely succeed in his effort. 

It should be understood that none of the traditions of the East- 
ern Star contradict the text of Scripture. They, indeed, extend 
the Scriptural history, and they throw important light upon the 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 545 

passages referred to — like, furthermore, they may be found op- 
posed to the opinions of some modern commentators — particu- 
larly those that relate to the fate of Jephthah's Daughter, etc. — 
but there is no shade of discrepancy between these Lectures and 
the generally-received understanding of the Bible, Of this, the 
pious Christian may be well assured, even in advance of a perusal. 
Sec. 2. Previous to the establishment of the American Adop- 
tive Rite, it was the inherent privilege — in many places largely 
exercised — of every Master Mason to communicate the Degree 
of the "Eastern Star" without any ceremonial, but under the fol- 
lowing restrictions : 

1. Five or more ladies must be present at its communication. 
Men alone could not receive it. 

2. They must be of the age of 18 years or upwards. 

3. They must be the wives, daughters, sisters or widows of 
Master Masons in good standing. 

4. They must give their assent in advance to the following 
pledge: "So many of you. Ladies, as do pledge your sacred 
honor as women, forever to keep the secrets of this Degree, raise 
your right hand!" 

5. As many Master Masons in good standing may be present 
at this communication as choose. No particular number is 
requisite. 

But they must give their assent in advance to the following 
pledge: "So many of you. Brothers, as do pledge your sacred 
honor as Masons, to communicate this Degree only in the manner 
and under the circumstances in which you are now to receive it, 
raise your right hand!" 

The inherent right which Master Masons possessed, to com- 
municate the Degree under the above-named restrictions, remains 
forever unchanged, nor does the Supreme Constellation presume 
to interfere with it. Those who come lawfully into possession of 
this volume, may, if they think proper, make it the basis of such 
communication, avoiding, however, the imparting of any of the 
Ritual of the Constellation in so doing. 

The Lectures in this Chapter, when amplified by the Scriptural 
history appropriate to each, will enable them to make such com- 
munication pleasant and instructive to the parties authorized " to 



546 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

receive it. Nothing but good can grow out of this course, and 
the healthful spread of the Adoptive Rite may, and in many places 
doubtless will depend upon communicating the original Degree in 
the former manner, as essential to the awakening of a dormant 
interest in the subject itself. 

Members of a Constellation who may communicate the Eastern 
Star according to the original method, as above authorized, are 
required to forward a list of the names of females thus instructed 
to the V. E. Grand Secretary of the Supreme Constellation. 

Sec. 3. The first Degree having been conferred, as described 
in the preceding Chapters, Heleon will address the Initiate or 
Initiates with the following Lecture on Jephthah's Daughter : 

My Sister ! 

All the great lessons of human life, worthy of our contempla- 
tion, are evolved from sorrow and distress. All true heroism, 
whether in man or in woman, has been manifested from the depths 
of grief. It is in the night of affliction only that the stars of faith 
and devotion are most visible to the eye. 

All the lessons of the Eastern Star acknowledge this great truth, 
that the way of the Cross is the way of Life. The histories of 
Jephthah's Daughter, of Ruth, of Esther, of Martha and of Electa 
were but examples of this — living, beautiful examples — and as 
such they all demand, amidst our admiration, sympathy and tears. 

The unnumbered woes that in all ages have embittered the lot 
of woman, who can tell ? What eye has marked her tears ? What 
ear has heard her sighs, her words of woe. In her still and un- 
romantic life she has endured such anguish as the heedless world 
knew not of. Yet there was an Eye that marked, an Ear that 
heard, a Heart that heeded her expressions of sorrow. The Di- 
vine Friend has melted at the view of her distress, and here 
in this Book of Books, the Divine hand has recorded many tokens 
of her bitter lot. It is these sad histories that form the founda- 
tion of our Order. Four of them, extended by tradition, and 
beautified and made impressive by ceremonies, constitute the 
Scriptural portion of the American Adoptive Rite, to which the 
traditions of Masonry have added a fifth, even more beautiful, if 
possible, than the others. 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 547 

My Sister! 

We are happy, in these Lectures, to offer you such lessons of 
devotion, self sacrifice, free-will offering, faith and Christian 
love, as will, if rightly understood, serve as models to yourself, in 
all circumstances of trial and distress to which you may be ex- 
posed. The first is that of Jephthah's Daughter. 

Jephthah was the Judge and Governor of Israel, a pious man, a 
devoted father, and exemplary Mason. For the age in which he 
lived, he was the pattern of prudence and virtue. 

Being called forth to fight the battles of his country, he first of 
all invoked the aid of Jehovah, to whom all his supplications were 
addressed. He prayed for assistance from the Hand Almighty, 
and in accordance with the religious and Masonic usages of his 
day, made a vow, that, if God would assuredly give him the vic- 
tory, and return him to his home in safety, he would offer up as a 
burnt offering whatever should first meet him coming from his 
house. This vow, though disastrous in its results, was offered 
up from the purest motives. 

Thus invoked, it pleased God to accept the petition, and to 
grant the victory. The foe met a disastrous defeat; Israel was 
saved, and the pious General returned homeward, crowned with 
honors, and full of pious joy. 

Arrived in sight of his dwelling, the victorious Chieftain paused ; 
for now the consequences of his oath crowded upon his mind. 
He asked himself what would be the victim? His daughter's 
lamb, the pet of the sportive hours, it was that which he had had 
chiefly in view in making his oath ; but even that, his love for his 
daughter made it a painful duty to slay. Not long, however, was 
he in suspense; for, aroused by all her love for her father, and 
her gratitude to God, and rendered impatient by his halting so 
near the dwelling, the joyful girl, ignorant of his vow, and heed- 
less of the customs of her country, which forbade such exposure, 
seized her instruments of music, and with singing and dancing 
passed that fatal door and ran towards him. 

The stricken father fell to the earth, rending his clothes and 
groaning in the agony of his heart, Alas, my daughter ! 

How cruelly was that current of joy checked! The song of 



548 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

triumph ceased ! The timbrels were cast aside, and Jephthah's 
daughter, informed of her father's rash vow, turned away to 
commune with her heart. 

Should she refuse to submit to this awful fate? The laws 
would protect her; public opinion would sustain her in her nat- 
ural desire to live. Why should she die ? Innocent of any harm, 
at that age, of all others, when life seems most golden and hope- 
ful, why should she pay the penalty of her father's rashness, and 
submit to such a death. 

But then other thoughts possessed her mind. She was a Ma- 
son's daughter, and well she knew that a Freemason, of all 
earthly treasures, prizes his religious honor. His oath was regis- 
tered in heaven, perhaps God had granted him that splendid 
victory in consequence of it; and it demanded a victim. Should 
she refuse to be that victim, her father was perjured before God 
and Man, and could hope for nothing but judgment in the world 
to come. 

She turned to him and said she would submit. She, who so 
much needed sympathy and pity, forgot her own distress in the 
contemplation of his. She reminded him of his sacred calling, of 
God's acceptance of him heretofore, of the shortness of life, and 
the certainty of heaven, where they should meet again, and be 
happy forever more. 

But one request she made — it was hard to die, but oh, how 
hard to die then. In that joy with which the day had opened, in 
that first rush of national triumph, she could not consent to die 
then. She asked that she might be spared two months that she 
might go up and down upon the mountains with her companions 
and prepare herself for her fate. 

The time being ended, she returned to her father and suffered 
death according to his vow. And it became a custom in Israel, 
that the daughters of Israel went yearly to lament her, four days 
in a year. This is the foundation of this Degree. 

In immediate connection with her death, a circumstance oc- 
curred, preserved in the tradition of this Degree, while it affords 
us the origin of the Daughter's Hailing Sign, throws much 
light upon the character of this amiable young woman. 

The last embrace having been given, the last farewell spoken, 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 549 

her father threw a veil over her face and drew his sword to con- 
summate the sacrifice. She threw it indignantly back, declaring 
it was infamous to be put to death in the dark, as if she were a 
criminal suffering for her own offenses, and that she would never 
submit to it. Her father the second time veiled her, assuring her 
that he could not strike the fatal blow while she looked upon him. 
At this declaration, she again cast it off, but turned from him and 
fixed her eyes resolutely upwards, asserted her unchangeable re- 
fusal to be veiled. Nevertheless, Jephthah the third time at- 
tempted to cover her eyes, whereupon she seized the veil firmly 
in her hands, and in the most solemn manner assured him that 
rather than suffer the imputation which it would cast upon her 
memory, she would refuse, altogether, to die for his vow, and the 
penalty of his perjury might rest upon his own head. This deci- 
sive declaration ended the contest, and she was suffered to fall 
with her eyes fixed to the last, upon the heavens. 

JEPHTHAH'S DAUGHTER 
Judges XI, 35 

Father, father, the joyful minstrel sung — 

ho, glad I come with timbrel and with dance : 
Hail, father, hail ! thine arm in God was strong. 
Hail, God of Israel, Israel's sure defense. 
Hosanna ! Hosanna ! 

Thus the Minstrel sung. 

Father, father! th' astonished daughter cried — 

What grief is this? What means this sign of wo? 
Dust on thy head! Thy grey hairs floating wide! 
That look of horror on each soldier's brow — 
Bewailing, bewailing — 

Thus the Daughter cried. 

Father, father! the maid devoted said — 

If thus I'm doomed, if thus thy vow has gone. 
Oh turn not back ! there's hope amidst the dead, 
None for the perjured — let thy will be done, 
Hosanna ! Hosanna ! 

Thus the Maiden said. 



550 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

Father, father! the doomed one meekly spoke — 

Be strong thy hand, be resolute thy heart — 
To heaven's re-union I will joyful look, 
And with a blessing on thy head depart. 
Farewell! farewell! 

Thus the Doomed One spoke. 

Sec. 4. The second Degree having been conferred, as de- 
scribed in the preceding Chapters, Heleon will address the Initiate 
or Initiates with the following Lecture of Ruth: 

My Sister! 

Mahlon, a Jew of the city of Bethlehem, had been driven by ex- 
treme famine into the country of Moab, where he continued for 
ten years, and until the period of his death. He married a woman 
of that country, named Ruth, and being a pious. God-fearing man, 
and withal a devoted Freemason, his heart was set upon convert- 
ing his wife to the faith which formed the joy of his own soul. 
In this he was entirely successful. Ruth became deeply pious, 
and vied with him in a worship as ennobling as it was pure. 

In process of time, as already mentioned, he died. Calling his 
wife to him, and communicating his last wishes, he exhorted her 
not to remain in that heathen land, where none could care for 
her soul, but to seek the country of Judah, and the city of Bethle- 
hem, whence he had formerly emigrated, and there, amidst the 
people of God, to hold fast to that faith and worship which would 
insure her eternal felicity after death. To this, his dying request, 
she cheerfully assented and pledged herself accordingly. 

Having seen the grass springing upon the grave of one with 
whom she had enjoyed so much happiness, she departed for the 
land of Judah. Forbidden by law to remove any of her property, 
which was great, or to sell her possessions, which were large, 
she hesitated not to forsake them, and to go, poor and lonely, 
with no companionship save that of her aged mother-in-law, to a 
land of strangers, a people of whom she had hitherto known noth- 
ing, save that they were the nation of God, and of her deceased 
husband. 

They treated her unworthily, whether we consider her own holy 
errand or their national character. She went meekly from door to 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 551 

door, but found none who could give her a place to rest, or food to 
eat, and, so soon as the small sum of money she had brought from 
Moab was exhausted, she began to be in extreme want. The care 
of her aged mother-in-law likewise fell upon her, and she know 
not how to provide. 

It was the season of barley-harvest, and as Ruth was too inex- 
perienced in labor to gain employment from others, she sought, 
in the gleanings of the field, to find food for herself and her help- 
less friend. She went into the field of Boaz, a wealthy man of 
that city, and began to glean. 

But it was not long until she found that she had over-rated her 
strength. The blazing sun of the country struck almost into her 
brain. The heated stubble parched her tender feet. Faint with 
hunger, exhausted with fatigue, overpowered with heat, the un- 
fortunate woman was fain to yield to despair and cease her efforts. 
All her toil until noon had only yielded her two poor handfuls of 
barley. 

The owner of the field — Boaz by name — was as famed for his 
liberality as for his wealth. He, too, was a Mason, and had long 
tutored himself by the sublime principles of that Order, of which 
he was an honored member, to divide his bread with the suffering 
poor. To afford succor to the distressed was one of the prime 
joys of his existence, and none knew him but to honor his name, 
and to invoke blessings upon his head. 

Coming into the field that day to bring refreshments to his 
laborers his eyes soon singled out the hapless widow, gleaning 
there, and he asked of his overseer, in tones of pity, ''Who is 
that?" For she was reclining beneath a fig tree, nearly fainting, 
unable to toil longer or to return to the city. 

She stood with her eyes directed upwards, her hands clasping 
the poor returns of her labor, her thoughts wandering to the dis- 
tant country of her birth, the place of her former happiness and 
ease. 

Boaz, upon learning from his overseer, that she was a stranger 
and poor, and that the task that she had attempted was too 
onerous for her strength, went at once to her relief, forced a 
bounteous hospitality upon her, and animating her, not less with 



552 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

kind words than substantial gift, imparted new life to her almost 
hopeless heart. 

And here a circumstance occurred, preserved in the traditions 
of this Degree, which, while it affords us the origin of the Wid- 
ow's HaiIvING Sign, is in itself a touching and beautiful in- 
cident. 

Beholding Boaz approaching her, and judging by his dress and 
manner that he was the owner of the field, she at once decided in 
her own mind, that his purpose was to drive her insultingly from 
the field, as an intruder and a thief. Therefore, raising herself 
erect, she held up her two parcels as a token that she was an 
honest gleaner, and no thief, and continued to gaze steadily up- 
wards, as though pleading with God against the inhumanity of 
man. 

Boaz, after seeing that her immediate wants were supplied, pri- 
vately instructed the overseer to protect her from any annoyance 
or reproach from the laborers, and to take parcels from the 
sheaves and let them fall in her way, that she might gather as 
much as she would. The Sacred historian informs us, further, 
that not long afterwards, he married her, and thus the poor gleaner 
and disconsolate widow was transformed into the most honored 
matron of the nation. For, tracing her genealogy, we learn that 
she became the grandmother of David, the father of Solomon, 
through whose mighty line Jesus Christ, according to the flesh, 
came. 

RUTH 

Ruth n, 5 

From Moab's hills the stranger comes, 

By sorrow tried, widowed by death ; 
She comes to Judah's goodly homes, 

Led by the trusting hand of faith. 
Ye friends of God, a welcome lend 

The fair and virtuous Ruth to-day; 
A cheerful heart and hand extend. 

And wipe the widow's tears away. 

She leaves her childhood's home, and all 
That brothers, friends and parents gave ; 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 553 

The flowery fields, the lordly hall, 

The green sod o'er her husband's grave; 

Ye friends of God, a welcome lend 
The fair and virtuous Ruth to-day ; 

A cheerful heart and hand extend. 
And wipe the widow's tears away. 

She leaves the gods her people own — 

Soulless and weak, they're hers no more ; 
Jkhovah, He is God alone, 

And HIM her spirit will adore. 
Ye friends of God, a welcome lend 

The fair and virtuous Ruth to-day ; 
A cheerful heart and hand extend. 

And wipe the widow's tears away. 

At Bethlehem's gates the stranger stands; 

All friendless, poor and wanting rest ; 
She waits the cheer of loving hands 

And kindred hearts that God has blest. 
Ye friends of His a welcome lend 

The fair and virtuous Ruth to-day ; 
A cheerful heart and hand extend. 

And wipe the widow's tears away. 

Sec. 5. The Third Degree having been conferred, as described 
in the preceding Chapters, Heleon will address the Initiate or In- 
itiates with the following Lecture of Esther : 

My Sister! 

Ahasuerus, the King of Persia, reigned from India even to 
Ethiopia over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces. His laws 
were stern and inexorable; the usages of his nation were cruel; 
the manners of his time fierce and barbarous. Yet this King was 
noted for his sense of justice, and his regard for truth was above 
all things, admirable. He was withal, a Mason, and prized its 
code of morality as the best standard of right and wrong, with 
which, in the absence of the true religion, he had ever become ac- 
quainted. 

It was a period of the greatest adversity in the history of the 
Jews. The people of God were exiles in a foreign land. By the 



554 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

rivers of Babylon, there they sat down ; yea they wept when they 
remembered Zion. Yet they trusted in God, who, for their sins 
had given them into the hands of their enemies ; and they hoped 
he would yet have compassion on them and restore them to their 
native land. 

Among the most pious of this unfortunate people was a young 
woman, Esther by name, an orphan, who, when her father and 
mother were taken from her by death, had been brought up by her 
cousin, Mordecai, in the love and fear of God. This lady was as 
talented as she was fair and beautiful and it pleased God, through 
her, to work out a great deliverance for his people. 

Poor and humble as she was, her remarkable beauty attracted 
the favor of the King, and he made her his wife. His affection 
increased, by the charms of her piety, virtue and talents until the 
confidence he reposed in her extended to a share in his kingdom. 
He made her his Queen, entrusted her with the secrets of state, 
and consulted her in every emergency that occurred. Her match- 
less ability were entirely equal to the demand, and she became 
famed throughout the kingdom for wisdom, prudence, and devo- 
tion to her responsible charge. 

The King, in his gratitude for such services, made frequent 
declarations of his attachment to her, and the readiness and liberal- 
ity with which he would acknowledge it whenever demanded. He 
vowed to her, that no sacrifice would be deemed by him too great 
for this end, even though it involved the half of his kingdom ; and 
he instructed her, in the event of her wishing to claim this prom- 
ise, to clothe herself in the apparel of her station, — the white 
silken robes and the crown royal of the Queen, and thus attired, to 
come boldly before him. And he swore, with arm uplifted to 
Jehovah — • that God whom his Masonic instructor had taught 
him to adore as supreme, — that wherever he might be, or in 
whatever business engaged, if she would appeal to him in this 
manner, he would grant her request, be it what it might, even to 
the half of his kingdom. 

About eight years after their union, and while she was yet in 
the height of his favor, the public indignation became aroused 
against the Jewish people, and King Ahasuerus was induced to 
issue a law, that upon a certain day specified, all Jews, both young 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 555 

and old, little children and women, should be destroyed and their 
property taken as a spoil by their enemies. The fact of this law 
being passed was speedily communicated to Esther by her cousin, 
Mordecai, who likewise told her of the great mourning which had 
followed its announcement to the Jews, and how they were fast- 
ing, weeping and wailing, and that many of them lay in sackcloth 
and ashes. And he pleaded with her that she was now the only 
hope left to Israel, having, perhaps, been called of God to the 
kingdom for this very end. 

Esther resolved to release them. Her station as Queen, and 
the favor she enjoyed as counsellor to the King, might well exon- 
erate her from such a task; as in effect it shielded her from the 
operations of the law. But her love for the Jews, her sense of 
duty towards God, and the tender compassion aroused within her 
heart by the recital of their distresses, kindled there a holy de- 
termination, that she would rescue them, or share their fate. She 
prepared for the dangerous attempt, by fasting and prayer for 
three successive days and nights. 

Then all pale with hunger and anticipation, she commanded her 
maidens to attire her in her queenly apparel, and so, crowned with 
the crown royal, she betook herself to the palace of the King. 

It was the day of a Grand Council, when all the Lords of the 
kingdom, the Princes and Rulers had met together at the King's 
command, and the palace gates were shut. The guards instruct- 
ed her of this, and that, by a law of the palace, whoever should 
come in unto the King, into the inner-court, not being called, 
should be put to death. And they warned her that this law ap- 
plied to the highest as well as the lowest of the nation. 

Esther was not deterred by this intelligence, which, truly, she 
had known before, but bade the guards give her admittance as 
having prepared her mind to meet this peril, that she might ful- 
fill the great object of her mission. Whereupon they, though un- 
willingly, suffered her to enter to what they reasonably supposed 
was her certain death; so, entering through the great folding- 
doors of the inner-court, she stood before the King. 

Ahasuerus sat crowned in royal magnificence upon the throne 
of his kingdom. Around him was gathered all that could add 
dignity to his state and give him the highest sense of his own im- 



556 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

portance. His will was the supreme law to those thousands 
whose mandates, in turn, ruled the millions of his subjects in the 
vast territories under his sway. All looked to him as to a being 
whose breath was their death or life, and waited but to know his 
faintest wishes to obey them. Was this a time for this pale and 
trembling woman to violate the strictest law of his person, and to 
defy him in the presence of his very kingdom ? 

As the eyes of the multitude fell upon her, the greatest astonish- 
ment and consternation prevailed. The King himself arose in his 
wrath and called loudly to ask why this intrusion was permitted ? 
Upon being informed that the Queen had been warned of her 
danger, and fully instructed in regard to the law of the palace, he 
commanded the guards to lead her forth and execute the law upon 
her without delay. 

Trembling with the sense of her peril, alarmed at the frowning 
countenance of the multitude around, and shuddering under the 
fearful wrath of the King, Esther had barely strength to place her 
hand alternately upon her crown and the top of her robe, to remind 
him of his oath, then sank nearly lifeless to her knees. 

The mute appeal smote the King's heart more forcibly than 
words. He remembered his vow. He recalled all her devotion 
to him and her labor in behalf of the kingdom. He cast aside the 
unworthy anger that had possessed him at her intrusion, and 
called her kindly to him, extended the golden sceptre towards her, 
that by touching it, she might, in accordance with the customs of 
the country, secure his pardon. She obeyed his command, and 
then, seating her by his side upon the throne, he said to her : — 
What wilt thou ? — and declared publicly he would grant her re- 
quest even to the half of his kingdom. 

Your attention is particularly called here to a portion of this 
scene which, while it affords us the origin of the Wife's Hail- 
ing Sign, serves to impress upon our minds the important fact 
of the King's vow to Esther. She reminded him of his oath by 
touching her crown and robe, with which he had enjoined her to 
invest herself preparatory to claiming his promise; and she se- 
cured a pardon by touching the golden sceptre, which he extended 
to her. 

From Scriptural history we learn, that her mission was entirely 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 557 

successful ; the King granted her request ; spared the Jewish peo- 
ple; destroyed all their enemies, and advanced Esther to honors, 
even higher than before. 

ESTHER 
Esther V, 3 

Queen of Persia's broad domain, 

Why this anguish and despair ! 
Blending tears like falling rain — 

Sighs and words of hopeless prayer ! 

Round thee stands a waiting train. 
Wealth and beauty, rank and power ; 

All to bring relief in vain. 
Queen of sadness in this hour. 

For a voice has gone abroad. 

Stern and fearful, filled with doom; 

Israel's exiles to the sword. 

Sword and brand to Israel's home. 

Lo, that high expressive brow ! 

Was there e'er a heart so true? 
Hark what words the purpose show — 

I will save or perish too. 

To the sovereign I will haste ; 

Robe your Queen in purity; 
Crown me as in triumphs past; 

Maidens to the Throne with me. 

Queen, thy holy aim is won, — 

God o'errules the stern decree, 
Sends a pardon from the throne, 

Israel saves, and honors thee ! 

Sec. 6. The Fourth Degree having been communicated, as de- 
scribed in the preceding Chapters, Heleon will address the Initiate 
or Initiates with the following Lecture of Martha: 



558 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

My Sister! 

Lazarus, a citizen of Bethany, had two sisters, Martha' and 
Mary, who were his housekeepers, and for whose support he la- 
bored diligently in his vocation. The three had been favored to 
attend the administration of Jesus Christ, and had become his first 
disciples in Bethany. Their home was a welcome shelter to Christ 
whenever he visited Bethany, and amidst the opposition of their 
friends and the sneers of their enemies, they openly defended His 
cause and protected its votaries. Lazarus was a Mason, and a 
man of standing and respectability in the community in which he 
lived. 

Not long before the closing scenes of Christ's ministry a cir- 
cumstance occurred upon which this Degree is founded. On a 
certain occasion, when Christ was absent from Bethany, engaged 
in the active duties of His calling, Lazarus was taken suddenly 
and violently ill. The ajfflicted sisters, confident in the power of 
the Lord Jesus to restore him, sent to him an urgent message to 
come to their relief, and the words of the letter were, "Lord, be- 
hold, he whom thou lovest is sick." 

The Saviour was easily found by the messenger, but, for rea- 
sons which afterwards appeared, He did not attend the summons. 
The messenger returned to inform the sisters that their friend, in 
whom they had placed such reliance, refused their request, and 
that they must seek for other aid. But there was no other aid. 
Death had already grasped its victim with a strong hand, and 
would not let him go. Amidst the regrets of the community, the 
sorrows of friends, the tears of the Masonic Brotherhood, and the 
profound despair of the sisters, Lazarus died. 

Well might those afflicted women find a cause for despair. 
Their brother, their only protector, dead ; their Saviour, when of 
all times in the history of their acquaintance. He was most desired, 
absent; their faith amidst the scorn of their friends, outraged; 
little wonder would it have been, had those sisters repudiated their 
attachment to Christ and joined in the popular outcry against 
Him, that he was an imposter. 

But, amidst their night of affliction, no such token of unfaith- 
fulness was manifested by either of them. Martha steadfastly 
declared to those around her, that her trust in Christ was un- 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 559 

shaken; that, though he might forsake her, she would never for- 
sake him; and though she should die with grief she would die in 
hope. And so declared her sister. 

In the utterance of such sentiments as these, yet bowed down 
with the weight of sorrow and despair, four days were passed by 
those sisters, and the world began to forget the dead man in the 
obscurity of his sepulchre. No tidings of their Lord, — no visit, 
or message, or word of sympathy. 

But at the close of the fourth day, as the sun was going down 
beyond the hills of Judah, there was a rumor that the Master was 
coming again to Bethany. Martha heard it and at once there was 
kindled up in her bosom all that ardor of faith that had distin- 
guished her as a Christian, and the love that had sustained her 
amidst the contempt of the world. She ran swiftly from the 
house, through the village, and forgetting all things at the sight 
of her Divine Friend, fell at his feet and wept there. She looked 
upwards, and, through her tears, sought the expression of his face 
as it beamed upon her. 

There was a gentle smile there, a smile of such love as none but 
Jesus could feel, yet withal a look of heartfelt sympathy, tender, 
gracious and Oh, how comforting. His face beamed with emo- 
tion, such as during those four weary days would have yielded 
her inexpressible consolation. 

She cried aloud, "Lord! if thou hadst been here, my brother 
had not died. But I know that even now, whatsoever Thou wilt 
ask of God, God will give it Thee." 

Jesus saith unto her, *'Thy brother shall rise again." Martha 
saith unto Him, "I know that he shall rise again in the Resurrec- 
tion at the last day." 

Jesus saith unto her, "I am the resurrection and the life ; he that 
believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live ; and who- 
soever liveth and believeth in me, shall never die. Believest thou 
this?" 

This was the trial of her faith, to which all that had passed be- 
tween them, since their first acquaintance, was but a prelude. 
The contempt of her friends ; the slights that had been cast upon 
the character of Christ in the past four days ; His refusal to come 
and heal her brother, even upon her thrilling appeal, and all the 



560 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

distress she had endured through that bitter stroke of death, dis- 
tress from which she knew He might have preserved her by a 
single word, all these thoughts passed rapidly across her mind, 
and had her faith been an ordinary one, she could not have made 
Him an acceptable answer. But all clouds had blown away from 
before her at the sight of his beloved countenance. The Being 
who had condescended to call her brother, Lazarus, the man of his 
love, who had accepted her service, and acknowledged her attach- 
ment to His person, one look from Him obliterated all despair, 
and made green her faith. She saith unto Him, "Yea, Lord, I be- 
lieve thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into 
the world." 

And here I would point out to you an incident of this narrative, 
which affords us the original of the Sister's Hailing Sign. It re- 
lates to the upward glance and appealing gesture with which 
the sorrowing Martha, kneeling at the Saviour's feet, expressed 
her heavy woe and implored His sympathy. 

The acknowledgment of her unswerving faith in Him, could but 
be pleasing to Christ. He raised her kindly by the hand and con- 
ducted her to the house ; there, receiving the same tender remon- 
strance from Mary, He inquired where the dead man was laid, and 
accompanied them thither weeping. 

The Sacred history instructs us that He raised Lazarus from the 
dead and restored him to the arms of his now joyful sisters. This, 
according to our traditions, was in acknowledgment of Martha's 
faith, which, amidst all that could oppress and discourage the 
mind of woman, was steadfast upon its Divine Object. 

MARTHA 
John XI, 26 

Low in the dust she knelt. 
Low at the Saviour's feet: 
With weeping eyes and hands upraised 
Up to the Mercy-seat: 
The friendless one was sad — 
Complainingly she sighed — 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 561 

Oh hadst thou come while yet he lived, 
My brother had not died. 

The Saviour's gentle smile 

New hope in Martha woke : 
Thy brother, he shall rise again, 

The gracious Saviour spoke : — 

The living shall not die 

If in me they believe: 
And though they in the dust may lie, 

The very dead shall live. 

Into the Master's face 

The sister meekly gazed: 
There is no fear in love, there is 

No doubt where faith is placed ; 

Thou art, thou art the Christ — 

In thee the dead shall live — 
Whatever thou shalt ask of God, 

I know that God will give. 

Before an open tomb 

A joyful group is seen ; 
The grave has yielded up its dead. 

And Martha's faith is green. 

No longer tears are thine 

Sweet sister, soul of faith! 
Thy love for Christ has full reward. 

Thy brother's won from death. 

Sec. 7. The Fifth Degree having been conferred as described 
in the preceding Chapters, Heleon will address the Initiate or In- 
itiates with the following Lecture of Electa: 

My Sister: 

The Evangelist John, one of the Patron Saints of Masonry, and 
one of the acknowledged pillars of the early Christian Church, 
was the successor in the Grand Mastership, of Gains, the husband 
of Electa. The early Christians were much indebted to Masonry, 
whose principles united them together, and whose votaries often 



562 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

protected them from the swords of their enemies. It was to this 
end, that St. John was induced, at the advanced age of more than 
ninety years, to accept an office, requiring at that period, great 
prudence and discretion, and to manage its affairs even to the 
time of his death. 

Among the converts from heathenism to the religion of a cruci- 
fied Redeemer, none was more conspicuous, whether we consider 
her elevated rank in life, her age or her renowned benevolence, 
than Electa. Reared up under the principles of paganism, it 
was not until the age of fifty and upwards that she knew anything 
of Jesus. But attending from curiosity's sake the preaching of St. 
Paul, in one of his visits to the province in which she lived, she 
became converted, and, in company with her husband and all her 
household, professed the religion which it was his business to 
establish. 

At that period the Christian religion was peculiarly obnoxious 
to the people. True, it was spreading rapidly, yet its con- 
verts were generally from the lowest classes, so that when a per- 
son from the rank in which Electa was born, was known to shock 
the popular prejudices by adopting it, it was at great personal 
hazard. Electa experienced this in full force. Her good name 
became an object of reproach in the common mouth, and though, 
from her husband's station in the Masonic Fraternity, no per- 
sonal violence was attempted, yet she felt that her old age was 
destined to be her most painful portion, and that she was leaving 
a fatal legacy to her children. 

Yet, her devotion to the cause of charity was rather increased 
than relaxed by these considerations. Her benevolence, which, 
even while she was a pagan, was the great passion of her life, be- 
came, now sanctified by her Christian graces, a wonderful virtue. 
For she labored now as the servant of One who went about doing 
good. Enlightened by His precepts and His example, she sought 
out those who were lost and ministered to them. Every grade of 
suffering, every class of distress, had its place in her care. Her 
mansion, the most splendid in the province, was made a hospital 
for the infirm, and a great caravansary for way-worn travelers ; 
while her heart, larger than her dwelling in capacity for good, 
was the abode of every good and sympathetic feeling for the com- 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 563 

fort of her race. And so, for fifteen years, she lived and ripened 
for a better world. 

The time of trial of the Christian Church, the time to separate 
its chaff and to purge it with the fires of persecution, came at last. 
A law went forth from the Emperor at Rome, that all who pro- 
fessed the religion of Christ should be made to renounce it under 
penalty of death. The soldiers, those implacable persecutors of 
the Christians, were enjoined to execute the law in every province 
of the kingdom, and, without mercy, to exterminate all those sus- 
pected of holding the Christian faith, being commanded to trample 
upon the Cross, should they refuse to obey. This law was the 
signal for the most general and unrelenting attack upon the 
church that, up to that period, it had ever been called upon to sus- 
tain. Amongst those who fell victims to its operations was 
Electa. 

Intelligence of this law had early reached St. John, by means of 
his Masonic communication with Rome. He had been put upon 
his guard against the impending peril, and his duties as Grand 
Master, conjoined with those of a Christian Apostle, prompted 
him, as rapidly as possible, to extend the warning to others, situ- 
ated like himself. But amongst all the votaries of Christ who 
would become the objects of this bitter persecution, his mind re- 
verted to none so painfully as to Electa. He had so often shared 
her Christian hospitality, so often pointed her out to younger con- 
verts as a model of Christian duty, that the question how she 
would endure this terrible trial came to his mind with great power, 
and he determined to go in person to her dwelling, disguised as a 
soldier, and, in that capacity, to deliver her the cruel message she 
was so soon to hear. 

It was a painful day's journey, and ere he reached its end, the 
aged Apostle was overcome with fatigue. He reached her thresh- 
old, however, though with exceeding difficulty, and, having 
knocked for admission, leaned, quite exhausted, against the pillar 
at the entrance. She came in reply and saw him, as he stood, 
dust covered ; his garb, old and tattered ; and his appearance, that 
of a miserable soldier. 

But such an object was to her as if sent from God. She ap- 
proached him with the kindest language, assisted him to enter her 



564 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

house, which, she assured him, in the name of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, was freely open to his wants; conducted him to its best 
apartment, and with her own hands, as enjoined by the example 
of Christ, washed his feet. She refreshed him with comfort after 
comfort ; fed him with the best food ; animated him with her rich- 
est wine; filled his purse; supplied him with raiment, good and 
new ; anticipated all his desires, and when she found there was no 
other demand upon her bounty, gave him good wishes and prayers, 
such as she might have bestowed upon him had he been her own 
aged father. 

But now, refreshed with all these attentions, St. John, still in 
his capacity of a soldier, opened the business which had called 
him there : informed her of the cruel law passed to crush out the 
Church ; assured her that it was the particular business of the sol- 
dier to execute the law, and that, too, in the most summary man- 
ner ; and concluded by commanding her to give the names of such 
persons in her vicinity as were suspected of holding to the doc- 
trines of Christ, But she made him no reply and looked him 
steadily in the face. 

Then he declared that her silence was a cause of suspicion, and 
that if she had any Christians in her household, and concealed the 
fact, her own life would pay the forfeit. But she still answered 
not a word. 

Speaking with great sternness to her then, he said, that her 
persistence in refusing to divulge these names was proof positive 
of her own share in this religious belief, and that her life was for- 
feited thereby. But, in view of her remarkable kindness to him 
in his distress, he offered to save her and her family, and gave her 
the Cross, with the command to trample it under foot. This, he 
said, was the test required by the law of those who should re- 
nounce Christ. 

Electa received the Cross — precious emblem of that which had 
been stained with her Saviour's blood — and her countenance, 
which had all the time been fixed in a steady gaze upon him, 
changed into Christian tenderness and tears. She eagerly and 
repeatedly kissed it, and pressed it with ardor to her bosom. 
Then resuming her sternness and holy indignation with which she 
had listened to his words, she declared that, for fifteen years, she 



THE MOSAIC BOOK 565 

had expected and waited for such a message as this. That she 
was a Christian ; she, her husband, her children, her servants, — 
and that all of them would submit as cheerfully as herself to this 
trial. Finally, she bade him spare her any more such offers, and 
to do his duty, asseverating with the strongest evidence, that God 
would assuredly give her grace to do hers. 

This trial having been so satisfactorily sustained, St. John now 
revealed himself to her in his true character; told her the object 
of his coming and of his disguise; and exposed to her the full 
character of that trial, which, in a few weeks, at the most, would 
come upon her. At the same time he assured her of his beHef that 
she would as satisfactorily sustain it as she had done the other, 
being the fairest among ten thousand and altogether lovely; and 
promised her that if she perished in this just cause, he would in- 
stitute a Degree of Adoptive Masonry, of which her history 
should form the basis, and name it after her, that her name and 
sufferings might be perpetuated in the Masonic Fraternity while 
time should endure. 

Ere long, the trial came. The soldiers in great numbers, visited 
that province. Their commander, a Mason, endeavored to save 
Electa, by inducing her to submit to the test, but in vain. She 
was, therefore, thrown into a loathsome dungeon, with her fam- 
ily; and her splendid mansion and possessions totally destroyed. 
For a twelvemonth, they were fed in that prison by the Masonic 
charity; then they were visited by the Judge, a humane man and 
a Mason, who, like the commander, proposed the test as a means 
of escape, still available. But it was steadfastly spurned, and 
though worn by sufferings. Electa begged for that one favor, 
that their martyrdom might not be delayed from any expectation 
that any of them would renounce their religion — for they never 
would. 

They were then dragged forth and scourged nigh unto death. 
After this, they were taken to the top of the nearest hill and cru- 
cified. One after the other of that lovely band, Electa saw pierced 
with nails and hung upon the Cross to die, — last of all, she was 
crucified also. And as she made her expiring prayers it was re- 
marked by them who stood by, that they were for the pardon and 
happiness of her cruel murderers. 



566 HISTORY OF THE EASTERN STAR 

True to his word, the Grand Master St. John, upon receiving 
intelligence of her triumphant death, made known his promise to 
the Fraternity in Grand Lodge assembled, and established the De- 
gree of Electa, announcing for its sign, the Christian's Hailing 
Sign, a remembrance of the manner of her death. 

ELECTA 
2 John I, 5 

Her gentle smile and yielding heart 

Shall grace our world no more: 
She chose the true but bitter part 

Her Saviour chose before ; 
The Cross its gloomy load has borne. 

The grave concealed its prey. 
But in the triumph she has won 

We cast all tears away. 

This heartless world but ill can spare 

Its jewels rich and few, — 
But she, most excellent and rare, 

The generous and the true — 
She, in departing, left to earth 
* Such patterns of her faith. 

That though her life was matchless worth, 

Even worthier was her death. 

By her we learn, the tenderest heart 

Is bravest to endure — 
For at the Cross He'll not desert 

Who all its sufferings bore; 
Amongst ten thousand, fairest she. 

When bleeding, dying, high, 
Her risen Lord proclaimed her free. 

And called her to the sky. 

Her fam